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For the plan which uses proportional sampling at both stages, the
relative change figure for the first stage was — 0.003 and the figure for
the second stage was 0.636 ; for the plan with a constant second-stage
sample size, the figures were — 0.007 and 0.593.

The choice of a useful allocation scheme for the shrimp surveys is
clearly limited to the two plans with proportional allocation at the first
stage since the unrestricted allocation, although the most efficient, is
apparently unobtainable. Of these two, the plan with a constant second-
stage sample size is reconnnended because its operational simplicity
more than compensates for its slight deficiencies in precision and stabil-
ity of allocation,

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I wish to thank Daniel W. Gotshall and Walter A. Dahlstrom of the
California Department of Fish and Game for supplying data on the
historical distribution of shrimp in the survey area and for advice on
the operational feasibility of the sampling procedures. I am also in-
debted to Jo Ann Spaulding, now with the California Department of
General Services, for stratifying the survey area and for writing the
computer programs which generated random haul coordinates and ran-
dom subsampling numbers.



ESTIMATION OF OCEAN SHRIMP ABUNDANCE 269

REFERENCES

Gulland, J. A. (Editor). 1964. Contributions to symposium 1963. On the measure-
ment of abundance of fish stocks. Rapports et Proces-Verbaux des Reunions.
155 : 1-223.

Parzen, Emanuel. 1962. Stochastic processes. Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco.
324 p.

Sukhatme, Pandurang V. 1954. Sampling theory of surveys with applications. Iowa
State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa. 491 p.



Calif. Fish and Game, 54(4) : 270-277. 196S.



FIRST REPORT OF THE CRAB FAMILY CHIROSTYLIDAE

OFF CALIFORNIA, AND DESCRIPTION OF A

NEW SPECIES OF CHIROSTYLUS^

JANET HAIG

Allan Hancock Foundation

University of Southern California

A new crab, Chirostylus perarmatus (Decapoda, Anomura, Chirostyli-
dae), is described from deep water off southern California, and its re-
lationship to other eastern Pacific Ch/rost//us is discussed. Both the
genus and the family are new to Californian waters.

INTRODUCTION

111 the course of fishery investigations, California Department of
Fish and Game vessels frequently capture rare and unusual organisms.
In early 1961 several crabs collected during one of these investigations
were brought to the Allan Hancock Foundation for identification. They
were immediately recognized as Chirostylus (family ( 'liirostyrKlnc i. a
genus and family unreported from Californian waters. Subsequent study
indicated that they could not be placed in any described species.

The specimens were collected by the California Department of Fish
and Game vessel Alaska in deep water at Station 16 (61A1-16). They
were taken in a beam trawd along with 14 species of fishes, a spiny sea
urchin (})robably AUoccnirotus) , two species of sea pen, a squid {Rossia
pacijica), jellyfish, and several species oL" crustaceans.

The Chirostylidae are related to the Galatheidae, a family represented
in Californiiiii waters by at least eight species. The best known of these
is the pelagic red crab, Fleuroncodcs planipcs Stimpson. which is nor-
mally confined to Mexican waters, but attracts a gootl deal of attention
in California when it comes northw^ird during years of warm ()c(>an
temperatures (Glynn. 1 961 ; Kadovich, 1961) . The rest of tlie Californian
<>-alatheids live in dec]) water and are seldom seen bv the casual observer,
but they are frequently caught by fisheries and research vessels. Chiro-
stylus bears a superficial resemblance to some of these, particularly
Blunida.

SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNT

The Chirostylidae belong to section (formerly tribe) Anomura and
superfamily Galatheidea, which also includes the marine families Porccl-
lanidae (porcelain crabs or rockslid(M's) and Galatheidae, as well as
the South American freshwater family Aeglidae. Schmitt (1921) pre-
sents a key to the anomuran families known from California; the
portion of this key dealing with the Galalheidea may be modified as
follows to include the Chirostylidae :



1 Accepted for publicatinn March 19(58. Contribution No. 321 frojn the Allan Hancock
P'oundatlon. Thi.s study was supported in part by Grant GB-3225 from the Na-
tional Science P^oundation.



