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I Volume 31

San Francisco, January, 1945

Number 1

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H. L. RICKS, President Eureka

NATE MILNOR, Commissioner Mono County

LEE F. PAYNE, Commissioner Los Angeles

W. B. WILLIAMS, Commissioner Alturas

DOM A. CIVITELLO, Commissioner Sacramento

EMIL J. N. OTT, Jr., Executive Secretary Sacramento


A- C. TAFT, Chief San Francisco

A. E. Burghduff, Supervisor of Fish Hatcheries San Francisco

Brian Curtis, Supervising Fisheries Biologist San Francisco

L. Phillips, Assistant Supervisor of Fish Hatcheries San Francisco

George McCloud, Assistant Supervisor of Fish Hatcheries Mt. Shasta

D. A. Clanton, Assistant Supervisor of Fish Hatcheries Fillmore

Allan Pollitt, Assistant Supervisor of Fish Hatcheries Tahoe

R. C. Lewis, Assistant Supervisor, Hot Creek Hatchery Bishop

William Berrian, Foreman, Fall Creek Hatchery Copco

C. W. Chansler, Foreman, Yosemite Hatchery Yosemite

Wm. Fiske, Fish Hatchery Man, Feather River Hatchery Clio

Leon Talbot, Foreman, Mt. Whitney Hatchery Independence

A. N. Culver, Foreman, Kaweah Hatchery Three Rivers

John Marshall, Foreman, Lake Almanor Hatchery Westwood

Ross McCloud, Foreman, Basin Creek Hatchery Tuolumne

Harold Hewitt, Foreman, Burney Creek Hatchery Burney

C. L. Frame, Foreman, Kings River Hatchery Fresno

Edward Clessen, Foreman, Brookdale Hatchery Brookdale

Harry Cole, Foreman, Yuba River Hatchery Camptonville

Donald Evins, Foreman, Hot Creek Hatchery Bishop

Cecil Ray, Foreman, Kern Hatchery Kernville

Carl Freyschlag, Foreman, Central Valley Hatchery Elk Grove

S. C. Smedley, Fish Hatchery Man, Prairie Creek Hatchery Orick

G. S. Gunderson, Fish Hatchery Man, Sequoia Hatchery Exeter

Joseph Wales, District Fisheries Biologist Mt. Shasta

Leo Shapovalov, District Fisheries Biologist San Francisco

William A. Dill, District Fisheries Biologist Fresno


J. S. HUNTER, Chief San Francisco

Gordon H. True, Jr., In Charge, Pittman-Robertson Projects San Francisco

Donald D. McLean, Economic Biologist San Francisco;

Carlton M. Herman, Parasitologist San Francisco

Roy M. Wattenbarger, Supervisor Los Banos Refuge Los Banos

Russell M. Reedy, Supervisor Imperial Refuge Calipatria

Ralph R. Noble, Supervisor Suisun Refuge Joice Island

John R. Wallace, In Charge, Predatory Animal Control San Francisco

O. R. Shaw, Supervising Trapper Salinas

Gerald McNames, Supervising Trapper Red Bluff


AUGUST BADE, Chief Yountville

E. D. Piatt, Superintendent, Los Serranos Game Farm Chine


RICHARD VAN CLEVE, Chief San Francisc<|

S. H. Dado, Assistant Chief San Franciscf 1

W. L Scofleld, Supervising Fisheries Researcher Terminal Islanc'

Frances N. Clark, Supervising Fisheries Researcher Terminal Islanc

Donald H. Fry, Jr., Supervising Fisheries Researcher Terminal Islan<

J. B. Phillips, Senior Fisheries Researcher Pacific Grov

Paul Bonnot, Senior Fisheries Researcher Stanford Universit

W. E. Ripley, Senior Fisheries Researcher Stanford Universit

Geraldine Conner. Fisheries Statistician Terminal Islan

(Continued on page 32)

California Fish and Game

"conservation of wildlife through education"

Volume 31 SAX FRANCISCO, JANUARY, 1945 No. 1



In the Service of Their Country 2

Studies on the Condition of California Mule Deer at Sequoia National
Park Joseph 8. Dixon and Carlton M. Herman 3

The "Balloon" Type Otter Trawl for Rockfishes W. L. Sco field 12

Hippoboscid Flies as Parasites of Game Animals in California

Carlton M. Herman 16

Editorials and Notes —
Origin and Nature of an Unusual Red Pigmentation in Canned
Mackerel E. Geiger and O. Sclina'kenberg 26

Twenty-five Years Ago in "California Fish and Game"

Brian Curtis 27

Retirement of E. II. Ober L. F. Chappell 28

In Memoriam —

Ray Diamond L. F. Chappell 29

Webb Toms L. F. Chappell 29

Alex Chappieu A. E. Burghduff 29

Reports 30

California Pish and Game is a publication devoted to the conservation of wild-
life. It is published quarterly by the California Division of Fish and Game. All
material for publication should be sent to Brian Curtis, Editor, Division of Fish and
Game, Ferry Building, San Francisco 11, California.

