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Biennial Report 1942-1





California. Dept. of Fish and Game. \
Biennial Report 1942-1944.

(bound volume)


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-California. Dept. of Fish and Game.
Biennial Reoort 1942-1944.

(bound volume)


California Resources Agency Library

1416 9th Street, Room 117

Sacramento, California 95814

CiUiFolto RK4UJLac5e^GE><rv library

1416.9th Street

Sncramento, Caiifornia







FOR THE YEARS 1942-1944

printed in camfornia state printing office





Pish and Game Commission 7

Library 8

Fish Conservation By A. C. Tuft 9

Game Conservation By J. S. Hunter 15

"Waterfowl Public Shooting Grounds in California 16

Game Farms By Auyiist Bade 27

Patrol and Law Enforcement By L. F. Chappell 30

Marine Fisheries By Richard Van Cleve 33

Engineering By John Spencer 42

License Distribution By H. R. Dunbar 45

Sardine Canning and Reduction Plants By S. H. Dado 86 and 100


License Sales 46

Fish Distribution and Rescue 59

Predatory Animal Take 74

Arrests and Convictions 75

Seizures of Fish and Game 76

Record of Deer Kill Between SO and 81

Record of Mountain Lion Bounties Between 80 and 81

California Fresh Fishery Products 81



During the past biennium, appointments made to the Fish and Game
Commission under the constitutional amendment adopted November,
1940, resulted in the following changes in personnel in the commission :

H. L. Ricks appointed March 6, 1944; vice Edwin L. Carty, term

expired January 15, 1943.
Dom A. Civitello appointed March 15, 1944 ; vice Germain Bulcke,

term expired January 15, 1944.

Due to the war, unusual problems were presented to the Fish and
Game Commission for its action. They shall be itemized briefly here as
more detail is contained in the reports of the bureau chiefs which follow.

Recommended closing of large portion of the State in Southern Cali-
fornia to deer hunting. This originated by a request of the General of
the "Western Defense Command to the Governor requesting such closures
due to fire hazard.

In 1943, a portion of Lassen and Modoc Counties was opened to
antelope hunting for the period September lltli to September 20th and
in 1944 from September 8th to September 17th.

In 1943, due to the closure of a large portion of the State to deer
hunting due to fire hazard, and finding that deer had increased in certain
areas to such an extent that a surplus thereof existed, a special hunting
season for deer was declared for the period December 11, 1943, to Decem-
ber 31, 1943.

Also due to the stress of the times, it was found necessary for the
Fish and Game Commission to enact regulations controlling the sardine
fishing fleet during 1943. The ensuing year, this work was conducted
by the office of the Coordinator of Fisheries of the Federal Government,
created by an Executive Order of the President of the United States.

The work of the Fish and Game Commission was greatly handicapped
by lack of personnel, but despite this shortcoming, we are proud to report
that more fish were produced in the hatcheries and more game birds
reared at the State game farms than in previous years.




r.y I'lissiE W. KiBUE, Departmental Librarian

Despite the war's effect on tlie personnel of our division, the utiliza-
tion of the Librarj^'s facilities has not diminished ; the requests by those
who are eariying on definite fisli and game studies and projects grow

There has been a reduction in the number of students and other
visitors from the outside, due to preoccupation with the war, although
officers and men of the Army and Navy have called upon our Library
frequently for information about the natural history— especially fish —
of the Pacific theatre of war.

The war has continued to prevent the receipt of most foreign period-
icals, although those from Australia, New Zealand and England have
come through regularly.

The Library has contributed its revised holdings to the Union List
of Serials of the San Francisco Bay Begion, Supplement, one of the
important tools in libraries in this territory.

The rehabilitation of some of the Library's much-used volumes, and
the binding of periodicals deemed worthy of permanent retention, was
carried on.

"We were able to purchase the very much desired back numbers of
Biological Abstracts, thus completing our file of this important library

The Library's shelving and floor space is gradually becoming more
and more crowded.

The duties connected with the properly functioning of our division 's
Library, which cover so many phases and sections of any general or
branch library : reference, catalog, laws and legislation (fish and game
laws and reports of all States and foreign countries) and order section,
have so materially increased with the steady natural growth of our
Library, that it is becoming somewhat difficult for one person to carry on,
in an adequate and completely satisfactory manner, all the attendant
details that the management of such a Library entails. It is hoped that
when more normal times return, additional facilities, both in space and
assistance, may be given this Library.