( 270)



FAMILY CHIROSTYLIDAE IN CALIFORNIA



271



Body depressed, abdomen bent under, folded upon itself or against
thorax, often with a transverse suture on telson (superfamily Gala-
ikcidea).

1. Abdomen bent upon itself, but not folded against thorax; body
shrimp-like ; first legs greatly elongated, slender.

a. Telson with a transverse fissure and folded beneath the preceding
abdominal somites along witli the tail-fan.

Ckirostylidae

b. Telson without a transverse fissure and not folded beneath the
preceding abdominal somites.

Galatlieidae

2. Abdomen folded against thorax ; body crab-like ; first legs only mod-
erately elongate, stout.

Porcellanidae




FIGURE 1— Holotype of C/iirosfy/us perarmaius. (Scale represents 20 mm.)



272



CAIJFOHXIA FISTI AND OAMK




FIGURE 2— Holotype of Cbirosiylus perarmafus; carapace and abdomen in lateral view. (Scale

represents 10 mm.)



Family Chirostylidae

Body slirimp-like. Abdomen bent upon itself but not folded up
against the thorax; telson with a transverse fissure and folded beneath
the preeedin<jf abdominal somites along with the tail-fan. First legs
chelate, greatly elongated, slender. Antennal peduncle five-segmented,
the second and third article being distinctly separated; flagdluin of
moderate length.

Genus Cbirostylus Ortmann

Carapace conwx, the lateral bt)rders inflated and nut slKir]>ly de-
fined; rostrum spiniform; antennal acicle wanting; ehelipeds and first
three pairs of walking legs slender and of enormous length.

Chirostylus perarmafus sp. n.
Holotype

Male, AHF 6138; deposited in the Allan Hancock Foundation. Col-
lected January 20, ]961, by California Department of Fish and Game
vessel Alaska at Station 16 (61A1-16), north of Anacapa Island, Cali-
fornia, 34° 05.8' N, 119° 23.3' W to 34° 06.0' N, 119° 24.3' W; 125
fathoms, green mud bottom.

Paratypes

Four males and five females, .ill collected with the holotype. At
present these specimens are in the Allan Hancock Foundation, but

part of the mnterinl is to be distributed elsewhere.



FAMILY ClIIKOSTYLIDAE IN CALIJ^ORNIA



273




^^"^^L.^;




FIGURE 3 — Holotype of Chirosfylus perarmaius. A, sternal plastron; B, right walking leg; C,
fingers of right chela. (Scales represent 5 mm.)



274 CALIFOUXIA F1811 AM) GAME

Dcsc)^i|)ll')n

The carapace, including tlic t-nstnnn, is about twice ;is Imio: as its
greatest width and as loiii;- ;is tlic first six seirniciits i<\' llic ;ibdonien:
it is narrowest antcM'ioi' tn llic cri-xic;!! Ltcodxc. The l;ilrr;il mni'Li'iiis
ai'e subparjillt'l ;ind slightly (•(tii\cx hrlijnd the cci-vicjil ui'iinvc. \vliicli
forms a deep, transverse depression sei)arating the gastric and cardiac
regions and extends obliquely forward on either side to separate the
gastric region frojii the hepatic regions. The gastric region is swollen
and well defined: the cardiac region is ])o()rly defined l.iterally iiiid
posteriorly. The posterior branchial regions meet in 1lie nndline. The
carapace is thin and semitransparent ; except for the nishMitii ;iiid th(>
ar(>a near the cervical groove it is densely covered witli 1 h(>i-ti-sh;ij)ed.
forward-pointing spines. Thei-e are seven ]);ii-1 icuhii-ly pi'diiiiiieiit spines
in the gastric region, one in each hepatic region, and one in ihe aniei'ior
branchial region at either side of the transverse portion of the cei-vical
groove. On the posterior branchial regions the large spines teiid to be
arranged in uneven longitudinal rows, witli the largest ones near the
midline. Many spinules are interspersed with the large spines, especially
on the posterior branchial regions. In the smaller specimens, fewer of
these si)inules are developed and they may nearly be absent on the
gastric region.

