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and silver salmon in California, Oregon and Washington. The results
obtained will depend on keeping the sampling crews alert, hard working
and well organized.

REFERENCE

Hallook. Richard .T.. George TI. A^'.iriier and Donald IT. Vvy. .Ti-.

1952. California's i)art in a three state salmon tinjiciling marking program. Calif.
Fisli and (ianie, vol. 38, no. o, p. o01-oo2.



THE PISMO CLAM IN 1951 '

By JOHN E. FITCH
Bureau of Marine Fisheries, California Department of Fish and Game

The 1951 Pismo elam census was conducted during Xovember by the
Bureau of ^Marine Fisheries at Pismo Beach and Morro Bay. A census
has been taken at Pismo Beach each year since 1925. with the exception
of war years 1942-45, and at Morro Bay since 1949. There are three
sample localities at Pismo Beach (Le Grande. Oceano and Pismo), but in

1948 only the Oceano section was dug and in 1950 only the Oceano and
Le Grande sections. At Morro Bay there are two sample localities (Morro
and Cayucos). All sections were completed in 1951. Detailed informa-
tion about former censuses has been presented bv Aplin (1947), Fitch
(1950) and Collyer (1951).

LE GRANDE SECTION

The Le Grande sampling line is located approximately one mile south
of the broken pilings which marked the north boundary of the old clam
refuge. This former refuge, a stretch of beach four miles long, was
opened for digging in 1949 after a closure of 20 years. The census of

1949 (Table 1), taken about a month after opening of the sanctuary,
yielded 153 clams. In 1950, 74 clams were dug ; in 1951 only 23, the
fewest from this section since 1928. The youngest clams in 1951 were from
the 1947 year class and were four years of age. Xo clams were found
which were older than seven, and clams of legal size were completely
lacking. Failure of incoming year classes since 1948 and exceptionally
heavy clamming pressure since October, 1949, have practically depop-
ulated the intertidal area of this beach.



OCEANO SECTION

The area between the wooden entrance and exit ramps at Pismo Beach
and Oceano was made a clam sanctuary in 1949 when the Le Grande
area was opened. The Oceano census line is located one and one-tenth
mile south of the Pismo Beach pier, about in the center of the closed area.
Here, as in the Le Grande section, there has been a failure of incoming
year classes since 1948 (Table 2). However, there were 144 individuals
dug in 1951, only slightly fewer than the 163 and 153 of 1949 and 1950,
and indicating that the closure has protected the clams in the area.
Further, in 1949 only tAvo of the 163 clams were of legal size (five inches
in diameter) compared with the 20 and 26 found in the 1950 and 1951
censuses.



1 Submitted for publication February, 1952.



(541)



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THE PISMO CLAM IN" 1 95 1 545

PISMO SECTION

This area, directly in front of the town of Pismo Beach, has never
been closed to digging*. The census line is located approximately one-
eighth mile north of the Pismo Beach pier. In years past, clams of the
incoming year class have been most abundant in this section, as many as
483 having been found in 1937 (Table 3). This section was not dug in
1948 and 1950 but it is certain that the set in those two years was very
poor. Only 22 clams were found in 1951, which ranks with 1941 as the
poorest on record. Of the 22 only one was less than four years of age
while six were of legal size. This high percentage of legal clams indicates
that clamming pressure has not been too heavy.

MORRO SECTION

The Morro section was first dug in 1949 shortly after a 1.5 mile stretch
of beach north of Morro Rock was made a clam sanctuary. The census that
year produced 77 clams (Table 4) ; 66 of these were four years of age
or older and four were of legal size. In 1950, 32 clams were taken, all
were four years and older and eight were legal size. In 1951, 60 clams
were counted from this section, 16 age zero, 44 six years and older and 11
of legal size. At Morro Bay incoming year classes have not survived
since 1945. Observations made on this beach in addition to the census
indicate that the mortality rate among young clams is extremely high.
In light of this, it seems unlikely that the 1951 year class will be in
existence more than two or three years.

CAYUCOS SECTION

This section, eight-tenths of a mile north of the Standard Oil pier,
was first sampled in 1949. It is an area open to public clamming and
censuses indicate that it is an extremely poor clam-bearing beach. In
1949, 28 clams were dug in this section, 18 of which were zero years of
age. In 1950, 3 clams were found but none was located in 1951.