The policy of the division's Library, with restricted funds per-
mitting, is to furnish books and material helpful to our force in the studies
and work pertinent to fish and game and conservation thereof. To this
end, during the thirty-eighth biennial period, we have added 336 books ;
by purchase amounting to $1,243.14 ; by gift $188.35. The total number
of bound volumes on file is 3250, with a value of $11,772.18.

Scientific pamphlets added during this period w^ere 718, being $59.11
by gift; $103.64 by purchase. Total number of pamphlets catalogued
and filed are 7997, with an appraised and/or known value of $1,385.53.
Books and pamphlets represent $13,157.71.

A microfilm reader and certain special films were added to the other
property holdings of this Library, but the value of all such property is
not included in this report.



By A. C. Taft, Chief

During the biennial period work has centered around an effort to
maintain a normal program so far as wartime limitations would permit.
Differences between this and tlie previous biennium are thus largely
those brought about by the war.

The year 1941, just prior to the war, was the all time high in the
sale of angling licenses, 458,177 having been issued. On the basis of
experience in the previous World AVar it was expected that license sales
would fall off rather severely in 1942 and 1943. This did not occur and
433,431 were issued during the first year of the period and 439,860
during the second. Even during 1944 under drastic gasoline rationing
both for boats and cars it appears that tlie number of anglers will be
within 6i per cent of the high figure for 1941.

Witii angling effort remaining at a high level the problem of main-
taining the supplies of fish under definite limitations as to manpower and
equipment became difficult. Almost all assistant wardens, both perma-
nent and seasonal, left the division and only 30 permanent fish hatchery
assistants remained out of a normal quota of 50. Even with such tempo-
rary replacements as could be made the total manpower remained from
12 to 15 per cent below normal. In a number of instances the wives of
hatchery employees and other women were hired for seasonal or part
time work, which made it possible to carry on work at stations which
would have otherwise been closed.

Little new equipment has been available and inability to make
replacements has been most severely felt in heavy trucks, gasoline motors
for fish planting equipment and tires. No new tires have been purchased
since 1941 and only careful management and the utmost economy in
mileage lias made it possible at the same time to plant an increasing
amount of fish.

In 1940 there were 133,949 pounds of trout planted and in 1941 the
total was 167,647. In spite of the many problems of operation brought
about by the war the poundage was increased to 238,279 in 1942 and to
275,401 in 1943. The 1943 planting was thus an increase of 12 per cent
over 1942. The point has now been reached where more than a pound
of trout is being planted for each licensed angler who fishes for trout.
It is not to be expected that this total can be very much increased with
present facilities of manpower and equipment.

The following table shows the hatcheries and egg taking stations
that were operated during the biennium. Where operations were
temporarily or permanently discontinued that is also indicated.


Hatcheries and Egg Collecting Stations Operated 1942-43


Alpine, temporarily closed in 1943 Kaweah

Arrowhead, closed in 1943 Kern

Basin Creek Kinjrs River

Black Rock, opened in 1942 Lake Almanor

Brookdale jNIadera (seasonal) , temporarily closed

Burney Creek in 1943

Central Valleys Mount Shasta

Coy Flat (seasonal), opened in 1942 Mount Whitney

Fall Creek Prairie Creek

Feather River Rearing Reservoirs, closed in 1943

Fern Creek, closed in 1942 Sequoia

Fillmore, enlarged in 1942 Tahoe

Fort Sevpard, closed in 1943 Tallac

Hat Creek Tosemite

Huntington Lake (seasonal), tempo- Yuba River
rarily closed in 1943

Egg Collecting Stations
Fall Creek (Steelhead and salmon) Heenan Lake (Black spotted), closed in

Little Walker Lake (Eastern brook) 1943

Prairie Creek and Lost Man Creek Kirman Lake (Eastern brook), closed in

(Silver salmon) 1943

Rush Creek (Loch Leven) Klamathon (King salmon), temporarily

San Lorenzo River (Steelhead) closed 1943

Snow Mountain (Steelhead) Lake Eleanor (Rainbow), closed in 1943

Shasta River (Steelhead), closed in 1943

At the end of the biennium only four of the seven members who com-
posed the regular biological staff at the start of the war remained on duty
— Brian Curtis, Supervising Fisheries Biologist, and Joseph H. Wales,
Leo Shapovalov and William A. Dill, District Biologist. The three
junior aquatic biologists were on military leave, Earl Herald having left
before the beginning of the biennium and Elden Vestal and Chester
Woodhull at the end of 1942. Six men were employed at various times
on seasonal or part-time basis, A. B. Murphy, Alex E. Culbertson, J. C.
Marr, Garth Murphy, Warren R. Cheney and William H. Davenport.