The articles published herein are not copyrighted and may be reproduced in
other periodicals, provided due credit is given the author and the California Division of
Fish and Game. Editors of newspapers and periodicals are invited to make use of
pertinent material.

Subscribers are requested to notify the Division of Fish and Game, Ferry Build-
ing, San Francisco 11, California, of changes of address, giving old address as well as
the new.



3n %\it ^erfoce of %Mx Country

Now serving with the armed forces of the United States are the following
155 employees of the California Division of Fish and Game, listed in order of
entry into the service:

J. William Cook
Merton N. Rosen
Albert King
E. L. Macaulay
E. R. Hyde
George Werden, Jr.
E. A. Johnson
Henry Bartol
Edson J. Smith
John F. Janssen, Jr.
Richard Kramer
Arthur Barsuglia
George Metcalf
James F. Ashley
William Jolley
Rudolph Switzer
Jacob Myers
Charles McFall
Lloyd Hume
John E. Fitch
William H. Sholes, Jr.
James Reynolds
Paul Gillogley
Ralph Beck
Charles Cuddigan
James H. Berrian
Edward Dolder
John Woodard
Bob King
Ross Waggoner
John Canning
William Richardson
William Plett
John Finigan
Trevenen Wright
John A. Maga
Elmer Doty
William Dye
Lester Golden
Richard N. Hardin
Henry Frahm
Lawrence Rubke
Virgil Swenson
Harold Dave
Howard McCully
Austin Alford
Belton Evans
Willis Evans
James Hiller
Robert Terwilliger
Eugene Durney
Charles W. Kanig

Howard Shebley
Donald Tappe
Richard S. Croker
J. G. McKerlie
Robert Kaneen
Elmer Lloyd Brown
Douglas Dowell
William Roysten
Dean L. Bennett
John Chattin
C. L. Towers
Carlisle Van Ornum
Arsene Christopher
Harry Peters
Mark Halderman
John B. Butder
Charles Comerford
Niles J. Millen
Carol M. Ferrell
J. Alfred Aplin
James E. Wade
Nathan Rogan
Henry Shebley
S. Ross Hatton
Jack Wm. Cook
John J. Barry
Chester Ramsey
Elmer Aldrich
Ralph Dale
James D. Stokes
George D. Seymour
Glenn Whitesell
A. E. Johnson
Gustav E. Geibel
Wm. Bradford
Ernest E. McBain
John Hurley
Karl Lund
Henry A. Hjersman
Elden H. Vestal
Walter Shannon
Jack R. Bell
Harold Roberts
Edwin V. Miller
Phil M. Roedel
Chester Woodhull
W. S. Talbott
Richard Bliss
William D. Hoskins
Edgar Zumwalt
Earl Leitritz

John M. Spicer
Wm. Longhurst
George Booker
J. Ross Cox
Harold Wilberg
Leslie Edgerton
Arthur L. Gee
George Shockley
Laurence Werder
Robert McDonald
Frank L. D. Felton
James A. Reutgen
David M. Selleck
Chris Wm. Loris
James T. Deuel
Lionel E. Clement
Thomas Borneman
Richard Riegelheth
Willard Greenwald
Carl G. Hill
H. S. Vary
Emil Dorig
Donald Glass
Ruth Smith
Wm. J. Overton
Daniel F. Tillotson
Earl S. Herald
Theodore Heryford
Ellis Berry
Lawrence Cloyd
Eleanor Larios
John Laughlin
Ralph Classic
Owen Mello
Gordon L. Bolander
John B. Cowan
Harold Erwick
Bert Mann
Douglas Condie
Andrew Weaver
Robert Fraser
Don Davison
William Payne
Harley Groves
Herbert Ream Merrill
Frank Burns
Garrie Heryford
Robert O'Brien
Kenneth Doty
Don Chipman
Howard Twining
Fred Ross

