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two handlines baited with cut bait were set out to fish. The collector
then watched for specimens to appear under the night light, while live
bait casting with rod and reel and periodically checking the handlines.
As a result, one serranid, Hemihdjanus macropfhalmos, and two
wrasses, Pimelometopon darwini, were caught on the handlines, while
six white spotted bass, Paralahrax alhomaciilatus, were taken on rod
and reel and over 100 specimens representing 12 families were cap-
tured in a dip net under the night light.

LOCATIONS OF THE COLLECTING STATIONS

The magnitude of the area covered and approximate location of
each collecting station within the area are presented in Figure 1. Table
1 contains collection data for all stations.

LIST OF SPECIMENS COLLECTED

The list of specimens collected (Table 2) has been arranged system-
atically by family and alphabetically by genus within each family,
with slight modification of the classification system of the California



EASTERN PACIFIC FISHES



301





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95*


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FIGURE 1. Chart of the area covered during a cruise of the MAYFLOWER, February 13 to
June 9, 1954. Collecting localities, station numbers, and collecting methods are indicated. Col-
lecting methods are H — hook and line, N — bait net, L— night light, and S— stomach contents.

Academy of Sciences. The scientific names follow the terminology of
Meek and Ilildebrand (1923-28) and Hildebrand (1946), except for
those groups of fishes on which recent revisions were available.

A letter and one or more pairs of numbers follow each scientific
name (Table 2). The letter refers to the collecting method listed in
Table 1. The first of each pair of numbers is a station number and the
second, in parentheses, represents the number of specimens of that
species collected at that station. Thus, under famih^ Clupeidae, it will
be seen that two (2) specimens of Oclontognathus pananie^isis were
collected in a bait net at station 55. Table 1 informs the reader that
station 55 was occupied on May 21 and 22 off the coast of Panama in
five fathoms of water.

At most of the night light stations postlarval, juvenile, and young
fish were taken. The specific identification for some of these has not
yet been determined.

Most of the specimens listed have been placed in the Fish Collection,
Department of Zoology, University of California, Los Angeles ; others
have been retained at the California State Fisheries Laboratory, Ter-
minal Island, or have been sent to individuals or institutions specializing
in a particular species or group.



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CALIP^ORNIA FISH AND GAME



TABLE 2
List of Specimens Collected During Cruise of the MAYFLOWER, February 13 to June 9,



1954



('iircli;irliini(lae — Rpquicm sliarks

Scolioihiii lo>if/)irio yi4~>(])
Spliyriiidac -lliimincrhcafls

Spln/nia sp. X4r)(l)
Dasyatidao — Stiiijirays

Lroloph us s\t. Xri."! ( 1 )
("111) It'll lac — IIi'rriiit;s
Ili.flHi flirt In N2."i(:i)
Neoopistliopterus tropicus N2."i(2>
Odontofin'ithufi panamcnsis X55(2)
Opisthoncnid Ubertnte LS(1), N25-

( 4 ) . L2(! ( :>> ) , L4r) ( 4 ) . X.ir, ( 1 )
Opisthopterug doiri X2r)(7;
Clupeid larvae L.", ( 1 ) . L10(2), L12-
(18), lA4(:M)t. J.2(i(l(;). L22(l),
L24(2), L.'',!»(2S). L4(l(20), L45-
(1), Lr)l(2). Lr,2(2(
Engraulidae — Anchovies
Anchoa naso X55(8)
.4 tt choa pfi n(i )ii eii s is X2") (4) , X45 ( 3 )
Anchou spinifcr X2.") ( ] j . X."i.j(l)
Aiiclioa starksi I..") ( 1 ) , L26r5)
Aiithovia rustralis X45(lj
Aiiifioriella halhoae X'25(5)
VeteiigruuUs mysticetiis Ly(3). X2."-

(4), L2(;(2). X4o(l), X5.j(.l|
Lyfcngrnulis pocyi X.l.ld)
Sternoptychidae — Lightti.she.s

Vinciguerria luretia L13(2Tj, S17-
(66), LlS(l), L.-on I
Ariidae — Sea oatfishes

Bagre piindimnsis X2.j(2), X'45(l).

