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CALIFORNIA
FISH-GAME

'coNsraywnoK or wild life through education'




California Fish and Game is a journal devoted to the conservation of wild-
life. Its contents are not copyrighted and may be produced elsewhere provided
credit is given the authors and the California Division of Fish and Game.

Interested persons may have their names placed on the mailing list by
writing to the editor. There is no charge, but subscriptions must be renewed
annually by returning the postcard enclosed with each October issue. Sub-
scribers are asked to report changes in address without delay.

Please direct correspondence to:

Mr. Phil M. Roedel, Editor
California State Fisheries Laboratory
Terminal Island Station
San Pedro, California



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VOLUME 37



OCTOBER 1, 1951



NUMBER 4




Published Quarterly by the

CALIFORNIA DIVISION OF FISH AND GAME

SAN FRANCISCO



STATE OF CALIFORNIA

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
DIVISION OF FISH AND GAME



EARL WARREN
Governor



WARREN T. HANNUM
Director of Natural Resources

FISH AND GAME COMMISSION

LEE F. PAYNE, President
Los Angeles

PAUL DENNY, Commissioner HARVEY E. HASTAIN, Commissioner

Etna Brawley

WILLIAM J. SILVA, Commissioner CARL F. WENTE, Commissioner

Modesto San Francisco

E. L. MACAULAY, Executive Officer
San Francisco



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME

PHIL M. ROEDEL, Editor Terminal Island



Editorial Board

RICHARD S. CROKER San Francisco

WILLIAM A. DILL San Francisco

JOHN E. CHATTIN San Francisco



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
An Outline of California Fishing Gear W. L. Scofield 361

The Sea Lions, Seals and Sea Otter of the California Coast

Paul Bonnot 371

An Abnormal Carp, Cyprinus carpio, from California Waters

J. L. McHugh and W. E. Barraclough 391

Pheasant Cooperative Hunting Area Results, 1950

Chester M. Hart, Fred L. Jones and Dale E. Shaffer 395

The Fishery of Clear Lake, Lake County, California

Garth I. Murphy 439

The Fresh-Water Mussels of California Paul Bonnot 485

A Remarkable Sea Journey by a Rainbow Trout (Salmo (jairdnerii)

of ' ' Interior Stock ' ' Leo Shapovalov 489

An Annotated List of the Clupeoid Fishes of the Pacific Coast From
Alaska to Cape San Lucas, Baja California

J. L. McHugh and John E. Fitch 491

A Preliminary Analysis of Northern California Salmon and Steel-
head Runs ._Gartii I. Murphy and Leo Shapovalov 497

Noteworthy Southern California Records of Four Species of Marine

Fishes Phil M. Roedel 509

Notes

Observations on Pinnipeds of San Miguel Island

Robert D. Collyer and John L. Baxter 511

Recovery of a Tagged Soupfin Shark . Wm. Ellis Ripley 511

Round Herring off Central California J. B. Phillips 512

In Memoriam

Peder Stockland _ 513

Herbert F. Jordan 513

Donald D. White__ 513

Reviews 515

Reports 521

Index to Volume 37 __, 523



(359)



AN OUTLINE OF CALIFORNIA FISHING GEAR 1

By W. L. SCOFIELD

Bureau of Marine Fisheries

California Division of Fish and Game

This article succeeds "An Outline of Fishing Gear," which appeared
in the April, 1938, issue of "California Fish and Game" (Vol. 24, No.
2, p. 185-190). Much of what follows is taken directly from the earlier
publication, but the material has been revised and brought up to date.
The outline here presented is limited to California and does not include a
number of unusual kinds of gear used in foreign countries. It does
include a few illegal fishing devices occasionally attempted by an
optimist before court fines dampen his enthusiasm.

A visitor new to California is often confused by the many kinds of
gear used in ocean fishing along our coast. Not only is there variety in
the fishing devices themselves but there is such diversity in names that
the newcomer is led to believe there is more complexity than actually
exists. Later on he learns that some of the English. Sicilian, Dalmatian
and Portuguese names are merely duplications of terms applied to the
same type of fishing gear. The confusion is still further reduced when he
realizes that many of the devices are similar in the method in which they
are operated and that two or more appliances may differ only slightly
in construction, depending on the manner in which they are to be fished.
The different devices for catching ocean fish may be grouped into related
types according to use and it is the purpose here to present such an
orderly arrangement in the hope that it will aid somewhat in reducing
the misleading complications in kinds and names of gear.

