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QMJFDRNIAI

FISH-GAME

"CONSERVATION OF WILDUTE THROUGH EDUCATION"



California Fish and Game is a journal devoted to the conser-
vation of wildlife. If its contents are reproduced elsev/here, the
authors and the California Department of Fish and Game v/ould
appreciate being acknowledged.

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Please direct correspondence, except regarding paid subscrip-
tions, to:

LEO SHAPOVALOV, Editor
Department of Fish and Game
1416 9th Street
Sacramento, California 95814

Individuals and organizations who do not qualify for the free
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quiries regarding paid subscriptions should be directed to the
Office of Procurement.



n



U











VOLUME 53



OCTOBER 1967



NUMBER 4




Published Quarterly by

STATE OF CALIFORNIA

THE RESOURCES AGENCY

DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME



STATE OF CALIFORNIA

RONALD REAGAN, Governor



THE RESOURCES AGENCY

NORMAN B. LIVERMORE, JR., Adminisirafor



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION

THOMAS H. RICHARDS, JR., President, Sacramento
WILLIAM P. ELSER, Vice President JAMES Y. CAMP, Member

San Diego Los Angeles

HENRY CLINESCHMIDT, Member C. RANSOM PEARMAN, Member

Redding Huntington Park



DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME

WALTER T. SHANNON, D;recfor

1416 9th Street
Sacramento 95814



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME
Editorial Staff

LEO SHAPOVALOV, Editor-in-Chief Sacramento

ALMO J. CORDONE, Editor for Inland Fisheries Sacramento

JAMES H. RYAN, Acting Editor for Inland Fisheries Sacramento

CAROL M. FERREL, Editor for Wildlife . Sacramento

HERBERT W. FREY, Editor for Marine Resources Terminal Island

DONALD H. FRY, JR., Editor for Salmon and Steelhead Sacramento



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
The Eastern Pacific Groupers of the Genus Mycteroperca, Includ-
ing a New Species

Richard H. Rosenhlatt and Bernard J. Zahuranec 228

Wild Turkey Food Habits in San Luis Obispo County, California '

Walton A. Smith and Bruce Browning 246
White Catfish (Ictaliirus catus) of the Sacramento-San Joaquin

Delta David P. Borgeson and George W. McCammon 254

Studies on Monogenetic Trematodes XXXVI. Gyrodactylid Para-
sites of Importance to California Fishes

Jolni I). Mizdlc and Delane C. Kritsky 264

A Serological Analysis of Three Populations of Golden Trout,

Salmo aguahonita Jordan

Joh7i E. Calaprice and John E. Ctishing 273

Jaw Injury and Condition of King Salmon

Bruce A. Fulnur and Richard L. Ridenhour 282

Notes

A Portable Keceiver for Holding Live Fish

Richard Wood and Rohson A. Collins 286

An Internal Capsule Fish Tag Robert W. Topp 288

A New High-Speed Tagging Device Kenneth N. lliorson 289

First Eecorded Xanthic Sargo, Anisotremus davidsonii (Stein-
dachner), From the Salton Sea, California

Robert a. Hulquist 292
A Heavy Infestation of the Tlireadfin Shad. Dorosoma petenense,
by the Yellow Grub, Clinostomum marginatum, in El Capitan

Eeservoir, San Diego County, California Lee W. Miller 293

Identification of Corophium From the Sacramento-San Joaquin

Delta D. W. Kelley 295

Northern Eange Extension of the Giant Sea Bass, Stereolepis

gigas Ayres L. B. Boydstun 296

A Longfin Sanddab. Citharichthi/s xanthostigma, and a Skilfish,

Erilepis zonifer. Taken in Monterey Bay J. B. Phillips 297

The Tapertail Kibbonfish {Trachipterus jukuzaMi Fitch) Added

to the Marine Fauna of California John E. Fitch 298

An Occurrence of a Chum Salmon, Oncorhynchus keta (Wal-

baum), in the California Troll Fishery Paul W. Wild 299

Book Reviews 301

Index to Volume 53 310

ERRATA

Hanson. Jack A., and Alnio J. Cordone. Afce and growth of lake trout. Salvelinus
namayctish (Walbaum), in Lake Tahoe. 53 (2) : 68-87. 1967.

