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CALIFORNIA
FISH




47368



STATE OF CALIFORNIA

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES

DIVISION OF FISH AND GAME
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA



EARL WARREN GOVERNOR

WARREN T. HANNUM DIRECTOR OP NATURAL RESOURCES

FISH AND GAME COMMISSION

H. L. RICKS, President Eureka

LEE F. PAYNE, Commissioner Los Angeles

W. B. WILLIAMS, Commissioner Alturas

DOM A. CTVTTELLO, Commissioner Sacramento

HARVEY HASTAIN, Commissioner Brawley

EMIL J. N. OTT, Jr., Executive Secretary ; Sacramento

BUREAU OF FISH CONSERVATION

A. C. TAFT, Chief San Francisco

A. E. Burghduff, Supervisor of Fish Hatcheries San Francisco

Brian Curtis, Supervising Fisheries Biologist San Francisco

L. Phillips, Assistant Supervisor of Fish Hatcheries San Francisco

George McCloud, Assistant Supervisor of Fish Hatcheries Mt. Shasta

D. A. Clanton, Assistant Supervisor of Fish Hatcheries Fillmore

Allan Pollitt, Assistant Supervisor of Fish Hatcheries Tahoe

R. C. Lewis, Assistant Supervisor, Hot Creek Hatchery Bishop

J. William Cook, Construction Estimator San Francisco

L. E. Nixon, Fish Hatcheryman, Yosemite Hatchery Yosemite

Wm. Fiske, Foreman, Feather River Hatchery Clio

Leon Talbott, Foreman, Mt. Whitney Hatchery Independence

A. N. Culver, Foreman, Kaweah Hatchery Three-Rivers

John Marshall, Foreman, Lake Almanor Hatchery Westwood

Ross McCloud, Foreman, Basin Creek Hatchery : Tuolumne

Harold Hewitt, Foreman, Burney Creek Hatchery Burney

C. L. Frame, Foreman, Kings River Hatchery Fresno

Edward Clessen, Foreman, Brookdale Hatchery Brookdale

Harry Cole, Foreman, Yuba River Hatchery Camptonville

Donald Evins, Foreman, Hot Creek Hatchery Bishop

Cecil Ray, Foreman, Kern Hatchery Kernville

Carl Freyschlag, Foreman, Central "Valley Hatchery Elk Grove

S. C. Smedley, Foreman, Prairie Creek Hatchery Orick

G. S. Gunderson, Fish Hatchery Man, Sequoia Hatchery Exeter

E. W. Murphey, In Charge, Fall Creek Hatchery Copco

Joseph Wales, District Fisheries Biologist ML Shasta

Leo Shapovalov, District Fisheries Biologist Stanford University

William A. Dill, District Fisheries Biologist , Fresno

BUREAU OF GAME CONSERVATION

J. S. HUNTER, Chief San Francisco

Gordon H. True, Jr., Assistant Chief San Francisco

Donald D. McLean, Game Biologist San Francisco

R. E. Curtis, Game Biologist San Francisco

Ben Glading, Game Biologist San Francisco

Carlton M. Herman, Parasitologist Berkeley

Verne Fowler, Assistant Game Manager, Elk Refuge Tupman

J. S. Dow, Assistant Game Manager, Honey Lake Waterfowl Management

Area Wendel

Russell Bushey, Assistant Game Manager, Honey Lake Waterfowl Manage-
ment Area Wendel

Russell M. Reedy, Assistant Game Manager, Imperial Refuge Calipatria

Roy M. Wattenbarger, Assistant Game Manager, Los Banos Refuge Los Banos

Ralph R. Noble, Assistant Game Manager, Suisun Refuge Joice Island

John R. Wallace, Supervisor, Predatory Animal Control San Francisco

Norval Jeffries, Supervising Trapper Monrovia

Gerald McNames, Supervising Trapper Redding

O. R. Shaw, Supervising Trapper King City

BUREAU OF GAME FARMS

AUGUST BADE, Chief Yountville

E. D. Piatt, Superintendent, Los Serranos Game Farm Chino

BUREAU OF MARINE FISHERIES

RICHARD VAN CLEVE, Chief San Francisco

S. H. Dado, Assistant Chief San Francisco

W. D. Scofleld, Supervising Fisheries Researcher Terminal Island

Frances N. Clark, Supervising Fisheries Researcher Terminal Island

Donald H. Fry, Jr., Supervising Fisheries Researcher Terminal Island

J. B. Phillips, Senior Fisheries Researcher Pacific Grove

Paul Bonnot, Senior Fisheries Researcher Stanford University

W. E. Ripley, Senior Fisheries Researcher Stanford University

Geraldine Conner, Fisheries Statistician Terminal Island

(Continued on inside back cover)