A few of the terms in the outline need a little explanation. "Fishing
gear" obviously means all the apparatus and implements adapted to
catching fish, except that as here used gear does not include the boat
employed in the fishing operations. Incidentally fishing boats are com-
monly called by the name of the gear fished by them, as gill netter or
purse seiner, for example, and likewise the men of the boat are designated
by the gear they operate so the fishermen may be otter trawlers, hand
liners or trammel netters.

The word net is a very general and inclusive term. Our words net
and knot are related and a net is a fabric made by knotting cords leaving
openings of uniform size. Such a fabric or net may therefore be used
for confining fish, butterflies or straying locks of hair. The essentials of
most (but not all) fishing nets are a wall of netting or webbing hanging
vertically in the water with the upper edge buoyed by floats and the
lower edge weighted. When such a wall of webbing is pulled through the
water onto a beach or aboard a boat it is called a seine. Stationary nets
are not called seines.



1 Submitted for publication March, 1951.



(301)



362



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME




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OUTLINE OF CALIFORNIA FISHING GEAR



363




FIGURE 150. Pulling in a bait net over the stern of the fishing boat. Photograph by R. D. Collyer.

In this outline the frequently applied terms circle net and haul
seine have been avoided because they are indefinite. It is convenient to
use the general term "round haul" to include all the seines that are
laid out in a circle (until the two ends meet) and then pulled aboard a
boat. Round haul therefore includes the purse seine, lampara, ring net,
and most bait nets but excludes beach seines and entangling gill nets
layed out in a circle. The two basic types of round haul are the purse
seine and lampara. Tbe purse seine, after circling, is closed on the
bottom by pulling a purse line (draw string) threaded through rings
along the lead line. Like the early English money pouch, this purse also
holds valuables. Typically, the purse seine is hauled aboard the fishing
boat by pulling in from one end of the net. The lampara has no purse
rings but is, at least partially, closed on the bottom by pulling the lead
line in advance of the cork line. The two ends of the lampara are pulled
aboard simultaneously. Years ago the lampara was modified by adding
purse rings along part of the lead line, giving rise to the term "half
ring, ' ' but the practice of half ringing was of short duration because it
was not long before the purse rings were extended all the way around the
lampara lead line. We now call this hybrid gear "ring net" for want
of a better name. The ring net is pursed like a purse seine but is pulled
aboard from both ends at once like the lampara. The name "half ring"
is still applied to ring nets by older fishermen but this term, if used at
all, should be applied only to a seine that is ringed half way around
the lead line. Such seines are now a rarity in California. Small and
medium sized lamparas without rings persist on this coast as bait nets.

A net when laid out, cast, circled or shot is said to be " set " or " in
a set" and the captain or the boat itself is said "to set on" a school of



364



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME



SET LINES



Keg Float





Marker





Gangen



NOT DRAWN TO SCALE



FIGURE 151. Illustrating two of the many forms of set lines. Drawing by the author.



OUTLINE OF CALIFORNIA FISHING GEAR



365




Spreader



Wing




Worp



Board



N.E.




Board



KISKA



FIGURE 152. Sketch to show beam and paranzella trawls, two forms of early otter trawls, and the
improved V-D type. Lower half of the figure illustrates four methods of placing the otter board in

advance of the net wing. Drawing by the author.



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CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME




FIGURE 153. A crab trap of stainless steel wire woven about a welded Iron frame. Note the rectangular
opening to allow escape of undersized crabs. Drawing by Donald H. Fry, Sr.



OUTLINE OF CALIFORNIA FISHING GEAR 367

fish, but this is not the mean-
ing of the word "set" as
applied in the classification
of gear. A net or line is con-
sidered set when it is an-
chored or in some way at-
tached to the bottom or shore
so that it is not free to move
with water or air currents.
By contrast a drift line or
net has no such fixed attach-
ment to the bottom or shore
and is therefore free to drift
with any current.

Two simple words of
similar sound but very dif-
ferent meaning are often
confused - - troll and trawl.
Trolling is pulling a line with
one or more hooks through
the water as from the stern
of a boat while under way.
A trawl is a bag net intended
to be dragged along, on or
near the bottom of the sea,
so trawling is the dragging
of such a net, Fortunately in
tins State we are spared the
confusing application of the
word trawl to a long station-
ary set line as is so frequent
f I, among fishermen in some of

'jn^T' *r- J t L3.k^j our eastern states.