The sides of the carapace are swollen laterally and visible in dorsal
view; they are evenly and densely covered with small s])ines.

The rostrum is a slender, straight spine, broadened at its base; it is
unarmed and sharjily upturned.

The eyes are short, not reaching the tip of the rostrum.

The stylocerite of the antennules is a short, rounded, unarmed lobe.

The antennae are slender and nearly as long as the carapace. Their
flagella extend beyond the (lagella of the antennules.

The outer maxillipeds have a well-ch'velojied coxal s])iiie: there is
a small spine at the outer distal margin of th(> nierns. and a subproxi-
mal and a distal spine on the outer margin of the cai-pus; the propodus
is unarmed.

The sternite of the outer maxillipeds is very narrow and pointed
anteriorly; on either side of it is a large, stout sjiine, ]daced just
behind the margin at the base of the maxillipeds. Th(> sternite of the
chelipeds has four large spines, two on either side, alou'^- its anttM'ior
border; on the posterior portion of this sternite is a pair of large
spines, one on either side of the midline; anterior to these spines and
roughly in line with them ai'e one oi' two [lairs of well-developed
tubercles or spinules. Two more ])aii's of bai'el\- pei'cept ihle tubercles
are sometimes developed anterior to these, the inost anterioi- ])air being
located on a line with the inner pair of large spines. The sternites of
the walking legs are unarmed.

The chelipeds are very long and slender, approximately four to
five times the length of the carapace; they tend to be proportionately
longer in smaller individuals. The lower surface of the coxa is armed
with a large inner distal si)ine and covered with a number of spinules.
The basi-ischium has a spine at its upi)ei- distal margin and numerous
spines, arranged in four irregular rows, on its outer and lower surfaces.
The merus. carpus, and palm are armed on all sides with even, longi-



FAMILY CHIROSTYLIDAE IN CALIFORNIA 275

tudinal rows of close-set spines ; between these rows the surface is
flattened rather than convex. Interspersed with tlie rows of spines are
long, scattered hairs. The palm is about one and a half to two times
as long as the fingers, w^hich are slightly curved and gaping, their
inner edges with a row of blunt teeth and with many hairs; they are
otherwise smooth except for a few minute spinules on their lateral
and dorsal surfaces near the proximal end.

The walking legs are very long, reaching or surpassing the distal
end of the carpus of the cheliped. The lower surface of the coxa has
a large inner distal and inner subdistal spine ; tliese spines are espe-
cially prominent on the first two pairs of walking legs. The basi-
ischium, merus, and carpus are armed much like the corresponding
articles of the chelipeds. The distal third of the propodus is compressed
and slightly broadened, and the lower margin of the segment is armed
witli a row of slender, movable spines ; the spines near the distal end
are elongate. The dactyl is short, unarmed on its dorsal and lateral
surfaces, and provided with a strong, slender terminal claw ; its lower
margin has a series of slender, movable spinules which increase in size
distally.

The first abdominal segment has a transverse row of about 12 to 18
spines ; it has no pleura but their position is marked by a stout, pointed
tubercle on either side. The second segment has a transverse row of
five to eight spines on its proximal margin ; in larger individuals there
is a transverse row of two to four small conical tubercles near the
midline of the somite and about halfway between its proximal and
distal margins. Segment 2 also has a small group of large, pointed
conical tubercles (usuall\' three to five in mature specimens) on either
side at the junction witli the pleura, and the latter have a row of
small conical spines or teeth along their proximal margin and some-
times several more spines on the pleural surface. The third abdominal
segment is unarmed except for one or two spines on either side at the
junction with the pleura ; in some small individuals these spines are
wanting. The fourth segment is unarmed except for one to three spines
on either side at the junction with the pleura. The fifth segment has
a double longitudinal row of three or four spines on its surface, and
a longitudinal row of two to four spines on either side at the junction
with the pleura. The sixth segment has many strong spines over the
entire surface, tending to form longitudinal rows; the distal margin
has tliree spines which overhang the telson. The pleura of segments
3 through 6 have their surfaces armed with numerous spinules except
in very small individuals (the pleura of segment 3 especially tend to
lack or have a reduced number of these spinules). Tlie portion of the
telson proximal to the transverse fissure is covered witli fine spinules;
the distal portion is unarmed but covered witli very fine, sliort setules.