Byron Sylvester

billed in line of Butg

Arthur Boeke

Richard DeLarge


By Joseph S. Dixon

United States Fish and Wildlife Service


Carlton M. Herman

Bureau of Game Conservation

California Division of Fish and Game

The California mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus calif ornicus, found
in the Giant Forest area of Sequoia National Park, has increased under
the protection of the National Park Service to such an extent that a
problem of over utilization of browse has arisen on some species of plants.
To investigate this, the senior author has over a period of years studied
a number of small grazing plot areas fenced at critical points of the
Giant Forest region. During the past several years trapping and
removal of the surplus deer has been conducted on their winter range
in the vicinity of Hospital Pock. The animals thus trapped have been
taken out of the park. This live trapping of deer on winter range gave
temporary relief. However, the deer continued to increase and there
was still over utilization of the range in 1944. Concurrent with this
problem, disease and parasites became more evident and upon the recom-
mendation of Superintendent John R. White and of the Regional Office
of the National Park Service, the California Fish and Game Commission
and the Secretary of the Interior in 1943 authorized removal of not more
than 40 additional deer from the Sequoia and Kings Canyon National
Park areas.

This created special opportunity to study certain deer that were
apparently suffering from disease and parasites on the winter range along
the lower portions of the North and Middle Forks of the Kaweah River
inside Sequoia National Park. Since it was obvious that a better knowl-
edge of disease and parasites of deer in the above area would assist not
only the National Park Service but also the Fish and Wildlife Service
and the California Division of Fish and Game in their deer management
program, these three agencies collaborated in the investigation. As a
result of this cooperative effort, Superintendent John R. White and
Ranger Clarence Fry of the National Park Service, Dr. Carlton M.
Herman and Donald D. McLean of the California Division of Fish and
Game, and Joseph S. Dixon of the United States Fish and Wildlife Serv-
ice all worked together on the problem.

Field Observations

A field study made by the members of the party March 21 to March
24, 1944, showed that the general condition of both the deer and the forage
on the winter range at the end of the winter was relatively good. A

1 Submitted for publication August, 1944. Photographs by Joseph S. Dixon. Map
drawn by Clarence Elliger.



Fig. 1. Southwest corner of Sequoia National Park in which deer studies were made.

careful survey showed that the deer were well scattered in small groups of
from 6 to 20 individuals on the warm south-facing slopes at altitudes
between 1,700 and 3,000 feet in the blue oak belt, where a fair growth
of green natural grasses and herbage was present. Above 3,100 feet the
oaks had not leafed out and grass was just coming up so that the deer were
scarce. On the lower slopes, as at Potwisha, Hospital Rock and Buckeye
Flat, at an elevation of around 2,000 feet, the deer were found well dis-
tributed and feeding largely on succulent green grasses on the open
hillsides. (See Fig. 2.)

During the middle of the bright, warm, spring days the deer were
found bedded down in the shade of leafy buckeye trees. We found, at
this time, that some pregnant does repeatedly stood on their hind legs and
made special effort to reach up into the trees for the green leaves of this
tree which chemical analysis has shown to be rich in bone building


Fig. 2. Does at Potvvisha, March 23, 1944.

Two natural deer licks were examined along the North Pork of the
Kaweah between Yucca Creek and Cow Creek. Both licks were in solid
clay banks, not at springs or water holes. The first lick was below the
road and a well worn deer trail led to it. The substance eaten was a
whitish clay -like material which we found had a slightly salty taste. The
other lick was in a vertical bank on the upper side of the road about
one-quarter of a mile below Cow Creek. Here a definite hole about 15
inches across and 8 inches deep had been eaten out by the deer. Many
deer tracks marked the locality and hoof -marks above the cavity showed
that some deer had tried to paw out the material. Calcium and magne-
sium are believed to be the minerals sought in these natural licks. No
analysis of the material was made and further study is desirable to deter-
mine the chemicals involved.

The evidence of need for supplemental minerals was found on the
North Fork where deer congregated just below the west boundary patrol
cabin. Here certain yerba santa bushes, which had been growing vigor-
ously on a dirt fill below the road, had been almost defoliated and severely
pruned by the over-browsing of the deer. (See Fig. 3.) Plants of
vigorous growth were chosen by the deer and it is thought from the deer
tracks that perhaps mineral contents plus availability may have been
the reasons why certain bushes were so heavily browsed.

Poor condition of deer in this area in the past often has been
attributed to artificial food such as cigarettes, chewing gum, candy, and
camp wastes fed by Park visitors at Giant Forest. On March 23d and
25th, 65 and 67 deer respectively were examined with the aid of binocu-
lars, particularly at the camp sites at Potwisha, Hospital Rock, and Buck-
eye Flat which are at an altitude of approximately 2,000 feet. Four of


Fig. 3. Yerba santa shrub over-browsed by deer.

these deer were found to be decrepit and undoubtedly suffering from
disease. On March 24th, 178 deer on the North Fork of the Kaweah all
appeared to be healthy.