A fish trap is some sort
of an impounding device,

FIGURE 154. An old style river catfish net shown to the ,i, •fi.;, .„ „„ „„+ n-,~,A +Vio +oywi
right of the modern fyke net. Photograph by D. H. Fry, Jr. ,l > ™ n S 0I ht ]> dUa Ule lelm

may be applied to a great
variety of such structures, most of which are not permitted under Cali-
fornia law. Small traps for fish, lobsters or crabs may legally be used
in parts of this State under certain circumstances, and such traps may
be built of wood slats or more commonly of wire netting over an iron
frame. A small trap constructed of cord webbing over hoops is anchored
in streams but this, as well as the wicker trap fished by our Indians, is
given the special name "fyke." Strictly speaking a fyke is a funnel-
shaped entrance leading to a small opening difficult to find as an exit
which is the principle used in a common form of fly trap. The term fyke
may be applied to any funnel entrance in fishing gear and the anchored
impounding traps used in some of our California streams are locally
called fyke nets.

Entangling devices capture fish by two methods called gill and
trammel. In a gill net the fish pokes his head into a small mesh of the
net and when he attempts to back out finds that his extended gill covers




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CALIFORNIA PISH AND GA.MK




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OUTLINE OF CALIFORNIA FISHING GEAR 369

are caught, thus the name gilling, but actually the fish is frequently
found tightly wedged in the opening rather than caught by the gill
cover. Trammel means to tie up or restrain in a confined space and a
trammel net uses two or, more commonly, three walls of webbing, the
inner curtain of small mesh hung slack with an outer wall of large mesh.
The fish pokes the slack mesh webbing through a large mesh of the outer
wall and finds himself in a pouch or pocket of the net and so entangled
that he cannot execute a strategic retreat. An important difference
between these two types of gear is that a gill net is obviously highly
selective as to size of fish caught, whereas a trammel net entangles fish
of a wide range of sizes.

There has been some confusion in the terminology applied to im-
pounding nets that are lifted. To dip is to scoop or ladle and the word
implies use of a tool with a handle. Therefore hoops or rings that are
lifted by rope bridles, such as the old-fashioned crab rings, are not dip
nets. Lifted hoop net does not include the river fyke net (built on hoops)
because that net is a stationary trap, but does include such hoops or
rings as depend upon sudden lifting to capture marine animals. Square
or oblong lift nets supported by ropes or poles are classed as blanket nets.
When the supports are poles over the side of a fishing boat the device is
often called an outrigger. The popular cast net of the tropics has not
been adopted in California.

It should be pointed out that no arbitrary classification of gear
can accurately cover each type of apparatus, because slight changes in
construction or, more important, a different method of operating may
convert one device into another or into a hybrid that in appearance
resembles one parent but behaves like the other. For example, a drift
gill net in a stream is supposed to drift free with the current but an
ingenious fisherman discovered that smooth rock weights attached by
lines to the lead line of such a net would drag on the stream bed and
retard the drift, yet these drags were not strictly anchors nor fixed
attachments to the bottom. The courts ruled that the rocks prevented
the net from drifting free with the current and the gill net was thereby
converted from a drift to a set net. This same gill net if laid out in a
semicircle around fish and pulled up onto the shore ceases to act as an
entangling gill net and becomes an impounding beach seine. Again this
gill net in a larger body of water may be circled about a school of fish
and hauled aboard a boat. So used, it ceases to be a gill net and becomes
an impounding round haul seine resembling the lampara. A drift gill
net may be laid out across the mouth of an inlet on an ebbing tide. This
trick is called "blocking off." The lead line soon is aground and at
slack w T ater the fish in the inlet are trapped, not gilled. The drift gill
net has become an impounding set trap. This trapping action may be
accomplished also by turning back the ends of the net (when laying it
out on an ebbing tide) to form a "fish hook" at each end, thus trap-
ping rather than gilling the fish. In each of the above-mentioned instances
the manner of use rather than construction of the net determines the
type of gear.

In spite of the variations in gear and the diversity in names the
essential principles involved in capturing fish are simple. Man uses
(1) a spear or related tool, (2) a hook, or (3) a net to confine in a small
space or to entangle the victim.