X5.j(3 I
Bagre piiuiiiiKiriihifiis X4.">(o), Xn-">-

Bagre sp. X •").") ( 1 j

Hemiraniphidae — Half beaks

EuU'ptorhaiiiph its lomiirostre L9 H ) .

L36(lj
Hemiramphus saltntor 1,12(4)
Q), L22(2)



L20-
X4r,-



Jfyporhanipli us sit i/ilfri L.l ( ."i )

(2), J.4r,(14)
JI yporhaiiiphus sji. L2(i(2j

Belonidae — X'^eedlefishes

Ahlennes hians jiarifiriis L2fi ( 1 ) .

X45(l)
Belone persimilis L.") ( 1 ) . L26(2).

L32(l)
Strongi/lura foiliafur X'4r)(l). X.")r((4|
Strongylura pacifira L2S H )
Stroiigglura scapiilaris !„.")( 2). H19-

U), X55(l)
Htrongylura stolzrnanni L26(3)
Strongylura sp. L14(o), L32(l)
Belonid larvae L12(3), L20(2;

Exocoetidae — Fly injc fishes

Cypselurus atrisignis L52(l)
Cypselurus callopterus L22(l)
Cypselurus xenopterus L22(7),
L52(l)



K.xocoetidae — Continued

Danichthys rondeleti L22 I 1 ). I.."»l(l)
E.rocoptus ii:f: iiocirrh u s L21(2),

L22(6^ L32(8), L;jl(ll), L52(5)
J-'odiator arutus Ln(2), 1.12(2),

L14(24). L22(18), ].2(i(8).

l.;!!t(ti. L4<)(3), L45(l)
(Kryphorluiiiipfius micropteriis Lit (17) ,

L10(r,), L13(7), L15(8), L22(46),

L28(12), L29(l), L31(3),

L32(18), L33(10l, 1.35(1),

L3S ( 1 ) , L39 ( 1 ) , L41 ( 1 ) . 1.43 ( 1 ) .

L4G(l)j, L47(l), L.j1(3), L52(10)
Prognichthys gibhifrons L8 ( 1 ) .

L22 ( 2!> ( , L2.S ( 1 ) . L39 ( 2 ) . \A() ( 2 ) ,

l.."i2 ( 1 (
Exocoetid L9(l), L10(2), LI") (2)
Synodidae — Lizardfishes

Sy7iodus scituliceps X45(2)

Synodns sp. L9 ( 5) , LIO ( 10 ) . L12 (3 ) ,

L13(14). Ll.j(2), L2(M1). L21(3),

L22 ( 1 ) , L2S ( 10 t . L31 ( 1 ) . L32 ( 2 ) ,

L35 ( 3 ) , L41 ( 2 ) . L42 ( 2 ) . Lr>0 ( 1) .

L52(4)
Myeto]»hidae — Laiiteinfishes
Jientliosemu pterota L41(4^
Diogenichthys atlanticus L13(l)
Diogenichthys laternaius L41(2)
Gonicli th ys cocco L8 ( 1 ) . L13 ( 5 ) .

L15(i34), L16(4), L18(3),

L21(12), L22(2), L28(6 ), L29(2),

L32(4). L34(2). D46(4). L50(75),

L.j1(32), L.>2(1)
Ilygophinii irinhardfi L28 ( 1 ) .

"L29(1), L32(2)
Myctophum affine L.S(12). L9(4),

L10(4), L13(9), Lir)(4). L16(6),

S17(2). L18(l), L24(n). L33(3),

L43(2). L48(61). L50(38),

L.52(l)
M ijctophum aurolateniutum LS(39),

L13(6), L21(4),L22(16), L24(3).

L28(9), L29(8). L33(l». L46(4t
Myctophum evermanni L22(7).

"l28(4.'5) . L29(12) , L32(14) .

L33(12), L34(5). L3r, (4).