The equation on page 81 describing the length-weight relationship should be
W = 0.000231L^^™". In Table 7. page 81, the condition factor for the one fish with
a length of 31.5 inches should be 51.5.

(227)



Calif. Fish and Game, 53 (4) : 228-245. 1007.



THE EASTERN PACIFIC GROUPERS OF THE GENUS
MYCTEROPERCA, INCLUDING A NEW SPECIES^

RICHARD H. ROSENBLATT and BERNARD J. ZAHURANEC

Scripps Institution of Oceanography

University of California, San Diego

La Jollo, California

The genus Mycteroperca is represented in the Pacific Ocean by 5
species: M. jordani, M. olfax, M. prionura sp. nov., M. rosacea, and M.
xenarcha. The species may be distinguished by color pattern, gill raker
and fin ray number, and shape of the fins. M. olfax and M. rosacea
have two color phases, speckled and golden. M. xenarcha ranges from
San Francisco, California, to Peru; M. jordani is found from southern
California to Mazatlan, Mexico; A1. rosacea and M. prionura are known
only from the Gulf of California and central Mexico; and M. olfax Is
restricted to the Galapagos Islands and the coast of Peru.

As currently recognized, the serranid geuus Mycteroperca comprises
12 species, all of which occiii- in the Western Hemisphere, with 7 in the
Atlantic (Smith. 3 961 1 and 5 in the Pacific. Walford (1936) recognized
4 species of the genus in the Pacific, but our data indicate that the so
called "red-spotted phase'*" of M. xenarcha represents a distinct and
undescribed species. This paper names and describes this species {M.
prionura) , redescribes the related M. xenarcha, and gives sufficient data
on the other Pacific species so that they can be identified with certainty.
Measurements and counts utilized in tlie descriptions were made after
the methods of Hubbs and Lagler (1964).

MYCTEROPERCA GILL

The genus Mycteroperca may be distinguished from other Eastern
Pacific Serranidae (sea basses) by the following combination of char-
acters :

Dorsal X or (usually) XI, 15-18, margin not deeply notched, and
none of the spines exserted ; anal soft rays 10-12 ; caudal roimded to
lunate, or with a jagged rear margin; scales small, in 90-120 rows above
the lateral line, roughly ctenoid to the touch; vertical limb of pre-
opercle finely denticulate, with some enlarged spines at the angle, but
without a large anteriorly directed spine just above the angle ; body
not strongly compressed.

Distrihution. — Considering the wide distributions of other New
World groupers (see for example Smith. 1961), several of the Pacific
species of Mycteroperca appear to have surprisingly restricted distri-
butions (Figures 1 and 2). The known range of M. xenarcha extends
from northern Peru to northern California, but this is the only species
with such a wide distribution. So far as knowTi, M. olfax is limited to
the Galapagos Islands and northern Peru, 31. jordani ranges from

' Submitted for publication April 1967. Contribution from the Scripps Institution of
Oceanogrraphy, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California.

(228)



EASTERN PACIFIC GROUPERS



229




UNITED STATES



CUPP€RT0H 10



MEXICO



5 TRES yAffias

'ABO CORffl€NTeS

Ma*^7antlio



• M. rosacea
A M xenarcha



Soil no Cruz

^OLfO D€ TEHJANTEPEC



sNKARAGUA




FIGURE 1 — Some record localities for A'lycferoperca rosoceo and M. xenarcha. The San Fran-
cisco, California, record for M. xenarcha has not been plotted.

southern California to Mazatlan, and 31. rosacea and M. prionura are
limited to the Gulf of California and the adjacent Mexican Coast as
far south as Bahia Banderas. It is not eas}^ to account for these limited
distributions, particularly since all of the species of Mycteroperca pre-
sumably have pelagic eggs and larvae (Smith, 1961). In support of this
view, it is known that the spawning season for M. rosacea in the south-
ern part of the Gulf of California ends by April (E. S. Hobson, pers.
commun.), and the young do not appear inshore until late June or
early July. We have no such information for the other species, but it
might be noted that our smallest specimen of M. jordani (30 mm) has
elongate preopercular and second dorsal spines, characters suggestive
of the pelagic prejuvenile of other serranids.