California Fish and Game

"conservation of wildlife through education"
Volume 31 SAN FRANCISCO, OCTOBER, 1945 No. 4



TABLE OF CONTENTS



Pa ere

In the Service of Their Country 164

Valley Quail Under Private Management at the Dune Lakes Club —

Ben Glading, David M. Selleck and Fred T. Ross 167

The Pacific Tunas H. C. Godsil 185

California Searobin (Prionotus stephanophrys) , a Fish New for the

Fauna of Southern California Carl L. Hubbs 195

Some Worm Parasites of Deer in California- -Carlton M. Herman 201

Editorials and Notes —

The Shark, Carcharhinus azureus, in Southern California Waters

D. H. Fry, Jr., and P. M. Roedel 209

Two Unusual Flatfishes From Monterey Bay J. B. Phillips 210

Late Spring Spawning of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus

tschawytscha) Donald D. McLean 211

Twenty-five Years Ago in California Fish and Game

Brian Curtis 212

In Memoriam —

W. L. Hare 213

Victor E. Van Arx 213

Reports 214

Financial Statements 216

Index 219



California Fish and Game is a publication devoted to the conservation of wild-
life. It is published quarterly by the California Division of Fish and Game. All
material for publication should be sent to Brian Curtis, Editor, Division of Fish and
Game, Ferry Building, San Francisco 11, California.

The articles published herein are not copyrighted and may be reproduced in
other periodicals, provided due credit is given the author and the California Division of
Fish and Game. Editors of newspapers and periodicals are invited to make use of
pertinent material.

Subscribers are requested to notify the Division of Fish and Game, Ferry Build-
ing, San Francisco 11, California, of changes of address, giving old address as well as
the new.

47368 ( 163 )



M Wm ^ertrice of Wm Countrg

Now serving with the armed forces of the United States are the
following 142 employees of the California Division of Fish and
Game, listed in order of entry into the service:



Merton N. Rosen
Albert King
E. L. Macaulay
E. R. Hyde
George Werden, Jr.
Henry Bartol
Edson J. Smith
John F. Janssen, Jr.
Richard Kramer
Arthur Barsuglia
George Metcalf
James F. Ashley
William Jolley
Rudolph Switzer
Jacob Myers
Charles McFall
Lloyd Hume
John E. Fitch
James Reynolds
Ralph Beck
Charles Cuddigan
James H. Berrian
Edward Dolder
John Woodard
Bob King
Ross Waggoner
John Canning
William Richardson
William Plett
John Finigan
Trevenen Wright
John A. Maga
Elmer Doty
William Dye
Lester Golden
Richard N. Hardin
Lawrence Rubke
Virgil S wen son
Harold Dave



Howard McCully
Austin Alford
Belton Evans
Willis Evans
James Hiller
Robert Terwilliger
Eugene Durney
Charles W. Kanig
Howard Shebley
Donald Tappe
Richard S. Croker
J. G. McKerlie
Robert Kaneen
Elmer Lloyd Brown
Douglas Dowell
William Roysten
Dean L. Bennett
John Chattin
C. L. Towers
Arsene Christopher
Harry Peters
Mark Halderman
John B. Butler
Charles Comerford
Niles J. Millen
Carol M. Ferrell
J. Alfred Aplin
James E. Wade
Nathan Rogan
Henry Shebley
S. Ross Hatton
Jack Wm. Cook
John J. Barry
Chester Ramsey
Elmer Aldrich
Ralph Dale
James D. Stokes
George D. Seymour

(164)



Glenn Whitesell
A. E. Johnson
Gustav E. Geibel
Ernest E. McBain
Karl Lund
Henry A. Hjersman
Elden H. Vestal
Walter Shannon
Jack R. Bell
Edwin V. Miller
Phil M. Roedel
Chester Woodhull
W. S. Talbott
Richard Bliss
William D. Hoskins
Edgar Zumwalt
John M. Spicer
Wm. Longhurst
Harold Wilberg
Leslie Edgerton
Arthur L. Gee
Laurence Werder
Robert McDonald
Frank L. D. Felton
James A. Reutgen
David M. Selleck
Chris Wm. Loris
James T. Deuel
Lionel E. Clement
Thomas Borneman
Richard Riegelheth
Willard Greenwald
Carl G. Hill
H. S. Vary
Emil Dorig
Donald Glass
Ruth Smith
Wm. J. Overton