370 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME

OUTLINE OF FISHING GEAR
I. Miscellaneous Devices

1. Spears — Gaff — Harpoon

2. Shooting — Dynamite

3. Poison

4. Snares

•"">. Diving suit— Face plate

6. Rakes — Forks — Oyster dredge

7. Bush weirs

8. Traps (other than nets)

II. Lines

1. Pole (including kite lines)

2. Hand (drop line)

3. Set

4. Drift

5. Troll (jig)

III. Nets

1. Impounding nets

a. Lifted

(1) Dip nets

(2) Hoop nets ( including crab rings)

(3) Blanket nets — Outriggers

(4) Cast nets

b. Pulled

(1) Beach seines (chinchola)

(2) Round hauls
Purse seine
Lampara
Ring net

Bait net

(3) Trawl
Beam

Drag (paranzella)
Otter

c. Set

(1) Trap

(2) Fyke

(3) Chinese shrimp net

2. Entangling nets

a. Gill nets

(1) Drift

(2) Sunken — Submerged — Diver

(3) Set— Anchored— Staked

(4) Circled

b. Trammel nets

(1) Drift

(2) Set



THE SEA LIONS, SEALS AND SEA OTTER
OF THE CALIFORNIA COAST 1

By PAUL BONNOT

Bureau of Marine Fisheries

California Division of Fish and Game

Drawings by HESTER BONNOT

INTRODUCTION

To the average citizen a marine mammal is an occasional animal
seen at the seashore, a trained seal in a zoo or aquarium, or a fur coat
at the opera. The present paper endeavors to present some of the indig-
enous marine mammals, to describe pertinent details of their life histories,
and to recount the vicissitudes they have experienced since their dis-
covery and exploitation by man.

Aquatic mammals are descended from land animals that entered
the sea in search of a more abundant food supply or for protection from
enemies. There were several such migrations at different times which
are indicated by the present degree of adaption to a marine existence.

The eared seals (fur seals and sea lions) are comparatively recent
immigrants to salt water. Their young must be born on land. The rear
flippers can be turned under and forward for moving about when
ashore. The true seals (harbor and elephant seals) have evidently lived
in the sea for a longer period than the eared seals. Seal pups can be
born in the water. The rear flippers cannot be used on land. The whales,
which are not included in the present account, are fully adapted to an
aquatic existence and never come ashore.

The change from a terrestrial to an aquatic environment required
some important anatomical changes. The legs and feet were modified
into flippers. Hair and fur are satisfactory temperature controls on
land, but water absorbs heat rapidly, and it was necessary to supple-
ment this thermal apparatus. Between the skin and the body a layer
of spongy tissue, impregnated with oil, has been developed which effec-
tively retains the body temperature. This is known as blubber. It varies
in thickness and oil content with the seasons, the food supply, and the
physical condition of the animal.

In common with all organisms in a natural environment the marine
mammals were controlled by biological checks that maintained the pop-
ulations in balance with all associated species. The advent of man into
this orderly design demoralized it completely. The human animal is
the most persistent and rapacious predator that has so far appeared
on the earth. Any organism that produces a commodity of value to man
will usually be exploited by him until it is exterminated or reduced to
an unprofitable remnant. The past and present pursuit of the marine

1 Submitted for publication March, 1951.



(371)



372 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME

mammals is a nice illustration of this apothegm. Exploitation lias been
in direct ratio to the financial return.

The California sea lions were killed for their oil and hides until
comparatively few were left. This decimation, competition of whale
oil, and increasing labor costs eventually made it unprofitable to hunt
them. The sea otter was practically exterminated, and the fur seal
herds were reduced to a low ebb. The sea otter and fur seal constitute a
self-perpetuating fur resource that yields a relatively valuable prod-
uct. Legal regulations have, therefore, saved them from extinction. The
sea lion, on the other hand, cannot be profitably exploited at present;
and there is seldom any protest against killing them.

SPECIES FOUND IN CALIFORNIA

Order Pinnipedia (Marine carnivores)

Family Otariidae (Eared seals)

(External ears — hind flippers turned under and forward)

Zalophus calif or nianus (California sea lion)

Eumetopias jubata (^teller sea lion)

Callorhinus alascanus (Northern fur seal)

Arctocephalus townsendi (Guadalupe fur seal)

Family Phocidae (Hair seals)

(No external ears — hind flippers cannot be turned forward)

Phoca vitulina (Harbor seal)

Mirounga angustirostris (Northern sea elephant)

Order Carnivora (Meat eaters)

Family Mustelidae (Weasels)

Enhydra lutris (Sea otter)

CALIFORNIA SEA LION (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS)

California sea lions are dark brown or black when wet and a light
tan or brown when dry. An adult bull is seven feet long and will weigh
from 800 to 1,000 pounds. The mature bulls have a bone keel on top of the
skull which is covered with a roundish pad of tissue. It is a characteristic
that will aid in identification. The cows are not as large as the bulls. They
are slender and graceful by contrast. They weigh from 500 to 700 pounds.
The bulls make a yelping bark. Cows have a quavering howl. The pups
squawl and bleat when lost or in trouble.

