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THIRD CALIFORNIA CONDOR SURVEY 301

from observation stations is essential for efficient evaluation of survey
data. Sighting reports are phoned in the same day as made, and all
missing or questionable reports are checked by the day after the survey.
Visual presentation of data was accomplished by using a mosaic of
topographic maps covering the condor range. Arrows were placed on
the map in the appropriate places for all sightings, and color coded
for age and for morning or afternoon sightings. This visual layout
allows for compreliension and rapid reanalysis of data not possible from
reading the observation report forms. In analyzing sighting reports,
cards for individual sightings are arranged chronologically and analysis
is started with the earliest sighting.

A condor "sighting" is defined as a reported observation of one
condor at one observation station. The same bird seen simultaneously
from another station would be an additional sighting; five birds seen
simultaneously at one station would represent five sightings.

Criteria for separation of sightings, as on previous surveys, are :
simultaneous sightings, nonsimultaneous sightings at stations separated
by a distance greater than a condor can cover in the time difference
between the two sightings, age difference, plumage difference, and
groupings of condors.

Some condors may be seen more than once, but determining which
ones are seen a second time is difficult. A conservative approach is used
in matching sightings to produce the minimum number of individual
condors that could provide the total number of sightings (see Mallette
and Borneman (1966) for further discussion).

Some critics have believed that, despite the conservative evaluation
approach, limitations of the survey method have introduced serious
errors in the final total. These limitations are incomplete observer report
forms, limited area coverage, and human error. The effect of human
error on the final count is slight. The other limitations listed tend to
produce lower rather than higher counts. Observer error in identifying
condors or incorrectly aging condors has been minimized by training
all observers, utilizing more experienced observers on productive sta-
tions, and recruiting observers from previous years' surveys. Observers
are instructed to report only those condors they are sure of and to
report condors as "age unknown" if they have any uncertainty about
age.

On each of the three surveys additional condor sightings, represent-
ing one or more condors unaccounted for in the survey, have been
reported by nonsurvey observers. These have not been included because
the final survey count is an index and not a total count. The count
secondarily represents a minimum population figure, but this figure
has not been projected to a total population estimate. A mistaken im-
pression of the survey's purpose has resulted because this minimum
population figure has exceeded previous estimates of the total popula-
tion.

We have little to add to the discussion of the 1966 survey results
TMallette et al., 1967). The condors continue to concentrate on the
Tejon Ranch in south central Kern County and have the same distri-
bution pattern as in other survevs. On October 17. 1967, approximately
60% of the birds were east of U.S. Hiorhway 99. 30% were in the area
between U.S. Highway 99 and State Highway 33, and 10% were west



302 CALIFORNIA FTSTT AND G A:\rE

of State Highway 33. On llic 2-day survey eight and seven young birds
were seen, respectively. Based on survey report information, at least
n different young were observed. Tliis is approximately 25'^r of the
count, indicating a satisfactory proportion of young to adults, although
the figure is lower than last year.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Three recommendations for inijiroviiig observer training are:

1) Training sessions on prnccdnrrs should he held immediately before
the snrvcji — National Audubon Society members and volunteer coop-
erators on Hie jireceding Saturday, state and federal agency personnel
on the preceding Monday. Lookouts and other individuals unable to
attend training sessions should be contacted during the preceding week.

2) A weel' of conelor ieJentifieation sessions should he helel in Anrjust
on Mt. Finos, with each observer attending one day. This allows for
smaller groups and individual training.

3) Captains' trainine/ sessions shoulel be held separatehj from ob-
server sessions. At this time captains could submit recommendations
for changes in station location to provide better coverage, easier ac-
cess, etc.

The survey has five objectives; but one of these, establishment of
condor counts to provide an index of the population, has not been fully
accomplished. The present survey does provide much comparable in-
formation and should be maintained. Modifications should be tested in
r-xtra experimental surveys and only changes of proven value added
to the present system. Two possible subsurveys are:

1) Establishment of bait stations to concentrate condors in vieir of
observers. A trial survey with five or six stations should be tried in
May lOfiS and another trial survev should be tried within a few davs
after the annual survey. The location of bait stations in this latter trial
survey should be based on condor distribution as found during the
annual survey.

2) T)erelopment of a population index based on concentrated cover-
aeie of a smaller portion of the total condor ranqe. Additional observa-
tion stations should be established on the Tejon "Ranch during the
survey, their location bein<x determined by a week of observation just
before the survey. The sis:htings from these additional stations should
be analyzed separatelv from the total survey results; a comparison
betwr-en results would indicate any value additional stations may
provide.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The Tondor Survey- Committee wishes to thank all of the persons
who participated in tho eoTidor survey; without them this survey would
haA'e been impossible. The return of manv persons Avho participated in
the first two surveys added much to the reliability of the survev results.
The continued cooperation of the National Audubon Society, TT. S,
Forest Service. TT. S. Fish and AA^ildlife Sorvipo. California Department
of Fish and Game. California Division of Forestry. Sequoia National
Park, and interested ranchers and conservationists is greatly appreci-
ated.