Males have paired gonopods on abdominal segments 1 and 2, and
rudimentary pleopods on segments 3 through 5. Females have paired
pleopods on segments 2 through 5.

Measurements

The paratypes vary in size from 14.5 mm to 22.5 mm for males and
12.3 mm to 21.2 mm for females (length of the carapace including the



276 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME

rostrnm). Following: are measurements of llic liolotyiio. expressed in
niilliiueters.



Length of body when fully extended:








61.0


LenKtli of carapace, includi


ing


rostrum








26.0


Greatest carapace width:












14.0


Right cheliped:














Coxa and basi-ischiiim:












7.0


Merus:












41.0


Carpus:












24.8


Propodus:












24.8


Propodus and poUcx:












41.8


Dactyl:












1G.8


Riffht walking legs:






?




2


S


Coxa and basi-ischiuni:






7


.0


7,


.0 7.0


Merus:






35


.8


37.


.0 38.1


Carpus:






18


.4


20.


.2 19.0


Propodus:






23


.3


23.


.0 20.0


Dactyl:






G,


.3


5.


,9 5.5



Color

The specimens were bright pink after a few weeks of preservation in
alcohol, but soon faded to white.

Derivation of name

Latin per — well, very much, and armatns — armed ; in reference to
the numerous spines on the carapace, legs, and abdomen.

RELATIONSHIPS

Only two species of Chirostyhis were previously reported froin tlie
eastern Pacific: C. milneedwardsi (Henderson) was collected in south-
ern Chile by the ChaUcnrnr Expedition, and C. dcfcmus (Benedict)
off the Galapagos Islands by the Albatross. C. milneedwardsi differs
from C. pcrarmatus in having the propodus of the outer maxillipeds
armed, and abdominal segments 2 through 6 completely covered Avitli
transverse rows of spines. C. defcnsus is more closely allied to the new
s[)ecies. It resembles C. perarmatns in the shape and proportions of the
carapace, in the armature of the abdomen, and in the lack of armature
on tlie propodus of the outer maxillipeds.

At my request Fenner A. Chace, Jr., U. S. National IMuseum. com-
pared drawings of the new species against the two syntypes of Pty-
ehogaster defcnsa Benedict in that institution. He concluded (pers.
eomm.), "Comparison of j^our figures with the syntypes of Pfiicho-
gastf r defensa leaves me without doubt tliat your CMrostylus is dis-
tinct. In C. defensus all of the major spines on the carapace and legs
are longer and less numerous, and there are fewer small spines inter-
spersed among 1lie larger ones. This is especially 1ruc of the clieli})eds,
whicli have the s])ination much more widely spaced and irr<'gular than
in your specimen. The pair of spines at tlie anterior end of the sternum
in C. defensus are no more than sharp tubercles, and they are set well
back from the margin at the bases of the maxillipeds. The two pairs
of prominent tubercles that are lined up with i]\o posterior pair of
sternal spines in the California specimen are entirely lacking in C.
defensus. The fingers of the chelae in the Galapagos species have a
wider gap and a more prominent tooth near the base of each finger, but



FAMILY CHIROSTYLIDAE IN CALIFORNIA 277

the succeeding teeth (in the gape) are smaller and less numerous (more
widely spaced)."