Many of the deer observed on the Middle Fork showed evidence of
heavy tick infestations (Fig. 4). As a group these deer were in poorer
condition than those on the North Fork. At least two deer showed
evidence of disease of the eye. This was demonstrated by the presence
of a watery discharge and a tendency to keep the eyes closed much of
the time. The condition was readily observed with the aid of binoculars.
One of these animals (Deer 3-44) was collected for autopsy. Two other
deer were observed to be thin, with scraggly coats and evidence of heavy
tick infestations; one deer (Deer 4-44) was collected for autopsy.

Autopsy Finding's

Examination of Deer 3-44 (March 23, 1944), adult female, taken
near Hospital Rock. Stomach contents, not quite a full gallon, con-
tained a large amount of browse, chiefly buckeye and mountain mahogany.
About 75 per cent of this freshly eaten food in the first stomach had


Pig. 4. Doe and yearling showing evidence of heavy tick infestation.

Fig. 5. Close-up of right eye of deer infected with eyeworms.



been nipped off roughly in pieces often £ to | of an inch in length. Buds
and flowers of the western redbud (Cercis occidentalis) constituted
nearly 10 per cent of this doe's stomach content. Yerba santa and a
little Ceanothus cuneatus foliage also had been eaten by this doe.

This deer was collected because observation showed the right eye
to be partially shut. Examination at autopsy revealed both eyes to be
infected with actively moving small round worms. Thirty-one of these
worms (Thclazia calif ornlensis) were collected from the left eye and
37 from the right eye. Although inflammation in this instance had been
easily detected in the living deer with the aid of 7-power binoculars,
her vision did not seem to be, as yet, seriously impaired. An opaque,
bluish film was beginning to spread over the right eye and a whitish
opaque area was developing (Fig. 5) .

These worms occur on the surface of the eyeball. The vast majority
of them remained hidden under the eyelid and were revealed only when
the eyelid was artificially raised (Fig. 6). Their great activity made
photography difficult.

Thelazia calif orniensis has been reported in the past from deer in
this locality by Oberhansley (1940) in equally heavy concentrations, and

Fig. 6.

Deer infected with T. calif orniensis. Note that
most of the worms are under the eye lid.


from deer elsewhere in California by Herman (1944). It lias been
reported from dogs in many parts of the State and from several other
animals as well as man. Such large numbers, however, have been observed
only in the eyes of deer from Sequoia Park.

The senior author, on December 2.0, 1929, found and photographed
(Dixon, 1934) a spike buck near this same locality which had both eyes
badly inflamed and nearly closed with yellow pus (Fig. 7). From the
work done on eyeworms by Oberhansley at Sequoia and from our present
findings, it seems logical to conclude that this buck also suffered from an
infection of Thelazia although not recognized as such at the time.

Ectoparasites were quite numerous on this doe. A careful examina-
tion was made in an effort to collect all of them. ' A number of larval
mites, or chiggers {Eutronibicula alfreddngesi)- — hardly larger than a
pin-point and of an orange-red color — were found sucking blood on the
skin of the back. Of several species of ticks, totaling 412 individuals,
collected from this one doe, Dermacentor occidentalis was the most
numerous. Two species of louse flies (Hippohoscidae) were found,
chiefly in the groins. This doe harbored a total of 1,350 of these flies.
There was also a single specimen of a blood-sucking louse.

Internally the animal seemed to be in fair condition. Three bot fly
larvae were found in the upper trachea. Eleven cysticerci (bladder-
worm stage of tapeworms) were found on the omentum and a single
tapeworm cyst was found on the lungs. The adults of these tapeworms
occur in the intestine of a number of carnivores which feed on deer.
There are no authentic reports of their occurrence in man.

Examination of Deer 4-44 (March 25, 1944), three year old male,
taken near Buckeye Flat. Stomach contents watery, completely filling

Fig. 7. Spike buck at Hospital Rock, December 29, 1929. Condition of eyes pos-
sibly due to severe infection with T. calif or niensis.


a one-gallon bucket, consisted mainly of freshly eaten green grasses.
The remains of a recently eaten last year 's fruit of a California buckeye
was also present in the stomach.

This deer was collected because observation showed it to be in poor
condition and emaciated. There were many bare patches without hair
on the neck. The animal seemed to be malnourished. No worms were
present in either eye.

Ectoparasites were much less numerous than on the previous doe.
With careful examination we were able to collect only 281 louse flies,
227 ticks and a single biting louse. No mites were observed.