CONCLUSIONS

From the 1951 census it is evident that the Pismo clam crop in the
intertidal areas of Pismo Beach and Morro Bay is in a sad state. Once
before, in the late 1920 's, conditions were equally poor (Tables 1, 2
and 3). During the late 1920 's and early 1930 's there Avere few legal
sized clams to be found, the population consisting almost entirely of
clams less than four years of age. In 1951, however, it is the young clams
which are lacking.

]\Iost of the present decline in population can be attributed to three
factors: failure of incoming year classes, extremely heavy clamming
pressure and failure of the public to rebury undersized clams. The
failure of incoming year classes, undoubtedly a normal fluctuation,
could be remedied by one or two good sets of clams. Clamming
pressure will probably be even greater as the population of the
State increases. The present policy of opening and closing alternate

4—64158



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THE PISMO CLAM IX 1 95 1 547

sections of good clam bearing- beaches should assure a continued recrea-
tional fishery regardless of increased clamming pressure. P^inally, a new
laAv which became effective late in 1951 will do much to remedy the third
factor. Tliis law states, "All undersized clams sliall immediately be re-
turned to the hole from wliich thev are dug. "



REFERENCES

Aplin, J. A.

1947. Pismo clam increase. Calif. Fish and Game. vol. ?,?,, no. .'',. p. liiO-l-'U.
Collyer, Robert I).

1951. Results of the Pismo clam censuses, 1948, 1949, and 19o<J. Calif. Fish and
Game, vol. 37, no. 3, p. 331-334.

Fitch, John E.

1950. The Pismo clam. Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 30, n... 3, p. 2S5-312.



NOTES ON THE EMBRYOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF THE

FLYINGFISHES {CYPSELURUS) OFF THE COAST OF

SOUTHERN AND BAJA CALIFORNIA^

By DANIEL J. MILLER
Bureau of Marine Fisheries, California Department of Fish end Game

INTRODUCTION

Two species of the flying-fisli. Cypselunis, have been recorded from
Southern and Baja California waters. One of these as vet unnamed was
separated from Cijpselurus calif ornicus (Cooper) by Hubbs and Kampa
(1946) on the basis of structural dilferences in the eggs of the two species,
chiefly the size of the eggs and the number and position of the filaments
on the zona radiata. The eggs of C. calif ornicus average 1.64 mm. in diam-
eter and have around 60 long filaments attached uniformly over the
surface of the egg. whereas the eggs of Ctjijselurus sp. average about
2.2 mm. and have two groups of filaments attached on opposite poles
of the egg (Figure 1. upper).

Two specimens of Cypselurus sp. were brailed from under a light on
board the M. \\ Yellowfix oh August 10. l!).!!. in Pyramid Cove, San
Clemente Island, California. Both individuals, a male (286 mm. S. L.)
and a female (283 mm. S. L.), were in spawning condition. About 500
eggs were stripped and fertilized and tlu^ir development was recorded.
Up to this date the only evidence of Cypselurus sp. spawning off the
coast of Southern California lias been from dusters of developing eggs
found in the surf near La Jolla. California, by Barnhart (1936) and
Dr. Grace Orton (personal communication, 1951).

On August 12, 1951, two days after the collection of the two specimens
of Cypselurus sp. two spawning pairs of Cypselurus californicus were
collected in the same manner at Santa Cruz Island, California. To com-
pare the embryonic development of the two species under the same condi-
tions several hundred eggs were stripped and fertilized and their
development was recorded as before.

METHODS

The eggs were inseminated with milt from the male, washed clean, and
placed in fresh sea water. The temperature of the water at the time of
collection was 62.8 degrees F. During the next four days the water
temperature varied from 62.6 degrees to 64.6 degrees F. as the vessel
cruised about the coast. AYhenever possible fresh sea water was added
everv two or three hours. A 100-watt light was constantlv burning in the
laboratory because of routine sardine work at hand, therefore the eggs
experienced no actual darkness during their development. Hourly samples
were taken from the jar and were observed under a dissecting scope

1 Submitted for publication February, 1952.

(549)



550



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME



with 3x objectives and lUx oc-ulars. Drawings were made of the various
stages of development up to the time ^vllen all the eggs were killed due
to a severe biotic (probably fungus) infection.



<.












FIGURE 1. Upper: Egg of Cypselurus sp. showing the position of the fila-
ments. Only one filament at each pole is drawn. The bases of the others are
indicated. Lower; Egg of Cypselurus californicus showing one filament drawn

with the bases of others.



EMBRYOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF FLYIXGFISHES



551



DESCRIPTION OF THE EGGS AND "STRING" OF CYPSEiURUS SP.