THIRD CALIFORNIA CONDOR SURVEY 303

REFERENCES

Koford, Carl B. 1953. The California condoi-. New York, Nat. Audubon Soc,
Res. Rept., (4) : 154 p.

Mallette, Robert D., and John C. Borneman, 19G6. Fir.st cooperative survey of the

California condor. Calif. Fish and Game 52 (3) : 185-203.
Mallette, Robert D., John C. Borneman, Fred C. Sibley, and Raymond S. Dalen,

19G7. Second cooperative survey of the California condor. Calif. Fish and Game

53 (3) : 132-145.
Miller. Alden H., Eben McMillan, and Ian MclNIillan, 19G5. The status and welfare

of the California condor. New York, Nat. Audubon Soc, Res. Rept., (6) : 61 p.



NOTES

HARBOR SEAL CENSUSES IN HUMBOLDT BAY
DURING 1966 AND 1967

Tlie harbor seal, PJioca vitnlina, occurs along the west coast of North
America from arctic Alaska to northern Baja California. Tluniholdt
Bay is one of the principal areas frequented by tlie liarbor seal in
northern California.

For two years I conducted censuses, from winter until early summer,
of the harbor seals inhabiting soutli Humboldt Bay (Figure 1). Counts
were made using a tripod mouiit(>d ]5-to-()() variable powered spotting
scope from high observation points overlooking the mudflats in the
bay. The seals were counted in hauling areas on the mudflats exposed
during low tides. All the hauling areas were adjacent to water-fdled
channels, which provided the seals protection and access to food. Ken-
yon and Rice (1961) found that a knowledge of the hauling liabits
of sea lions was helpful in making more accurate p<)])uhition counts.
This was also the case with harbor seals, since the greatest numbers
of animals were observed during the afternoon low tides when it was
sunny and clear.

Tlie counts steadily increased from winter until late spring, reaching
a peak during May, when the largest numbers of adults and sub-
adults were counted in the Bay (Table 1). Tlie first pups appeared
during the month of April.

TABLE 1
Humboldt Bay Harbor Seal Counts, 1966-1967



19G6


19(57


Date


Nuuibcr


Date


Number




65

82

17 — rain

55

9(i
101
110

118 plus 4 pupa
150 plus f) pups
280 plus 10 pups
294 i)lus 10 pups


January 6_


42




February 5


75


T^'phriiarv 5


February 20


80




March 4


53


l\In.rph 1


March 21


98


March l.'B


April 2


120 plus 2 pups


Aoril 10


April 18


143 plus 3 i«ips


Anril 22


April 30 . - .


132 plus pups


^lay 1


May 2


205 plus 8 pups


May 13


Mav 17


285 plus pups


Mav .SO


Mav 31


308 plus 12 pups




June 27 -


282 plus 10 pups









Aerial counts in both south and north Humboldt Bay steadil.y de-
clined from a high of 210 on .July 8 to zero on December 29, 1967
(Daniel W. Gotsliall, California Department of Fish and Game, pers.
comm.).



( 304 )



NOTES



305




^OBSERVATION POINTS
QSEAL HAULING AREAS



HUMBOLDT BAY

FIGURE 1— Observation points and seal iiauling areas in south Humboldt Bay.

Humboldt Bay appears to be one of the major pupping grounds in
northern California, and censuses should be conducted periodically to
assure proper management of the harbor seal in that region.

REFERENCE

Kenyon. Kar] W.. and Dale W. Rice. 1961. Abundance and distribution of the
Steller sea lion. .lour. Mammal., 42 (2): 223-234.

Eichard J. RosentJial. ]V( sf))i(ih()iisc Electric Corporation Ocean Re-
search Lahoraturij. Accepted March 1968.



306



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME



DEFORMED LATERAL LINE IN A JACK MACKEREL,
TRACHURUS SYMMETRICUS (AYRES)

Wliile takin«r a routino samplo of jack mackerel from tho purse
seiner S. Rcstitufa II, 1 observed a specimen witli a defonned lateral
line on its right side (Figure 1). The fish. I(i7 mm fl, appeared normal
in other respeets. It was caught during 1he night of April Li. 1967,
in one of two 15-ton "sets" made on the west side of S;ni <'lemente
Island.




^_^«^i=«^""-^*W\t'.'»v» '.



FIGURE 1— Jack mackerel with a deformed lateral line. Pbofograph by Jack W. Schotf.

The lateral line starts normally but instead of curving downward
and continuing posteriorly it curves down, forming a U, and continues
anteriorly for a distance of 18 mm. Eight mm from the ])osterior end
of the U, the lateral line recommences and continues })osteri()rly in a
normal manner. The scutes in the deformed portion were laid down
normally, i.e., inserted anteriorly, with the posterior portion free and
overlapping the anterior edge of the next scute. — John M. BufJu,
Marine Kcsources Operations, California Deparimmt of Fish and Game.
Accepted January 1968.






OBSERVATION OF STRIPED BASS SPAWNNIG IN
THE SACRAMENTO RIVER

The only published account of striped bass {Roccus saxatilis) spawn-
ing in California is that of Woodhull ( lf)47).