It seems highly probable that fcAV species of Mycteroperca occur
along the coast of Central America, and that the paucity is related to
ecological factors. M. xenarclia is commonly taken in mangroves, and
the other species seem to be more often associated with rocks. Certainly
the rocky-shore habitat is less well developed south of Mexico, but it
must be pointed out that other rock-dwelling serranids, such as Epi-



230



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME



OHITED STJTES



CLiPP£RTON 10



M jordani
• M olfax
A M prionura




(COLOMBIA -



FIGURE 2-Some record localities for Mycferoperca jordani, M. olfax, and A^. prionura.

7ieplrelus lahriformis, Pctromeiopon pa^mmense, and Paranthias colonus,
are found tln-oiighout the Panamic faunal area.

Ecology. — Little is known of the ecology of the Eastern Pacific
species of Mycteroperca. All are presumably fish eaters as adults. This
has been confirmed for 31. rosacea (Hobson. 1966) and 31. olfax (E. S.
Hobson. pers. commun.), and a large adult 31. jordani examined by us
contained the remains of fishes, including the pharyngeal mill of a
parrotfish {Scams sp.). There is some indication that 31. prionura is
restricted to somewhat greater depths than other Eastern Pacific species
of 3Iycteroperca. Of the hundred-odd juveniles taken in the Gulf of
California by Scripps expedition "Pescado," only eight were from
depths shallower than 25 feet. The center of abundance appeared to be
between 50 and 60 feet. 3/. prionura was the only species taken as a
juvenile as deep as 100 feet. Adults of 31. prionura have been seen at
150 feet at Cabo San Lucas (K. Rosenblatt, observations from Cousteau
Diving Saucer), and the holotype was taken in 135-150 feet. In contrast,
juveniles of the other species have been taken in very shallow water.
Young of 31. rosacea, the most abundant grouper in the Gulf of Cali-
fornia, are common in less than 20 feet of water, as are the adults. The
few juveniles of M. jordani taken by us were all from 15 feet or less.



EASTERN PACIFIC GROUPERS



231



Large adults of M. jordani are likewise common in shallow water. Juve-
niles and adults of M. xenarcha are commonly taken in shallow water,
althoufrh adults have been taken as deep as 150 feet. According to E. S.
Ilobson (pers. commun.) M. olfax is abundant in shallow w^ater at the
Galapagos Islands.

Taxonomy. — The Pacific species of Mycteroperca are similar in gen-
eral body form, and variation in fin ray number is limited. The most
useful eliaraeters for distinguishing the species are gill raker number,
coloration, and outline of the dorsal and caudal fins. Each species can
be characterized, and distinguished from its congeners, on the basis of
gill raker counts. The means are different, and the ranges overlap little
(Table 1). Coloration must be used with caution, as there is considerable
variation. The most striking variability is found in M. rosacea and

TABLE 1
Total Gill Rakers on First Arch in Pacific Species of yMycteroperca





21
5


22
2


23
5


24

11

1


25

6

1


26

2
4


27
9


28
6


29
4


30


31


32


33


34
17


35
25


36
46


37
14


38

1
8


39
11


40
11


41
6


42


43


M. jordani _




M. olfax....





M. prionura














M. rosacea ..









































1


M. xenarcha


























3


3


18


11


2


"


-


-


-

























olfax, each of which has a golden color phase. This seems to be geneti-
cally controlled, as no adults have ever been observed to transform
from the xanthic to the dark phase (although a piebald individual of
M. rosacea has been taken), and tlie relative abundance of xanthic
individuals does iiot seem to be correlated with habitat or depth. Color
changes in the other species are less obvious, but in M. jordani and
M. xenarcha the juveniles are marked with dark blotches, and the adults
are usually plain, exhibiting a blotched color pattern only as a transi-
tory phase. M. prionura is constantly spotted, but there is a transitory
blotched color pattern in adults.