As described by Barnhart (1936) the eggs of Cypselurus sp. have
two groups of filaments attached on opposite poles of the zona radiata.
Each group of from 18-28 filaments occupies a little less than a fourth
of the surface of the egg, and in most cases they are opposite each other.
Hubbs and Kampa noticed that most of the filaments at one pole varied
in diameter and Avere larger and thicker than at the other pole. The
filaments of this larger group are shown in Figure 2 which illustrates
the formation of a small cord by these filaments. The eggs of the specimen
collected at San CTemente agree with the above excej^t in the number




^-•. Si, ■.■•«



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FIGURE 2. Egg of Cypselumz sp. showing the filoments of the larger
group where o small cord is formed by these filaments.



of filaments. In most cases there A\as a greater number (19-32) at each
pole.

In the San Clemente specimen tlie eggs were attached in grape-like
clusters of a few to several hundred eggs in a bunch ui)()n a surprisingly
tough elastic string. These grape-like clusters of eggs are formed when
filaments of several eggs join together forming small cords which then
become intertwined with the filaments of the long string. These indi-
vidual clusters of eggs were attached rather unevenly upon the string,
sometimes with as much as 18 inches or more between them. The string



552



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME






FIGURE 3. Four blastomere

stage. 3^2 to 4 hours after

fertilization.



FIGURE 4. Four blastomere

stage showing position of the

blastomeres with relation

to the filaments



FIGURE 5. 8-cell stage.
4y2 to 5 hours.






FIGURE 6. 16-cell stage.
6 hours.



FIGURE 7. Early blostodisc FIGURES. Blastodisc formed,
stage. 10 hours. 12 hours.






FIGURE 9. Segmentation cavity

forming inside germ ring.

20 hours.



FIGURE 10. Germ ring

approaching equator.

24 hours.



FIGURE 11. Germ ring at

equator. Embryo forming.

30 hours.



EMBRYOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF FLYIXGFISHES



553





FIGURE 12. Embryo beginning

to take form. Blastopore covering

Vs area of egg. 40 hours.



FIGURE 13. Embryo well

formed. Optic lobes, neural tube,

Kupffer's vesicle clear. Blastopore

almost closing. 52 hours.





FIGURE 14. 24 somites in

number. Auditory sac evident.

92 hours.



FIGURE 15. Side view of
Figure 14



consisted of many fine white interwoven filaments and seemed to be of a
continuous structure. When the female was extracted from the brail
the string became attached to the webbing, and before the string could
be severed several vards of it were drawn out of the ovarian cavitv. Later,
when the eggs were stripped for fertilization, several more yards of the
string were draw^i out until it broke off inside the body. The method of
stripping was accomplished by pulling on the string and drawing out the
attached clusters of eggs until none were left. The adaptive advantage
of this string is shown by Beebe (1938) who found a large cluster of
eggs belonging to this species wound about stems and fronds of a mass
of floating kelp near Clarion Island, Mexico. This cluster consisted of
two batches of eggs, each in a different stage of development.

The average diameter of 10 fertilized eggs taken from the San CTemente
specimen and preserved in formalin was 2.18 mm. with a range of 2.0 to
2.4 mm. They were amber colored and spherical in shape.



DEVELOPMENT

The various stages of development are shown on Figures 3-15,
Fertilization took place at 8 p.m., and six hours later the 16-cell stage
w^as reached. A few four-cell and several eight-cell stages were present
at this time indicating a differential developmental rate of the eggs.



554 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME

In all cases cell division took ])lace iinmediatelv nnder the portion of
the zona radiata where the smallest and tliinnest <ir©up of filaments
was attached (Fijiures 3 and 4). Also, it was the larger filaments of
the jzronp at the veoetal ])ole (Fi«^ure 2) that formed the small cord
attaching the egg to the string.

At 10 honrs after fertilization the blastomeres were beginning to
form into a blastodisc. In 12 lionrs the blastodisc was well formed taking
on a bright Avhite color in comi)arison to the amber color of the zona
radiata. (At this time the blastodisc started to change position with
relationship to the animal and vegetal poles by migrating to a more
central position between the two poles.) In 24 hours after fertilization
the segmentation cavity was forming, and in 30 hours several eggs were
found in which the germ ring had reached the equator. The first sign
of embryo formation was noticed at 40 hours. In this specimen the
length of the primitive streak was about ^ the diameter of the egg. A
Kupffer's vesicle was noticed in a 52-hour sample as well as the optic
lobes and neural tube. The 24 somite stage was reached at 92 hours.
The auditorv sacs were evident and the embrvo was curved about half
way around the inside of the egg. At this time very few eggs remained
alive so the entire mass was preserved in 10 percent formalin.