L43(28)
( iphiohthidae — Snake-eels

Ophichthus zophochir L4r> ( 1 )
Echelidae — Worm-eels

Oarmanichihys bicoUaris L12(4)
(Jadidae — Cods

Gadid S23 ( 1 )
I'regmacerotidae — Threadlin codlings

Bregmaceros iathymuster SI (2)
Ilolocentridae — Sciuirrtdfishes

M i/ripristis occidcntaVs L21 ( 1 ) ,

L22(5), L24(l), L2S(7). L29(3),

I>41(1), L42(l», L4(i(6)

Bothidae — Lefteyed flounders

Citharichthijs platophrys X'45(l)



EASTERN PACIFIC FISHES



305



TABLE 2— Continued
List of Specimons Collected During Cruise of the MAYFLOWER, February 13 to June 9, 1954



Bothidae — Continued

Citharichthijs spilopterus N45(l)

Cyclopsetta querna X45(l)

Etropus crossotus X45(l)

Bothid larvae L10(18), L13(l),
L32(l)
Soleidae — Soles

Trinectes jonsecensis X45(2),
N55(l)
(.'ynoglossidae — -Tonguefishes

Symphurus sp. N25(2), N45(l),
L52(l)
Lol)()tidae — Tripletails

Lohotes pacificus N45(l)
Serranidae — Basses

Anthias sp. ST (22), SlT(l)

DermatoJepia punctafus H19(2)

Diplectrum pacificiini X45(l)

Epinephelus analogus H4{2)

Epinephelus labrifonnia H19(2)

Epinephelus sp. H47n I

llemiluijanus iiiurropt.hfilinos H12(l)

I'aralabraw albo»t(ieiil(ttu.s H12(6)

Paranthias colonus H19(2)

Serranid larvae S8 (1 ) , LI ( 2 ) ,
LI.",!!.-)), S23(3)
Apogonidae — Cardinalfi.-hos

Apogon atradorsatiis LlO(l)
Centropomidae — Rol)alos

Ceiitropomus robalUo X'4r) (1 )
-Miillidae — Goatfishes

Pseudupeneus grandhqtiamis S3(l),
L5(l), L22(15), L24(16), L28(9)

Pseudupeneus sp. L39(6), L40(3).
1^6(10), L47(2), L52(l), L53ai
Mugilidae — Mullets

Mugil sp. L5(22). L8(2), L10(21),
L12(7). L13(2), L14(24),
L20(53), L21(l), L22(27),
L24(13), L26^2). L39(18),
L40(2), L45(l). L46(6), L51(2),
L53(ll)
Sphyraenidae — Barracudas

Sph i/raen a ensis X27 ( 2 )

Sphgracna idiasfes H17(2)
Polynemidae — Threadfins

Polydactylus approximuns S2(6),
S3(l). L22(16). L24(21),
N25(5), L28(6). L39(27),
L40(18), X45(4), L46(10),
L47(13), L51(o), L53(5), N55(l)

Polydactylus opercularis L21(l),
L22(2), L39(3). X4o(15),
L50(3), L51(2), Lo2(115),
L53(2)

Xematistiidae — Roosterfishes
Xematistius pectoralis L51(l)

Carangidae — Jacks

Alectis ciliaris L22('l), L39(l),
L52(5)



Carangidae — Continued

Caranx cnhnllus L21(17), L22(96),

S28(l), H36(lj. L40f4). L42(4),

X45(3), L47(l), L53(l)
Caranx caninus N45(3)
Caranx vincfus L21(7), L22(l),

I^j3(4)
Caranx sp. S3(l), L52(3)
Chloroscombrus orqueia S3 (3),

L26^3),L39f4). L40(12). L45(r,) ,

X45(ll). Xr).j(4)
Citula dorsalis 'S2~(2)
Decapterus sp. LlO(l), L14(l),

H21(l)
Elagatis bipinnulatus H17(l)
Hemicaranx leucurus X45(7),

Xr,.-5(1)
Heniiearanx zeloies X55(l)
Naucrafes ductor L12(l), L21(l),

L31(l), H36(4), L40(l), L41fl),

L47(13), L52(l)
OUgopUles niundus Xr)(l), X45(3),

X.-,.-i(l)
OtigopUtes refulgens N5(l), X45(20),

X55 ( 1 )
OligoplUes saurus X'27(2)
Oligoplites sp. Lr,(8), L24(12),

L2()(l), L51(2)
Selene brevoorti X'ofl). X'45(l)
Heriola colburni H49(2), H55(l)
Seriola mazatlana LS(1), L22(7)
Trachinoius paitensis L39(l)
Trachinotus sp. L12(l), L13(2),

L20(3), L26(l), L40(ll), L52(l)
]'onier declivifrons L5(2), X27f3),

X4o(l), X55(4)
("arangid larvae LIO(IG), L39(2),

L40(0j
Stromateidae — Harvestfishes
Cubiceps sp. S7(l)
Palonieta palometa X55(6)

Coryphaenidae — Dolphinfishes
Coryphaena hippurus L10(2).