The accomplishments of the staff are to some extent reflected in the
list of reports and publications which follows. Routine activities were
carried on such as lake and stream surveys and recommendations for
stocking, for stream closures and for other forms of regulation. Projects
of special interest are described below.

The life history of the steelhead and, incidentally, of the silver
salmon, has been under study at Waddell Creek since 1932. Mr. Leo
Shapovalov has practically completed writing up this work which will be
published shortly and which will be an outstanding contribution to the
knowledge of these species.

That part of the Colorado River which borders California was sur-
veyed by William A. Dill and Chester Woodhull in 1942. The resulting
report, published in July of 1944 after an exhaustive study of the data
obtained, preseiits information about this area never before brought
togethei- under one cover and offers concrete proposals for the manage-
ment and regulation of the fishery.


Experiments on the electric fish screen were carried on by J. H.
Wales at Hat Creek in Shasta Comity where the Pacific Gas and Electric
Company installed one of these devices at their Hat No. 2 Power House
and made it available to us for this purpose. Here the discovery was
made that if, instead of placing the live electrodes downstream from the
ground as has been done in the past, they were placed upstream, there
would result an electric field extending upstream from the electrodes with
gradually diminishing strength. It is possible that this system will
prove better adapted to the repulsion of fish of all sizes than the previ-
ously used design, where the field extended with quite uniform strength
from the electrodes upstream to the ground and then ended rather
abruptly. As a result of these experiments the desirability of further
knowledge of the water velocities which trout of various sizes can over-
come became apparent and accordingly tests on their swimming speed
are now underway at Mt. Shasta Hatchery.

Lake fisheries have received much attention during the biennium.
June and Gull Lakes in Mono County were under close observation by
Elden Vestal prior to his induction into the Army in December, 1942,
and here it was shown that planting of sized rainbow from the Hat Creek
fall spawning stock at the opening of the fishing season would provide
a yield of 50 per cent to the anglers ' creels. Intensive studies by J. H.
Wales of Castle Lake in Siskij^ou County dealt with the yield obtained by
planting fingerling trout of various species and showed that on the aver-
age about 5 per cent of the number planted would reach the angler 's creel.
The latest step here has been the introduction of soy bean meal to see if
fertilization of a natural lake of this size can be a practical means of
improving its fishery. Clear Lake was investigated at the request of
the Lake County Board of Supervisors with respect to the effect on the
sport fishery of commercial netting of rough fish and regulations were
proposed under which the latter is now carried on. A preliminary
survey of Millerton Lake above Friant Dam was completed and one of the
Shasta Reservoir initiated. Creel counts of a less extensive nature were
carried on at Stevens Creek Reservoir in Santa Clara County and at Frog
Lake in Nevada County. A project for the survey of barren lakes has
been carried on each summer by Mr. Dill in cooperation with the Fresno
County Sportsmen's Club for the purpose of assuring proper manage-
ment of these lakes from the start.

The control of rough fish in lakes through rotenone poisoning has
been difficult due to the shortage of this material, but Ballard Reservoir
in Modoc County has been successfully treated and brought back into
production, as well as two smaller lakes in this same region. Cave and Lily.

The whole question of stream flow maintenance has received much
attention, from high altitude check dams for the improvement of moun-
tain streams to amounts of water needed for release, from dams built
and to be built on our large rivers, for preservation of fish and fishing.

The Salton Sea mullet fishery was briefly investigated by Dill and
Woodhull and recommendations made on which the present regulation of
the commercial catch is based.

At the Central Valleys Hatchery at Elk Grove experiments were
initiated which have to do not only with the production of spiny rayed
fishes for stocking but also with desirable species combinations for use


ill farm ponds. Interest in the latter is apparently on the increase in

The striped bass jjuestii^ation lias snifered from lack of competent
personnel. A trained biologist, Garth Murphy, was employed November
15, 1943, on a part-time basis but was inducted into military service in
]\Iarch, 1944. During that period his work consisted principally of
sampling tlie sportsman's catch with reference to the concentrations of
fish and to their growtli, food, spawning habits, etc. In an effort to get
some idea of the number of striped bass taken by commercial nets, three
salmon fishermen were inducted to keep records during May and part of
June. These indicated one bass to every 10 to 15 salmon.