BRIEF EMBRYOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF THE TWO SPECIES

The most obvious difference between the eggs of the two species other
than that of the filaments and size of the eggs was the fact that the eggs
of C. californicus were released in a mass consisting of individual eggs
and were not attached to a string as in Cypselurus sp. Several hundred
eggs of C. californicus were fertilized, and it was found that the rate of
development of the eggs of both species was almost identical under
similar conditions — the various cleavage and embryonic stages appearing
at approximately the same intervals of time. Four larvae of C. cali-
fornicus were hatched on the 16th day after fertilization between the
hours of 1 p.m. and 8 p.m. The eggs of both species are heavier than
sea water and since the eggs of C. californicus are not attached to a
string each egg must attach itself to floating objects by means of the
numerous long filaments shown in Figure 1 — lower. A complete descrip-
tion of the eggs of C. californicus is given by Ilubbs and Kampa (1946).

BEHAVIOR

In both species the adults were paired during the spawning period.
The pair of Cypselurus sp. at San Clemente remained very close to each
other Avhile thev circled randomlv about under the light. The female
was captured first as she lay motionless just under the surface with
pectorals and ventrals spread out. The male then continued swimming
about in the area for 10 minutes or more until he came close enough
to the surface to be brailed. The two pairs of ripe C. californicus were
collected in the same manner and made little or no effort to escape the
brail as it descended upon them. They were paired and remained close
to each other as with Cypselurus sp. For the most part the two pairs
remained separated as they came to the light, but occasionally all four



EMBRYOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF FLYINGFISHES DDO

individuals would circle the light together. During these brief intervals
there was no evidence of dominance or rivalry expressed between any
of the individuals.

It was thought at the time that the briglit light emitted by the 750-
watt bulb so blinded the fish that they were unable to observe moving
objects above the water. However, later observations indicated tliat this
unwariness was true of paired ripe adults. On August 25, 1951, at
Cedros Island, Baja California, Mexico, a group of C. calif oniicus
gathered around the light at 8 :00 p.m. In all, 12 running males, one
nonripe adult male and three nonripe adult females were collected. In
contrast to the unwaryness of the spawning- pairs mentioned before these
individuals were quite alert and reacted (juickly to any motion above
the water. The 16 specimens were collected with difficulty and frequently
the entire group was frightened away. A member of the crew observed
that in the group of ripe males one of them emitted a faint white cloud
of milt as he approached the surface under the light. In this case the
male was actually in the act of spawning apparently with no ripe female
present. Several hours later a few miles to the south a nearly ripe female
C. calif or nicus was killed and floated to the surface when a cliarge of
explosives was set off under the light. Previous to the blast several
Cypseliirus were observed but they were too Avary to be caught with the
brail.

Hornell (1923) stated that the natives off the Coromandel Coast of
India catch spawning flyingfish (Cijpsclunis) with brails as the fish
gatlier around piles of floating brush placed in the water by the natives
for the purpose of attracting them. Possibly this method is used by the
natives not only because the fish are concentrated in a small area where
it is easier to catch them but because the spawning fish are actually
easier to brail.

REFERENCES

Bariiluirt, Percy Spencer

1932, Notes on the habits, eggs and young of some fishes of Southern California.
Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Bull., Tech. ser., vol. 8, no. 4, p. 87-99, 11 figs.

Beebe, William

1938. Zaca venture. New York, Harcourt, Brace and Co., 308 p., 23 pis.
Hornell, James

1923. Flying-fish fishery of the Coromandel Coast and the sj^a wining habits of
Ci/psiho-us. Madras Fish. Dept.. Bull. 1.",, no. 4. p. 99-lOS, 2 pis.

Hubbs, Carl L., and Elizabeth M. Kampa

1946. The early stages (eggs, prolarva and juvenile) and the rlassificution of the
California flyingfish. Copeia, no. 4, p. 188-218, 4 figs., 1 pi.



DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES ON SOME PACIFIC
COAST MARINE FISHES'

By JOHN E. FITCH
Bureau of Marine Fisheries, California Department of Fish and Game

Some of the fishes listed in this paper represent new distribntional
records, some established definite geographical collection localities and
still others are taken so infreqnently or are nnusnal enongh to warrant a
published record. ]\Iost of the specimens were collected by various biolo-


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Online LibraryCalifornia. Dept. of Fish and GameCalifornia fish and game (Volume 38, no. 4) → online text (page 9 of 15)
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