C. perarmatus appears to be most closely related to an Indian Ocean
species, C. investigator is (Alcoek and Anderson). From the published
illustrations and descriptive material, C. investigatoris appears to differ
in details of the abdominal armature. In this species, the fifth segment
is unarmed except laterally at the junction with the pleura, while C.
perarmatus has a double row of spines on the fifth segment. Direct
comparsion of the two species might reveal other distinguishing char-
acters.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am grateful to John E. Fitch, California Department of Fish and
Game, for providing the specimens on which the description of Chiro-
stylus perarmatus is based, and for the information relating to their
capture. I am also indebted to Fenner A. Chace, Jr., U. S. National
Museum, for clarifying the distinctions between the new species and
C. defensus. The illustrations were prepared by Timothy Wyatt,

REFERENCES

Glynn, Peter W. 1961. The first recorded mass stranding of pelagic red crabs,
Pleuroncodes planipes, at Monterey Bay, California, since 1859, with notes on
their biology. Calif. Fish and Game, 47 (1) : 97-101.

Radovich, .John. 1961. Relationships of some marine organisms of the northeast
Pacific to water temperatures particularly during 1957 through 1959. Calif. Dept.
Fish and Game, Fish Bull., (112) : 1-62.

Schmitt, Waldo L. 1921. The marine decapod Crustacea of California. Univ. Calif.
Publ. Zool., 23 : 1-470.



Calif. Fish a»d Gnmc, 54(4) : 278-280. IOCS.



PRIONOTUS XENISMA JORDAN AND BOLLMAN, A
SEAROBIN NEW TO CALIFORNIA^

RICHARD S. LEE
Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History

A triglid fish, Prionotus xenisma Jordan and Bollman, was found in
the collections of the Museum of Natural History in Santa Barbara,
California. The specimen was taken in a trawl net by a commercial
fisherman in August 1958 in the vicinity of the Santa Barbara Channel
Islands. This is the first positive record of this species from California.

Wliilo ro()r<,'<iniziiig tlie fisli eolleetioii at tlie Santa Barbara Musoum
of Natural History in July 1966, I found an unidentified <rurnard. The
acconii)anying data stated that it had been taken by a coiinnereia!
fisherman, H. Durrah of Santa Barbara, in August 1958 Avith a tiMwl
net in the vicinity of the Santa Barbara Channel Islands.

The specimen did not match the description of Prionotus stcphan-
opJirijs, the only gurnard listed for California waters (ITubbs, 1945),
so I took it to John E. Fitch, California Department of Fish and Game,
for identification. He recognized the fish as Prionofvs xcnismn Jordan
and Bollman. which normally is taken from waters ofp the coast of
Panama north to the southern part of the Gulf of California. This is
file first ]:)Ositive record from California.

Tills species may be recognized by the deep rostral notch, the short
])ect()i-al fins, the presence of three free spines in the latter part of the
first dorsal fin, and strong nasal spines. Since this specimen represents
quite a northern range extension, I include a short description and also
morphometric measurements (Table 1).

Dorsal fin, VII + TII-10. deeply incised; anal fin. 9 fmutilaled"! ;
pectoral, 8 + 3; pelvic, I, 5; caudal, 9; gill rakers in the 1st arch. 7;
scales in lateral line, 42 (ea.) ; scales between lateral line and ddi-sil
base. 7. Spines on the right side of the head : prerostral. 4 iiinjor pud
3 minor to the inside; Innneral. long and sharp, lying close to the bodv;
preopercular, short and heavy, pointing outwards; postocular, small
and blunt; opercular, long and pointing back; ])arital, short and blunl :
tiuclial. long and flat; preocular, pterotic, and sphenotic, all short and
blunt.

Preserved in Baker's solution, the color is light broAvn. mottled with
darker brown and black, with black on the pectorals, and a black spot
on 1hc margin of th(> fii-st dorsal between the fourth and fifth spines.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I wish to thank th(^ following ])(M-sons: Nelson Baker. Snnta Barbara
]\Iuseum of Natural History, for making the specimen available to me;
John E. Fitch, California Department of Fish and Game, for identify-

> Accepted for inil)lication February 1968.