An experiment started in 1941 bore fruit in 1943. The ' ' Kokanee, ' '
a landlocked form of the sockeye salmon very popular with fishermen in
AVashington and Oregon, but not found in California, was introduced
into Salt Springs Reservoir on the Mokelumne River in July, 1941.
These fish throve and reached maturit}' in the autumn of 1943 when eggs
were taken for transplanting. To the eggs thus obtained were added
others purchased outside the State and the experiment is now being
extended by planting these fish in several other lakes in different parts
of the State.

Statistics on the angling catch were gathered as usual throughout
the biennium but the 1943 report is not yet read}' due to delay in pro-
cessing of the material by the organization which contracted for this
work when it was given up by the division's statistical department at
Terminal Island because of reduced personnel. The 1942 figures showed
a trout catch of 16,400,000 by 234,000 anglers as against a catch of 15,-
700,000 by 238,000 anglers in 1941, with an increase in the average catch
from 66 to 70. The striped bass catch in 1942 was 1,760,000 by 93,000
anglers as against 2,035,000 by 111,400 anglers in 1941, the average catch
remaining unchanged at 18 fish per angler for the season.

The editorship of the quarterly magazine California Fish and
Game was assigned to Brian Curtis when Richard Croker went into the
Army at the beginning of the biennium.

Following is a list of the publications and administrative reports
prepared during the biennium.


Reclamation with Rotenone of Crystal Lake, Los Angeles County, California, Elden H.

Vestal. Vol. 28, No. 3, C. F. and G.
A game fish for the Salton Sea, the ten-pounder. Flops affinis, William A. Dill and

Chester Woodhull. Vol. 28, No. 4, C, F. and G.
Resources of the Sea in Wartime. Brian Curtis. Vol. 28, No. 4, C. F. and G.
Twenty-five years ago in CalifoKxia Fish and Game, Brian Curtis. Vol. 28, No. 4,

C. F. and G.
Twenty-five years ago in California Fish and Game, Brian Curtis. A''oL 29, No. 1,

C. F. and G.
Twenty -five years ago in California Fish and Game, Brian Curtis. Vol. 29, No. 2,

C. F. and G.
Twenty -five years ago in California Fish and Game, Brian Curtis. Vol. 29, No. 3,

C. F. and G.
Twenty -five years ago in California Fish and Game, Brian Curds. ^^)1. 29, No. 4,

C. F. and G.
Twenty-five years ago in California Fish and Game, Brian Curtis. A'ol. 30, No. 1,

C. F. and G.
Creel Returns From Hatchery Trout in June Lake, California, Elden H. Vestal.

Vol. 29, No. 2, C. F. and G.


Rehabilitation of a Modoc County Reservoir for Trout Fishing, J. H. Wales. Vol.

29, No. 2, C. F. and G.
Fish Rescue in California, Chester Woodull. Vol. 29, No. 3, C. F. and G.
Mussel Poisoning Twenty-five Years Ago and Today, Brian Curtis. Vol. 29, No. 3,

C. F. and G.
James Moffitt, 1900-1943, Brian Curtis. Vol. 29, No. 4, C. F. and G.
*Black Spotted Trout in Blue Lake, California, A. J. Calhoun. Vol. 30, No. 1,

C. F. and G.
Fresh Ocean Fish as a Trout Diet, J. H. Wales. Vol. 30, No. 1, C. F. and G.
The Tench in California, Leo Shapovalov. Vol. 30, No. 1, C. F. and G.
Trout Fishing Restored to Modoc County Reservoir, J. H. Wales. Vol. 30, No. 1,

C. F. and G.
*Hesperoleucus symmetricus Reported From Clear Lake, Lake County, California,

Garth Murphy. Vol. 30, No. 1, C. F. and G.
*The Food of the Black-spotted Trout {Salmo clarkii henshawi) in Two Sierra Nevada
- Lakes, A. J. Calhoun. Vol. 30, No. 2, C. F. and G.
*The Bottom Fauna of Blue Lake, California, A. J. Calhoun. Vol. 30, No. 2, C. F.

and G.
The Fishery of the Lower Colorado River, William A. Dill. Vol. 30, No. 3, O. F. and

G. (In press at end of biennium).

The following were published by members of the Bureau of Fish
Conservation other than the biological staff :

Diamond-back Terrapin Introduced into California, A. C. Taft. Vol. 30, No. 2, C.