This species was once abundant on the California coast as far north
as the Farallon Islands. It has been reported from the Puget Sound area.
The present range is from Point Reyes to central Mexico. The breeding-
range is from Point Piedras Blancas to an unknown point in Mexico.

Between 1860 and 1870, so many of these animals were killed for
their oil and hides that Scammon, writing in 1874, says, "A few years
ago great numbers of sea lions were taken along the cost of upper and
Lower California, and thousands of barrels of oil were obtained. The
number of seals slain exclusively for their oil would appear fabulous
when we realize that it requires, on an average, throughout the season
the blubber of three or four sea lions to produce a barrel of oil. ' '

The first oil hunters pursued the California sea lion so persistently
that only a few thousand were left to represent the once vast herds. A
few years ago a Southern California company killed California sea lions
pn a necessarily limited scale in Baja California- The hides were used



SEA LIONS, SEALS AND SEA OTTER OF CALIFORNIA



373





FIGURE 156. California sea lions; cow above, pup below

for leather and the carcasses were canned for dog food. The late Clinton
Abbott, then director of the San Diego Museum, was instrumental in
having the Mexican Government forbid the practice. In the last few
years several individuals have taken a number of California sea lions
in an endeavor to produce oil and meal on a commercial scale. A small
sea lion population is difficult to exploit commercially and the ventures



374



CALIFORNIA IISH AND GAME




FIGURE 157. California sea lions; bull, cow and pup. Note the sacrittal crest of the bull.

were financial failures. Although the California sea lion population has
increased somewhat in the last 20 years, the omnipotent natural checks
are as impartial as they have always been. In addition fishermen kill sea
lions in the vicinity of their nets or gear, and many people shoot them
from shore or boats merely for the ' ' fun ' ' of the thing.



'



STELLER SEA LION (EUMETOPIAS JUBATA)

The Steller sea lion is a light grey when wet and a light brown when
dry. A full grown bull is about 10 feet long and weighs between 1,500
and 2,000 pounds while the cows are between 600 and 1,000 pounds.
Steller bulls snort and roar, and both sexes make a rasping growl. The
cows and pups howl and bleat.

This is a northern species. The present range is from the Channel
Islands of Southern California to the Bering Sea. The breeding range
is from Santa Rosa Island to Alaska.

The Steller sea lions were not exploited in the early days to the
same extent as the Californias. The hunters in the North Pacific were
engrossed in obtaining more valuable species. The Stellers were granted




FIGURE 158. A group of Steller sea lion cows "arguing." Pup in foreground.



SEA LIONS, SEALS AND SEA OTTER OF CALIFORNIA



375





FIGURE 159. Steller sea lion family group

a reprieve while the sea otter was being virtually exterminated, and the
great herds of fur seals reduced to a modicum of their original magni-
tude. Until very recently, the north coast Indians and Eskimos depended
on the Steller sea lion for food, clothing, and boat building. However,
they killed only what they required ; and their activities, circumscribed
by primitive weapons, produced little change in the population.

The only systematic killing of Steller sea lions in California occurred
about 1900 when a considerable number were shot at the instigation of
the fishing industry. Although there has been no organized hunting
since that time the local population has remained static because of the
same forces which inhibit any great increase of the California sea lion.



LIFE HISTORY NOTES ON SEA LIONS

The terrestrial ancestor of the eared seals was a primitive doglike
animal which was also the progenitor of the bears. These two groups
demonstrate their affinity by their anatomical similarity and by many
of their habits and actions.

The terminology used to describe the eared seals is derived from
early explorers and whalers. Although called sea lions a more appropriate
name would be sea bears. Individuals are called bulls, cows, or pups.
The areas that are used during the breeding season are known as rook-
eries. At other seasons the animals "haul out" on hauling grounds. The
bulls collect a number of cows in a harem.

Although the sea lions have lived in the sea for thousands of years,
they are not yet completely acclimated to their adopted environment.


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