L13(2), L22(4), L35(l), L47(3).
L53(l), Ho4(l), H56(l.j)
Coryphaena equisetis L9(l), L10(9),
L21(2), L22a8), L28(2), L31(l),
L32(3), L39(l), L40(l), L46(6),
H48(5),H49(7),L51(1),L52(17),
L53(l), H54(l)

Echeneidae — Remoras

Phtheirichthys lineatns L22(l)
Remora remora H16(l), H28(2),
H38(l), H46(5)
Scombridae — Mackerels

Pneumatophorus peruanus No(12),

H9(l), H10(16)
* Scombroid larvae L10(5), L13(14),
L14(l), L21(l), L28(4), L29(40),
L31(5), L32(l), L33(3), L34(l),



* Scombroid larvae includes all unidentified tuna-like larvae.



80()



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME



TABLE 2— Continued
List ot Specimens Collected During Cruise of the MAYFLOWER, February 13 to June 9, 1954



Scomliridae — Continued

Scombroid larvae — continued
i;;r.(2). L:^.r, (.-,>. L^.TH), L89(l),
M()(G). L41((i;, L42(l), 1.52(5)
Cybiidae— Spanish mackerels
Sarda velox 114-1(1)
ficomheromonis sierra X5(7), 1.30(1),
L40(l), N45(5)
Katsuwonidae — Sliipjacks
Auxis ihazard 1111(3)
Au.ris sp. N5(3). LISQ). L0(32),
L10(246), LI 3 (351). L14((M),
L15(7), L16(3). L21(41f>),
L22(14), L24(24), L28(52),
L29(14), X30(23), L31(59),
L32(47l, 7,33(22). L34(40),
L35(10j. L37(ll). L38(24),
L39(3), L41(19). L42(49),
L46(ll), L47(1S). L48(73),
L50(4), L52(43), L53(l)
Exithynnus lineatua H49(l)

Gempylidae — Snake mackerels

Gempylus serpens L16(l), L28(l)

Xealotus tripes L13(l)
Trichiuridae — Cutlassfishes

Trichiurus nitens S6(15), N25{7)
Istiophoridae — Sailfishes

Istiophorus greyi L39(2)

Lutjanidae — Snappers
Lu tja nu s pent 1 1 4 7 ( 3 )

Haemulidae — Grunts

Brachydeuterus leuciscus X45(l)
Orthoprisiis chaJceiis N55(4)
Orthopristis lethopristis H19(l)
Pomadasys panamensis N45(2)

Sciaenidae — Croakers

Bairdiella chrysoleuca N55(2)
Cynoscion phoxocephalus X25(l),

N45(3)
Cynoscion squamipinnis N25(2),

N55(l)
Isopisthus remifer N25(l), N55(2)
Larimus acclivis N25(l)
Larimus argenteus N55(l)
Larinuis efulyens X45(l), N55(3)
Nehris occidentalis X25(2), X45(2),

X55(3)
Ophioscion straho X55(5)
Paralonchurus dumerili X'45(2)
Paralonchurus rathhuni X25(2)
Stellifer ericymha H45(10), X55(5)
SteUifer fiirthi X55(l)
Stellifer illecehrosus N25(2), X45(l)
Stellifer oscitans X45(2), X55(2)

Branchiostegidae — Blanquillos
Caulolatilus princeps H17(l)

Pomacentridae — Damselfishes

Chromis atrilohaius L24(29), L28-
(2), L38(l), L42(5), L46(21)



Pomacentridae — Continued

Pomacentrid larvae L9(l), LlO(l),
L12(2(;), L13(l), L14(G), L21-
(11), L22(4), X28(23), L29(12),
L31(l), L32(3), L33(3), L34-
(4), L35(3), L39(15), L40(l),
L41(2), 1.42(18), L46(2), L47-
(4)
Labridae — Wrasses