Fin shape is a useful character only for large juveniles or adults. In
juveniles of all species, the soft dorsal is rounded and the posterior
margin of the caudal is smooth. However, in M. xenarcha and M.
prionura, beginning at lengths of about 150 mm and 250 mm, respec-
tively, the posterior margin of the soft dorsal becomes pointed. In large
adults of M. xenarcha a streamer is developed. In these two species, at
about 200 mm. some of the caudal rays begin to elongate and become
exserted, so that the rear margin of the tail has a jagged appearance.
In adults of M. xenarcha, the exserted rays become long streamers. In
similar fashion, the elongation of the second and third dorsal spines
into a lobe characterizes large juveniles and adults of M. olfax. In
M. jordani, the deep incision of the dorsal interspinous membrane also
characterizes adults.

The following key will allow the identification of specimens of any
size. Additional characters and special problems are discussed sepa-
rately under each species.



232



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME





B



^-'-'■'' - ■-■■'.^ifcKMfcv,



FIGURE 3— A, holotype of Mycieroperca prionura, SI066-48, 502 mm; B, Mycieroperca xenar-

cha. SI066-72, 696 mm. In both fish the light areas on the body and head indicate

damage, as does the white streak on the caudal of the M. xenarcha.

Key to the Eastern Pacific Species of Mycieroperca

la. Gill rakers on first arch 21-26 (rudimentary rakers cannot be
enumerated on adults because of the development of many small

plates at either end of the gill arch)

31. jordani (Jenkins and Evermann)

lb. Gill rakers on first arch 24-43 2

2a. Gill rakers on first arch 21-29. Second and third dorsal spines
elevated above major outline of fin; third spine notably (0.3 to

1 orbit length j longer than fifth M. olfax (Jenyns)

2b. Gill rakers on first arch 29-43. Dorsal spines evenly graduated ;
third spine little if at all longer than fifth (at most by 0.2

orbit length) 3

3a. Body profusely covered with small spots or evenly golden (some-
times with melanistic blotches). Gill rakers on first arch 38-43

modally 39-40). Posterior margin of caudal entire

M. rosacea (Streets)

3b. Body either mottled or polka-dotted in juveniles; plain, mottled, or
with large brown dots in adults (Figures 3 and 4). Gill rakers on
first arch 29-38. Posterior margin of caudal notched in individuals
larger than 200 mm 4



EASTERN PACIFIC GROUPERS



233



4a. Body plain gray or tan, or mottled with large irregular marks.
Gill rakers on first arch 29-33. Pectoral rays 16-18, usually 17
if. xenarcha Jordan

4b. Body ground color bright tan; juveniles Avith large, round,
reddish-brown dots, which become more numerous, irregular,
and relatively smaller with growth. Gill rakers on first arch
34—38. Pectoral rays 15 or 16 M. prionura sp. n.







*^Se!1






A










FIGURE 4— A, Mycteroperca prionura, paratype, SI065-283, 75 mm; B, M. xenarcha, SI064-86,

69 mm.



/^{YCTEROPERCA JORDANI (JENKINS AND EVERMANN)

Epinepheliis jordani Jenkins and Evermann 1869; 140. Guaymas,
Sonora.

Mycteroperca venaclorum Jordan and Starks in Jordan 1895; 446.
Mazatlan, Sinaloa.