Daniel F. Tillotson
Earl S. Herald
Theodore Heryford
Ellis Berry
Lawrence Cloyd
Eleanor Larios
John Laughlin
Owen Mello
Gordon L. Bolander



John B. Cowan
Harold Erwick
Bert Mann
Douglas Condie
Andrew Weaver
Robert Fraser
Don Davison
William Payne
Harley Groves



Herbert Ream Merrill
Garrie Heryford
Kenneth Doty
Don Chipman
Howard Twining
Fred Ross
Robert Macldin
Wm. Stewart
David L. Ward



filled inline of Dntg



Byron Sylvester



Arthur Boeke



Richard DeLarge



Released From 3xttoe jSertrice



George E. Booker
William Bradford
Ray Bruer
Frank Burns
Ralph Classic
J. William Cook
J. Ross Cox
A. F. Crocker



Henry Frahm
Paul Gillogley
Robert N. Hart
John Hurley
E. A. Johnson
William LaMarr
Earl Leitritz
Robert O'Brien



C. Lawrence O'Leary
Harold Roberts
Leo Rossier
C. L. Savage
Arthur L. Stager
George Shockley
William H. Sholes, Jr.
Carlisle Van Ornum



(165)







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(166)



VALLEY QUAIL UNDER PRIVATE MANAGEMENT
AT THE DUNE LAKES CLUB '

By Ben Glading, David M. Selleck, and Fred T. Ross

Bureau of Game Conservation

California Division of Fish and Game

Valley quail (Lophortyx calif or nica) are nonmigratory. Their lives
are usually spent within a few hundred yards of the place where they were
hatched. Hence, their management and increase is best effected by build-
ing up their numbers locally, on the land on which they are to be hunted.

How private owners of quail shooting land can be successful in build-
ing up quail populations is best exemplified by the Dune Lakes Club quail
program at their grounds in San Luis Obispo County. Here, private
management has resulted in enormous numbers of quail and a sustained
bag yield over a series of years.

The Dune Lakes Club is located in the sand dunes and adjacent lands
along the southern coast of San Luis Obispo County. The total size of
the club is roughly 1,600 acres, although the part suitable for quail and
hunted by the owners does not exceed 450 acres (see Fig. 51).

Prior to 1928, a group of sportsmen from Santa Maria used the
ponds for duck shooting. While a few quail were present, the area was
not particularly noted for this type of hunting. When the Dune Lakes
Club took over the property in 1928, two moderate-sized quail coveys
existed, one near the present headquarters and barns, and one near an
old house at the north end. Best local estimates indicate that not over
200 quail existed at this date. No quail hunting was allowed until 1935.

During the period prior to 1935, some quail were introduced and
extensive feeding and predator control operations were conducted.
Starting in 1935, quail hunting was allowed and an accurate record kept
of the total numbers shot (Table 1). The increasing yield of birds
attracted the attention of biologists of the Division of Fish and Game.
Through the kind invitation of the club members, the division was privi-
leged to observe and conduct studies of the quail on the club 's grounds
during the period from December 1940, to 1943.

During the years from 1935 to 1941, the management of quail and
ducks was under the direction of one full-time employee of the Dune
Lakes Club, aided the year around by one half-time assistant. After
1941, war conditions considerably reduced the manpower employed and
the degree of management was much less intense.

The Dune Lakes property is a strip about two miles long by one mile
wide, consisting of active and retired sand dunes. Roughly half of the

1 Submitted for publication, June, 1945.

The authors are indebted to the owners of Dune Lakes, Ltd., Messrs. William
Dickinson, Harold Chase, and Peter Bryce, for their cooperation in allowing us to
conduct observations on the game at the Dune Lakes Club, and to Messrs. Paul Haddox
and L. G. Barker, employees of the club, who aided materially in the conduct of our
studies.

The Dune Lakes Club was used as one of the experimental areas of Federal Aid
in Wildlife Restoration, Project California 6-R, The Management of Valley Quail in
the South Coast Counties of California.