(278)



SEAROBIN NEW TO CALIFORNIA



279



TABLE 1
Morphometric Measurements of the Santa Barbara Specimen of Prionofus xenisma



Measurements



Total length

Standard length

Body depth

Depth of caudal peduncle.
Length of caudal peduncle.

Head length

Snout length

Orbit

Interorbital width

Length of maxillary

Snout to dorsal inserti )n_ _
Snout to ventral insertion.
Longest dorsal spine (Ist).

Base of the 1st dorsal

Longest dorsal ray (1st) —

Base of anal

Length of pectoral

Length of pelvic

Prerostral spine length

Longest preopercular spine
Longest opercular spine




Thousandths

of standard

length



305

85

68

457

1(19

107

08

130

425

078

203

109

136

238

305

305

03

85

63





FIGURE 1— Prionofus xenisma, 74 mm TL, taken in the vicinity of the Santa Barbara Channel
Islands, August 1958. This species is recognized by the deep rostral notch (see inset).

inp: the specimen; Mrs. Tliomas Rogers for her excellent drawing; and
Herbert W. Frey, California Department of Fish and Game, for his
helpful advice.



280 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME

REFERENCES

Iluhhs. Carl 1j. 1045. California wc'irohiii ( rrioiwtiis sfcphniiophnjs) . a fish new
for the fauna of southern California. Calif. Fish and Game, 31 (1; : l!tri-li(l(t.

Jordan, David Starr, and Charles Harvey Bollman. 1S.S9. Deseriptions of mw
spceios of fishes colloctod at the (Ialaiiaf,'os Islands and alonfc the coast of the
United States of Colombia, 1887-1888. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 12 (4) : 109-170.

Teague, Gerard W. 1051. The sea-robins of America. A revision of the Irifjlid
fishes of the genus PrioiiotiiK. Coinniiin. /ool. Mus. Hist. Xatur. Moiitr\iili'(i. .S
lUl) : 1-53.



Calif. Fish and Game, 54(4) : 281-288. IOCS.



FECUNDITY OF THE NORTHERN ANCHOVY,
ENGRAUUS MORDAX GIRARD^

JOHN S. MacGREGOR

U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries

Fishery-Oceanography Center

La Jolla, California 92037

The ovaries and ovarian eggs of the northern onchovy are described
briefly and compared with those of two other engrauiids, Cetengtaulis
mysticefus and Anchoa naso. The number of eggs spawned in one batch
by £. mordax was estimated to be 574 per g of total weight of the
female compared with 836 for C. mysficetus and 326 for A. naso. Other
factors useci to determine biomass of cdult anchovies from planktonic
egg census data are discussed. The biomass of adult male anchovies in
the commercial catch was about 75% of that of adult females. There-
fore, for one spawning, 5.2 x 10^ eggs would be produced per short ton
of female anchovy or 3.0 x 10'^ eggs per short ton of adult biomass. The
average number of times each female anchovy spawns in a year is not
known and may vary from year to year.

INTRODUCTION

One of the objectives of the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries
Investigations (CalCOFI) is to obtain censuses of the pelagic eggs and
larvae of important fish species in the CalCOFI survey area. These data
have been used directly as indices of relative sizes of the adult popula-
tions that produced them. Additional information, such as may be de-
rived from fecundity studies, helps to refine these estimates of adult
population size.

Northern anchovy larvae are the most abundant of any species taken
in the survey area. More than a third of all larvae taken over the past
15 years have been anchovies, and they have increased in recent years
both in total numbers and in percentage of all larvae taken. Plankton
nets used in the CalCOFI surveys, which were designed to retain the
larger, spherical planktonic fish eggs, do not retain all of the smaller,
oblong anchovy eggs. Although supplementary hauls wath finer mesh
nets that retain all anchovy eggs have been used in recent years, pres-
ently available data on comparative abundance of the various fish
species are based on larval abundance.

Although the literature contains considerable information on the
northern anchovy, nothing has been published on its fecundity. Tlie


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