Description

D XI, 16-17 (16.1); A III, 10-11 (10.8); pectoral 16-17 (17.0);
gill rakers 21-26 (23.5). Vertical limb of preopercle convex for upper
two-thirds of its length and weakly concave below, or evenly rounded;
lobe at angle weakly developed or absent ; in small individuals there are
coarse denticulations. but in the 975-mm specimen the lobe is finely
serrated. Maxilla extends to a point just behind vertical from rear
margin of orbit, except in small juveniles, in which it does not quite
reach to below rear margin of orbit. Posterior nostril not notably en-
larged; its diameter 1.3-1.5 times that of anterior in subadults and
adults, relatively smaller in juveniles. Lower jaw massive and protrud-



234 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME

ing. formiiirr an even eontinuatioii (jf the profile of the snout. Pectoral
evenly rounded. Dorsal outline even ; spines increasing in length to
4th and 5th. which are subequal. then decreasing gradually to 10th,
which is slightly more than two-thirds as long as 5th; last spine about
as long as lOth and three-fourths as long as 1st soft ray; spinous-dorsal
membrane of adults deeply incised, so that distal half of middle spines
is free. Posterior margin of soft dorsal rounded. Anal rounded in small
juveniles; posterior margin oblique and forming a slight point where
it meets the jintcrior margin in a 4().')-rnni individual ; anal pointed in
a !»75-miii iiidixidual. Fiftli anal ray loii^csl. ( "audal rounded in
^ oung. liiiialc in largest individual; with margin smooth at all sizes.
Squamation as in M. prionura. Scales o)i anterior part of upper back
so small, imbedded, and irregularly arranged in our material that
reliable counts are not possible.

Two color patterns. In some individuals the body and fins are plain
brown or gray. In others there are large, dark gray, oblong blotches
on the upper sides and on the fins. On the lower sides these blotches
tend to break up into a reticulum, and the head is marked with dark
streaks. Most, but not all, of the smaller specimens are in this color
phase. As pointed out by AValford (1936), large individuals are usually
plain dark brown or gray. However, a large adult (ca. 4 feet), which
has been at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Aquarium-Museum
for 10 years, is capable of rapid changes in color pattern. Although
usually plain brownisli gray, it rapidly assumes the blotched color
pattern if disturbed, or when food is introduced. A smaller (ca. 2 feet)
individual in the same tank continually retains the blotched color pat-
tern, but the markings are much intensified with excitement.

In all large individuals the pectoral margin is white, and there is a
narrow white edging oji the anal, caudal, and soft dorsal. These mark-
ings are much less prominent in juveniles.

Differential Diagnosis

The combination of smooth caudal margin, blotched or plain color
pattern, 21-26 gill rakers, normally 17 pectoral rays, relatively evenly
rounded opercular margin, with the lobe at the angle weak or absent,
even outline of spinous dorsal, and rounded soft dorsal, distinguishes
M. jordani from its congeners.

The gill raker counts of M. jordani overlap those of the allopatric
M. olfax, and the characteristic elongation of the second and third
dorsal spines is not obvious in small specimens of M. olfax. However,
the color pattern of the juveniles of M. jordani consists of large, squar-
ish, dark-gray blotches on a dark-gray background, whereas in M. olfax
the ground color is reddish brown, and numerous reddish -brown spots
are scattered over the body and fins. In addition the lobe at the lower
angle of the preopercle is at most weakly developed in M. jordani.

Range

La Jolla, California, to Mazatlan, Mexico.

The occurrence of M. jordani in southern California has not previ-
ously been documented in the scientific literature. However, Carl L.
Hubbs has been keeping records of captures of Mycteropercca for some



EASTERN PACIFIC GROUPERS 235

time, and has allowed us to extract the following from his files. In early
August 1945, four adults of M. jordani were taken in the inner part
of the kelp bed at La Jolla, off Boomer Beach, two by spear and two
on setlines. The speared fish, taken by Jack Prodanovich, weighed 73
and 110 pounds, respectively. Photographs of these individuals in Dr.
Hubbs' files show enough features (rounded soft dorsal, smooth caudal
margin, and short, widely spaced gill rakers) to make the identification
certain. Information supplied by Jack Prodanovich and Wally Potts
indicates that between September 1945 and January 1946 nine adults
of M. jordani were taken off La Jolla. On February 14, 1951, Mr.
Prodanovich took another M. jordani in the same area. It was 57.5
inches total length and weighed 117.5 pounds. The most recent capture
was recorded on July 13, 1955, when a 91-pound M. jordani was taken
at La Jolla by an angler. A photograph of this fish appeared in the
San Diego Union on July 15, 1955. All of these fish were adults and
there are no verified records of juveniles from California. From tliis,
and the lack of recent records, it may be inferred that there is no
breeding population in California and that the northern individuals
are properly to be regarded as expatriates.