(167)



His



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME



total of 1,600 acres involved is in bare, active dunes. The balance of the
area is divided among lakes, marsh, eucalyptus grove, farm land, and
brush land. The bare dunes, lakes, and marsh are totally unsuited to
quail. During the nesting season some few pairs are to be found in the
eucalpytus grove and in the farming ground if the season 's crop affords
adequate cover. Generally speaking however, quail are confined to about
450 acres of brush land, or rather to the parts of the brush land which are
under intensive management. The actual observed range of fall coveys
was 286 acres in 1941.

The country surrounding the club is such that few quail are present ;
hence the possibility of widespread movement of birds from other areas
does not exist. On the entire northwest, west, and most of the south
boundaries are areas of bare sand dunes adjacent to the ocean; on the
north and northeast boundaries are the truck farms of the Arroyo Grande
Valley which support a very low quail population. An extensive series
of eucalyptus groves, which are almost a biologic desert, forms most of
the eastern boundary. The southeast corner abuts on heavy brush land
that supports a low quail population.




Fig. 52. View from Dune Lakes headquarters looking over the Bolsa Chica Lake and
White Lake. Covey E ranges into the left foreground.



The brush at the club covers old dunes, which give a rolling char-
acter to the topography. Except on the flat farming land and marsh, the
soil is extremely sandy. Lacking humus, it does not hold water, and
hence many plants common to brush lands in other parts of the State can
not exist.

The dominant brush species is heather goldenbush (Haplopappus
ericoides). Other common species of brush are tree lupine (Lupinus
arooreus), dune lupine (L. chamissonis) , deerweed (Lotus scoparius),
coast sagebrush (Artemisia calif or nica) , sea-cliff buckwheat (Eriogonum



VALLEY QUAIL UNDER PRIVATE MANAGEMENT 169

parvifolium), black sage (Salvia mellifera) , and California coffee berry
(Rhamnus calif omica). Nesting cover is ample, with deerweed and
croton (Croton calif ornicus) forming matted clumps.

Roosting trees are furnished by willows which grow naturally along
sloughs and around the edges of the lakes, and by acacias planted by the
railroad company and the club. Annual grasses and weeds are sparse
and their green period considerably shortened due to the dry, sandy
character of the soil. Prime forage species such as filaree, bur clover,
and the annual clovers,, which are the staple quail foods in other parts of
the State, are virtually absent at Dune Lakes. Seeds for quail are fur-
nished by such species as miner's lettuce (Montia perfoliata) and buck-
thorn weed (Amsinckia douglasiana) , which are considered inferior quail
foods at best.

Rodents were numerous while the investigation was in progress ;
meadow mice, white-footed mice, and kangaroo rats formed the bulk of
the population. Numbers of seed-eating birds, such as golden-crowned
sparrows and white-crowned sparrows, were large during the period of
our study. Brush rabbits (Sylvilagus hachmani) were abundant; in
1941, their numbers were extremely high. Early morning counts of up
to 100 per one-quarter-mile stretch of road were made in one particularly
favorable area during that high year.

Principal mammal predators on quail and quail nests at Dune Lakes
are opossum, striped skunk, spotted skunk, feral house cat, and weasel.
Raccoons, bobcats, and coyotes are taken in limited numbers. Although
ground squirrels are present only on areas of good soil, and as such are
possible predators on nests and young birds, their scarcity over most of
the property suitable for quail makes them a minor factor compared with
other parts of the State.

Cooper hawks and sharp-shinned hawks, marsh hawks, pigeon hawks,
red-tailed hawks, barn owls, and horned owls are the principal raptors.
Occasional duck hawks are seen, and rarely a roadrunner is encountered.
Gopher snakes are common and considered to be a serious predator on
quail nests.

The Dune Lakes Club Quail Management Program

The active part of the quail management program conducted by the
club owners may be summarized under five headings: introduction of
wild-trapped quail, artificial feeding, predator control, food and cover
plant improvements, and addition to the water supply. The extent of
these programs is considered below.

Introduction of Quail

From time to time during the quail management program, quail
were introduced from various sources to bolster the number of native quail
on the club. The only definite records prior to 1940 that we were able
to uncover were a release of 186 wild-trapped quail from Santa Barbara
County in the fall of 1937, a release of 350 game-breeder-reared birds in
1939, and 50 such hand-reared birds in 1940. Several hundred quail
were released by the Division of Fish and Game in 1941 and 1942 in
order to check the efficacy of such introductions. The results of these
introductions will be discussed later.