Pimelometopon dartrini H12(2)
Chaetodontidae — Butterflyfishes

Chaetodon humeruUs S3(l), L28(6),
L31(l), L32(5)
Kyphosidae — Rudderfishes

Kyphosid juveniles L8(7)
Scorpaenidae — Rockfishes
Pontinns clemensi H47(l)
PontUuis sp. S23(f)5), S28(l)
Triglidae — Gurnards

Prionotus horrens X'25(23)
Fistulariidae — Coronetfishes

Fistulnria sp. LlO(l), L12(l), L13-

(1)
Syngnathidae — Pipefishes

Hippocampus ingens L39(l)
Gobiidae — Gobies

Tynthistes hrevis X45(l)
Uranoscoi)idae — Stargazers

Kathetosfoma arerrunculus S23(2)
Callionymidae — Dragonets

Callionymids S23(17), S28(10)
Clinidae — Klipfishes

Starksia sp. L12(5)
Blenniidae — Blennies

Ophioblennius steindachneri L10(2),
L13(3), L21(4), L32(l), L53(7)

Runula azalea L10(43), L13(15),
S28(l). L28(2)

Blenniid larvae LlO(l), L12(30),
L13(2), L14(4), L20(3), L21(2),
L24(l), S28(l), L45(l), L51(l),
L52(4), L53(l)
Brotulidae — Brotulids

Brotula clarkae S6(l), S23(l),
S28(4)
Ophidiidae — Cusk-eels

Ophidiids SKI), S23(5)
Lophiidae — Anglers

Lophius sp. S28(l)
Balistidae — Triggerfishes

Canthidermis maciilatus L22(2)

Canih iderm is sp. L21 ( 1 )

Balistid X30(l)
Tetraodontidae — PufiEers

Lagocephalus lagocephalus L32(l)

Sphoeroides anuulaius X25(2)

Sphoeroides furthi X"45(l)

Sphoeroides sp. LlO(l)
Diodontidae — Porcupinefishes

Diodon holacanthus L47(2)

Diodon sp. L5(2)



EASTERN PACIFIC FISHES 307

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I wish to thank the following people for their contributions to this
report: Mr. Ray Medina, Captain of the M. V. Mayflower, and his
crew, who furnished equipment and made this cruise a pleasure; Mr.
Rae Baxter, who accompanied me on the cruise and assisted in col-
lecting these specimens; Dr. Grace Orton for identifying many of
the 3'oung flying fish ; Dr. Boyd W. Walker for checking scientific names
and assistance in identifying several of the specimens from the Gala-
pagos Islands and Panama ; Miss Jane Bodul, who contributed a great
deal of time and effort in typing and checking data; and Mr. John E.
Fitch, who suggested that this collection be made, provided vital assist-
ance in all fish identifications, distributed the majority of the speci-
mens, and aided materialh^ in the preparation of this paper.

REFERENCES
Clemens, Harold B.

1955. Fishes collected in the tropical eastern Pacific, 1952-53. Calif. Fish and
Game, vol. 41, no. 2, p. 161-166.
Fitch, John E.

1955. Pontinns clemensi, a new scorpaenid fish from the tropical eastern I'acitic.
Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour., vol. 45, no. 2, p. 61-64.
Hildebrand, Samuel F.

1946. A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru. U. S. Xat. Mus., Bull.
189, 530 p.. 95 figs.
Meek, Seth E. and Hildebrand. Samuel F.

1923-1928. The marine fishes of Panama. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., vol.
15, 3 pts., 2,044 p.



CALCULATING THE PERCENTAGE OF KILL FROM
SEX AND AGE RATIOS'

DAVID M. SELLECK and CHESTER M. HART

Game Management Branch

California Department of Fish and Game

Determining the percentage of a game population which has been
killed by hunting or natural causes frequently is highly important in
game management. Robinette (1949) and Petrides (1954) have presented
methods of calculating or estimating percentages of kill from sex or age
ratio information. Although useful, their methods lack desirable directness
and simplicity.

l^^ormulas or methods for calculating populations from total kill in
combination with sex and age ratios have been presented by Kelker (1940,
1943), Allen (1942), Riordan (1948), Petrides (1949), Lauckhart (1950),
and Dasmann (1952). These methods enable percentage of kill to be
determined indirectly', b}' dividing the population figure obtained into
the kill figure.