Material Examined

Mexico, Baja California Sur, west coast — Bahia Almejas. SI062-119,
1(465); Punta Marquez, SIO62-703. 1(975), Mexico. Gulf of Califor-
nia— SI065-289, 2(42-52) ; SI065-296, 3(39-45) ; SI065-297, 2(50-58) ;
SI065-328, 3(64-76); SI065-331, 1(38); UCLA W51-3, 11(79-174);
UCLA W53-94, 1(182) ; UCLA W56-116, 3(150-178) ; UCLA W60-60,
1(560).

MYCTEROPERCA OLFAX (JENYNS)

Serranus olfax Jenyns 1842 : 9. Galapagos Archipelago.
Mycteroperca olfax ruherrima Jordan and Bollman, in Jordan and
Eigenmann 1890 :367, Abingdon Lsland, Galapagos.

Description

D XI, 16-17 (16.8) ; A III, 11 (11.0) ; pectoral 16-17 (16.5) ; gill
rakers 24—29 (26.6) . Vertical limb of preopercle gently convex for upper
two-thirds to three-fourths of its length ; lower one-fourth to one-third
concave, with a denticulate lobe at the angle. Maxilla extending back
to a vertical between midpoint of eye and rear margin of orbit. Nostrils
subequal in juveniles ; posterior one becoming enlarged with growth ;
in a 375-mm individual the diameter of the anterior nostril is half that
of the posterior. Lower jaw protruding, but forming a slight angle with
the contour of the snout. Pectoral evenly rounded. Second and 3rd
dorsal spines subequal and elongated; 4th and 5th spines shorter; 5th
shorter than 3rd by a distance equal to .3 to 1 orbit length ; succeeding
spines decreasing gradually in length to 10th which is somewhat less
than two-thirds as long as 3rd; last spine equal to or slightly longer
than 10th and about three-fourths as long as 1st soft ray. Soft dorsal
outline rounded. Anal acuteh' pointed in specimens longer than about
250 mm ; rounded in small juveniles ; 5th ray longest. Caudal truncate
in small individuals ; slightly lunate in large ones, with posterior margin



236



CALIFORNIA FISU AND GAIME



smootli. SciuaiiKition as in M. prionura; \)'l scale ru\\s in the Paita, Peru
spoeimen and 96 in one from tlie Galapagos.

Two color phases, brown-spotted and xanthic. The coloration in life
has been described by AValford (1936) as "typically dark olive-brown
on back, sides and head, spotted with purplish and lighter brown . . .
some specimens may be plain dark brown, others may have the body
covered with faint circular dark brown spots." He described the
xanthic phase as having the sides of the body orange-yellow, and the
fin membranes chrome-yellow. AVe can add from our material that in
the dark phase the fins are margined with Avhite and that there is a
dark-brown "moustache mark" above the maxilla.

Differential Diagnosis

The combination of smooth caudal margin, spotted or golden colora-
tion, 24-29 gill rakers, 16 or 17 pectoral rays, elongate second and third
dorsal spines, and rounded soft dorsal distinguishes M. oJfax from its
congeners.

M. rosacea resembles 3/. olfax in coloration, but has 38-43 gill rakers
(Table 2) and its second and third dorsal spines are little if any longer

TABLE 2
Pectoral Rays in Pacific Species of M/cteroperca



M . jordani-.

M. olfax

M . prionura
M. rosacea..
M. xenarcha



15



16
1



16



1
12
86
19

3



17



27

14



28



18



than those innnediately succeeding. The sympatric M. xenarcha also has
more gill rakers (although there is some overlap) and usually fewer
dorsal soft rays (Tables 1 and 3). In addition, in M. xenarcha the out-


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

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