170



•CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME



Artificial Feeding

A unique feature of the Dune Lakes quail management program was
the practice of scattering grain on the feeding areas of the various coveys.
Steel-cut yellow corn was the commonest grain employed, although whole
wheat was scattered to a lesser extent. The amount of feed so used
varied from year to year and season to season, but observed limits ranged
from six to 12 sacks per week. During the nesting season, from April
to July, feeding was cut to the minimum ; in the late summer the amount
was gradually increased until by September, up to 12 sacks per week
were scattered. The usual yearly quota was 500 sacks costing approxi-
mately $1,000 at that time.

Feeding was ordinarily done three times per week, Mondays, Wed-
nesdays, and Fridays, and the amount of feed used was gauged to some
extent by the use by quail and quail competitors.




Fig. 53. Feeding quail at Dune Lakes. Feed is scattered along predetermined routes
by means of this blower device mounted in the bed of a pickup truck. The
low, moderately dense brush apparent in the picture is typical of the quail
area.



During the first years of such quail feeding the grain was scattered
from horseback. Later, feeding was done with the aid of an ingenious
blower device mountedjn the bed of a pickup truck (Fig. 53). This
consisted of a one-sack capacity hopper which fed the grain to a blower
powered by a small gasoline engine. The grain could be blown to the
right or left of the truck by turning a deflector in the outlet tube, and was
scattered in a band roughly 15 feet wide along the side of the road.
Regular feeding routes were traversed by the pickup and the grain was
scattered on predetermined strips. The location of the feeding routes



VALLEY QUAIL UNDER PRIVATE MANAGEMENT 171

was changed from season to season to draw the quail into areas of easier
hunter access. Our evaluation of this whole artificial feeding program
will be discussed later.

Predator Control

Another important feature of quail and duck management was the
control of predators. This control was very intensive and included
virtually every possible species of mammal, bird, and reptile capable of
taking quail. White-tailed kites and ospreys were the only raptors
appearing over the area that were granted immunity in the early part
of the program.

Table 1 is a monthly tabulation of the predator kill for 1939 and
1940 furnished by the club. It will be noted in this table that no specific
designation is given to hawks or owls. Our observations in 1941 and
1942 indicate that the hawks taken were principally Cooper hawks, red-
tailed hawks, and sharp-shinned hawks in that order. Small numbers
of marsh hawks, pigeon hawks, and sparrow hawks were also killed. Prior
to our studies, the principal owls taken were barn owls and horned owls.
Pole traps, .22 rifles, and shotguns were employed in the raptor campaign,
while most of the mammal predators were taken by steel traps. "Weasels
and rodents were taken by means of a long box (l'xl'x 10') containing
about eight No. 1 steel traps. Holes, two inches in diameter were bored
in the sides of the boxes and grain bait was placed inside. The rodents
would enter to get grain, and the weasels and an occasional skunk or small
opossum would go in to get the trapped rodents.

In addition to the predators listed in Table 1, more than 2,000 rodents
(chiefly wood rats, domestic rats, various species of mice, kangaroo rats,
and ground squirrels) were caught each year mainly in the weasel trap
described above.

More than 100 snakes were killed annually ; the total was composed
largely of garter snakes, with gopher snakes making up most of the
balance.

It will be noted that the mammal predator take slacked off in October,
November, and December. This was due largely to the fact that during
the shooting season no trap lines were maintained.

From 1941 to 1943, stomachs of all predators killed and retrieved
were sent to the Food Habits Laboratory of the Division of Fish and
Game. The results of the analyses of some of these stomachs will be
found later in the paper.

Cover and Food Plant Improvements

From time to time during the course of the quail program, attempts
were made by the club owners to establish better cover and feed conditions
on the property. Cover plants which were introduced included species
of Acacia, Eucalyptus, Cytisus (Scotch broom), and Vitis (wild grape).
The poor soil conditions and competition with rodents, rabbits, and the
native chaparral made the introduction of new cover species particularly
difficult at Dune Lakes. All new plantings were protected from rabbit
browsing with chicken wire guards. Of the species planted, the acacias
showed the most promise; one excellent stand of quail roosts had been
developed by use of these trees. The eucalyptus was planted as a wind-



172



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME







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VALLEY QUAIL UNDER PRIVATE MANAGEMENT 173

break to stabilize the active dunes. The smaller shrubs such as Scotch
broom have not succeeded in establishing much cover ; however, the need
for more such shrubby species is very much in question in view of the
existing extensive brushy cover on the quail areas.

European beach grass (Ammophila arenaria) was planted sometime


1 3 4 5 6 7

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