F. and G.
In Memoriam, Richard de Large, A. C. Taft. Vol. 30, No. 2, C. F. and G.
John Otterbein Snyder, A. C. Taft. Vol. 30, No. 1, C. F. and G.
Selective Breeding of Rainbow Trout at Hot Creek Hatchery, R. C. Lewis. Vol. 30,

No. 2, C. F. and G.
Golden Trout Propagation in California, George McCloud. Vol. 29, No. 4, C. F. and G.

Brian Curtis
Angling Catch Records, 1942. Submitted April 24, 1944.
Angling Catch Records, 1941. Submitted July 10, 1942.

The Frog Lake (Nevada County) Fishery in 1943. Submitted March 1, 1944.
The Frog Lake (Nevada County) Fishery in 1942. Submitted January 12, 1943.
Fisheries Aspects of South Fork of Stanislaus Stream Flow Maintenance Surveys.

Submitted September 14, 1943.
Report on Check Dam Reconnaissance in Silver Lake, Amador County Area.

Submitted September 16, 1942.

Joseph H. Wales

Poisoning of Cave and Lily Lakes, Modoc County, October 18-19, 1943. Submitted

November 30, 1943.
General Report on Lake Almanor, Plumas County. Submitted December 10, 1943.
Castle Lake Report for 1943. Submitted March 17, 1944.
Castle Lake Report for 1942. Submitted January 13, 1942.
Report of Investigations on Clear Lake, Lake County, California. Submitted

April 10, 1943.
Report of Tests Made at the Hat No. 2 Electric Fish Screen, June-July, 1943.

Submitted August 12, 1943.
Diversion of Water From the Pit River to the Pacific Gas and Electric Pit 5 Power

House. Submitted March 12, 1944.
Summary of Weekly Disease Reports for 1943. Submitted March 15, 1944.
Summary of Weekly Disease Reports for 1942. Submitted March 2, 1943.
Shasta Valley Fish Screens. Submitted January 14, 1944.

William A. Dill

Tule Indian Reservation Project, Report on 1942 Fish Marking and Planting.
Submitted October 14, 1942.

* Publications based on work performed by the author while employed by the
Division of Fish and Game.


The Inhnid Mullet Fishery of California, Report No. 2. Submitted November 10,

A Prelimiuary Report on the Potential Fishery of Milh rlmi L.iko Witli Suggestions
for its Management. Submitted April I), i;)43.

A Fisheries Survey of the Upper lioar ('reek Drainage, Fresno County, California.
Book 1, (leneral Aecount ; Book IT, Detailed Surveys of Individual Waters. Sub-
mitted May 28, VMS.

Tule Indian Reservation Project, Kcjiort on 1943 Fish Marking and Planting. Sub-
mitted October 1, 1943.

Stream Closure in Tulare County : Boulder Creek. Submitted June 5, 1944.

Preliminary Suggestions for Postwar Projects, Fresno Biological District. Sub-
mitted June 15, 1944.

The Colorado River Survey, 1942. Book I, Dams, Diversions, Pumps. Submitted
June 26, 1944.

William A. Dili and Chester Woodhull

The Tule River Indian Reservation Creel Count, 1942. Submitted August 21, 1942.

The Possibilities of Increasing and Maintaining a Run of Salmon (Oncorhynchus

tshaicytscha) in the Kings River, California. Submitted September 10, 1942.

William A. Dill and G. S. Gunderson

Hatchery Sites, Tulare County : Moorehouse Creek Spring. Submitted September
30, 1943.



By J. S. n u:\TER, Chief

The need for a better understanding of the problems of conservation
by all interested has been very apparent during the past biennium. With
the need to produce more food it has been necessary to give consideration
to all those causes that residt in less production, and with the higher
value of agricultural crops the loss of any portion of the crop has been
more apparent to the producer. AVildlife that reduces crop production
is regarded by the extremist the same as insect pests and should be
destroyed. Fortunately such people do not predominate and wildlife,
generally, is regarded both for its intrinsic and aesthetic value. It is,
however, necessary tor the conservationist to give consideration to the
damage that is or may be caused and to develop j^rotective measures that
will keep the loss to an inconsequential minimum. Under normal condi-
tions this is a difficult problem but under conditions that have prevailed
during this biennium it has been stupendous.

There are several areas in the State where deer have caused many
complaints. In the Stonyford area, in the Sacramento Valley, a study
was made of the situation and it was agreed by all interested parties that
if a brush area were burned in the area adjacent to the farming section,
it would relieve the situation but after consent had been secured from the
State Department of Forestry, the permit allowing burning was canceled
and we were unable to carr}^ out the experiment.

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