This pap(T presents fornnilas which ai"(^ simpler and easier to use
than the above methods for calculating percentage of kill. The fraction
or percentage of a population killed is calculated directly from sex or
age ratios in the population before and after the kill and in the kill.
Total kill figures are not ncetled, but all ratios must be true ratios or
equally l)iased to produce accurate results. A basic requirement is that
the kill nmst be differential for sex or age groups, so that a change in the
sex or age ratio of the population is produced as a result of the loss.

The formulas have imiversal application in determining percentage
losses in wildlife j)opulations from himting, trapping, or natural causes
when differential losses by sex or age groups take place and ratios in the
population and in the losses can be determined. Greatest application
probably will be to pheasants and to deer or other antlered game —
species which lend themselves best to field identification of sex or age
of individuals.

In using these formulas it must be assumed, of course, that the only
source of mortality is the one being studied. That is, the results are
indicative of the total mortalit}' during the period between the two
ratio measurements of the live population. If hunting mortality is
calculated and there is significant natural mortality during the hunting
season, the resulting estimate of hunting mortality is high.

1 Submitted for publication May, 1957. Review of the formulas or mathematical assist-
ance by George H. Kelker, Glenn Harry, James Iven, and various members of the
California Department of Fish and Game is gratefully acknowledged.



( .'^on )



;!1() CAIJFOKXIA FISH AND GAME



BASIC FORMULAS



Syiiil)(»ls used in tlic l);isic foiiiiiilas arc as follows:
B = i-atio ill iiopulalion hcfoi'c kill.
K = ratio in kill.
.1 = ratio in population after kill.
Definitions of terms used in stating the basic torniulas are:

Base population — i)()i)ulation segment used as a base in expressing

ratios, as females in males pci' 100 females.
Ratio po|)ulation — population segment expressed as a ratio figure,

as males in males per 100 females.
Total population — total of base and I'atio populations.
Using the abcn-e symbols and t(M-ms, the basic formulas ai-e as follows:

B - A

1. jy- _ A ~ decimal fraction of 1)ase po])ulation killed.

^' RfT' _ 4^ ~ decimal fraction of ratio population killed.

Any type of ratio figures may be used in the above two formulas.
A third formula, for calculating portion of total population killed, must
be adjusted to the number of units in the base population expressed in
the ratio.

3. When the ratio is per single unit of base population:

/I7'_|_-|'\ /I) A\

fr, I — 71 — TF ^"w = decimal fraction of total population killed.

[B + 1) (A - .4)

When the ratio is per 100 units of base population:

/„ I — , ^,r^^ / r- 7T = dccimal fraction of total population killed.

(B + 100) (A — .4) ^ ^

Example 1. Use With Sex Ratio Data

Following is an example calculating the p(>rcentage of ])opulation
killed by use of sex ratio data. A sample population of pheasants is used,
with a differential kill by sexes in hunting season.

Niimhers of phcasanfs Sex ratios

Cocks Hen.s Total {cocks/100 hens)

Preseason population 80 100 180 80

Total hunting kill 60 20 80 300

Postseason population 20 80 100 25

Percentage killed 75 20 44

From the above table showing total population and kill numbers for
the population in the example, it may be seen that the actual percentages
of kill were 75 for cocks, 20 for hens, and 44 for the total population. Foi-
proof of the formulas, the percentages of kill will be calculated using only
the sex ratio data shown in the last column in the above table, with no
knowledge of total population or kill figures assumed.



CALCULATING THE KILL 311

In this example the method of expressing sex ratios makes hens the
base population and cocks the ratio population. Values for formula
symbols, or sex ratios determined from population and kill figures, are
as follows:
5 = 80
A' = 300
A = 25
Applications of the basic formulas are:

B — A

1. —p^ 7— == decimal fraction of hens killed.

K - A

= 0.20, or 20 percent of hens killed.



300 - 25

2. r>/r^ -j^- = decimal fraction of cocks killed.

B{K — A)



300 (80 - 25)
80(300 - 25)



= 0.75, or 75 percent of cocks killed.



3. 77^— — -prrrz — 777 77 = decimal fraction of total population


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