Internally the animal was found to be in very poor condition. Five
bot fly larvae were obtained from the nasal passages and throat. The
chief finding was an extensive enteritis involving the abomasum (fourth
stomach) and the entire intestinal tract. There was evidence of an old
lung infection and enlargement of the ventricles of the heart, with
hemorrhages in the heart muscles. The kidneys also were inflamed. In
the field it was at first thought that the condition of the lungs might
have been involved with the pathological findings of the other organs.
No intestinal parasites were found in examination of the lumen of the
intestines or in washings of the contents. However, some of the mucous
from the upper intestines was placed in normal saline with added 2
per cent dichromate solution and examined several days later in the
laboratory. At this subsequent examination numerous nematode larvae
were observed. No further identification of this material was made
because no adults were collected. Deer are known to be infected with
several species of small stomach and intestinal worms which could easily
have been the cause of the inflammation found in the intestinal tract.
These worms feed on the blood of the animal. Loss of blood plus a
toxicity produced by these worms could readily account for this buck's
poor condition.


The deer on the North Fork of the Kaweah River were definitely
in much better condition than those observed on the Middle Fork. Sev-
eral hypotheses can be proposed to account for this fact.

The deer in the areas on the Middle Fork have, over a period of
years, come more and more to look to the tourists of the park for part
of their food. This fact has tended to keep the deer in close proximity
to the camps for, when approached, these animals circle back to the
same spots. This concentration causes over-browsing in the immediate
areas and constant grazing on limited areas. The life cycles of the
stomach and intestinal worms are direct and closely tied up with graz-
ing by the animals. Eggs of the worms are deposited with the fecal
droppings of the infected animals and develop in the soil. Immature
stages of the worms crawl onto blades of grass and are eaten by the deer
along with its food. Thus the infections are constantly being built up to a
peak. It appears that the intensity of these infections is directly pro-
portional to the amount of grazing done by the deer and the recurrent
use of the same pastures by infected deer.

The preferred species of browse, such as snow brush and bitter
cherry, have been depleted more and more in the area and in many cases
actually killed by over-browsing. The deer are forced to utilize the


meadows for forage. This builds up a vicious circle of reinfection. This
relationship is particularly evident on the summer range at Giant Forest.

As well as tending to increase the worm burden, this sequence of
events — the shifting to grass forage — undoubtedly tends to reduce the
nutritional values of their total diet. Lack of mobility of the resident deer
population in these areas seems to be the chief cause of present conditions.

The method of transmission of the eyeworms is not known. At
present no reason can be suggested to explain the heavier infections with
this worm in the deer at Sequoia than has, as yet, been observed elsewhere.
It is hoped that further work now in progress will clarify some of these

Literature Cited

Dixon, Joseph S.

1934 A study of the life history and food habits of mule deer in California.
Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 20, pp. 181-282, 316-354.

Herman, Carlton M.

1944 Eyeworm (Thelazia californiensis) infection in deer in California. Calif.
Fish and Game, vol. 30, pp. 58-60.

Oberhansley, F. It.

1940 California mule deer a host for nematode eye worms in Sequoia National
Park. Jour. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc, vol. 96, p. 542.



By W. L. Scofield

Bureau of Marine Fisheries

California Division of Fish and Game

A recent modification of fishing gear has had an immediate effect
upon the fresh fish markets of the central part of the State. The flat-
fish otter trawl has been adapted to supplying the California markets
with rockfish. This development has resulted from the abnormal condi-
tions during war-time; and a brief summary of the background will
help to explain what is happening in the "rock cod" fishery.

The so-called "rock cods," or more properly the rockfishes, include
about fifty species of the genus (family Scorpaenidae), which
are found in fair abundance nearly everywhere along the California
coast. This group has been burdened with almost as many common names
as there are species in the prolific genus. The best known kinds in our
markets are variously known as bocaccio, salmon grouper, chili-pepper,
Chinafish, and red snapper — to name but a few.

In normal times the volume of the California catch of rockfish has
compared favorably with that of salmon, barracuda, or yellowtail. How-
ever, the importance of rockfish in our markets was greater than would
be indicated by the number of pounds landed because these fish have
served as a "filler," and could be depended upon to supply the demand
for fresh fish during the off-seasons when more popular species were
not plentiful. All along the coast of the State, periods of fish scarcity
could be bridged by a scattered fleet of small boats fishing set-lines and
hand-lines for rockfish. Prices to the fishermen varied widely, but dur-
ing the winter and slack seasons for other species, the price rose suffi-

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