We had the opi)()rtunity to make additional observations on the after-
noon of June !), 1!)()7, when we investigated a r(>|)ort of stri])ed bass
spawning at Steiner Bend, 20 miles north of Knights Landing on the
Sacramento River.

Groups of three to six bass were observed splasliing in the middle of
the river. In addition to these splashing and spawning activities or
"rock fights" (this term originates on the Atlantic Coast, where striped
bass are called ''rockfish"), there was an aggregation of large striped
bass forming a 4- to 8-ft-wide band along the east bank of the river.
This band, which was formed by several thousand fish, was about 1,000
yards long and was located 6 to 12 ft from the river bank.

Some of these fish Avere in water as shallow as 1 ft and all were out
of the main river current. Maintenance of position in the current was
by slow swimming movements. At times tlie dorsal and caudal fins
were out of the water. Occasionallv. a fish was observed on its back



NOTES 307

with its white ventral surface up and head down at a 30- to 45-degree
angle.

The fish in this aggregation appeared to be resting and relatively in-
active. It was not possible to observe clearly fish leaving the aggrega-
tion to participate in the rock fights, although this probably occurred.
No rock fights were observed in the aggregation, although some oc-
cured near it.

Several anglers caught limits from the aggregation along the river
bank using cut sardines, indicating that some of these fish would feed.
Milt from captured males was strewn abundantly on the bank.

The spawning activities were first reported on June 7. On June 10,
the aggregation had dispersed and only three rock fights were observed
in 1^ hours in contrast to the previous day, when as many as four or
five fights were observed simultaneously. The water temperature on
June 10 was 62 F.

The number of eggs sampled by the Delta Fish and Wildlife Protec-
tion Study's pumps at Ryde reached a dramatic high on June 11 and
12 — about 2 days after our observation (Jerry L. Turner, pers. comm.).
This station is located approximately 85 miles below Steiner Bend.
From the age of the eggs and the river flow rate, we concluded that
the origin of these eggs was in the area of our observation.

REFERENCE

Woodhull, Chester, 1947, Spawning habits of the striped bass {Roccus saxatilis)
in California waters. Calif. Fish and Game, 33 (2) : 97-102.

Lee W. Miller and Robert J. McKechnie, Inland Fisheries Branch, Cali-
fornia Departme7it of Fish and Game. Accepted March 1968.



BOOK REVIEWS

Fisheries Year Book and Directory 7 967-68

Edited by Harry F. Tysser; British Continental Press Ltd., London, 1967; 443 p., illustrated, t 2.

In iulditiiin to tin- in.iiiy ri'.t;iil;ir fciit iircs in this year's Fi.shcric.s Year liool; and
Director!/, sucli Idpifnl sulijcc-ts as air ti'ansport of fish, nii'i-lianical unliindin;,' of
frcsli tish. and i)uini)inij fisli from nets to vessel lia\e been inc]udc'(l.

Tlir nvmilar fcalincs lia\in^ been enlarf^cd. jiresent interest inii' de\ clopnients in
lisheries rcsrarch in tlie Tnited Kinj^doni. developments in fisli lu-ocessin.i;, pres-
ervation and handlin;;-. and recent innovations in vessel eonst met ion and ciiuiii-
nient .

In I lie world sni-\('y section, a suniniar.v of fisliei'V statistics for •'!(> coinili'ies is
pre.sented. These data are concerned with lisli calclies, exports, iiiipoi-ts. consump-
tion, and devehipments.

The reference seetion contains a lisli sujiply calendar, a (liclionar\ of fish names
in eijiht lanj;na.i;es. orj;anizations and trade associations in the industr.v and re-
lated trades, and lists specialized publications.

Particnlars are presented for nearly Ci.dllO firms in the world directory section.
These firms are en.i;aj;ed in fishing; processing and distribution of fresh, frozen,
and canned tish; and other seafoods. Suppliers of vessels, ui.icliinery, equipment
and materials used in the fishing industi'y are included. A classitii'd bnxiiig guide
for all types of tish. shellfish, and fishing eipiipment also is presented.

The timely special feature chapters and the wide range of information presented
in this hook make it a valuable reference to p<'rsons engaged in all phases of the
fishing industry. — J. (lari/ SiiiHli.

Fish Quality at Sea

Edited by World Fishing and the White Fish Authority StafF; Grampian Press Ltd., London,
1966; vi + 129 p., illustrated. £ 5-5-0 ($16.00)

The oliicial proceedings of the Conference on the Design of Fishing Vessels and
the K(|uipnu'nt in l{elati(ui to the Improvement of (.,)uality are ])ublished in this
book, hivided into four sessions, the papers and discussions cover a \ariety of
interesting topics rtdated to improving quality of fishery products.

The first three sessions dealt with the technology of handling and stowing methods
aboaid conventional side and stern trawlers. Icing, chilling, and superchilling meth-
ods wei'e discussed. Ways of improving these methods in an effort to maintain the
catch at a constant tempei'ature were explored. The merits of freezing trawlers
and their e(iuipnienl requirements received considerable attention since the larger,
far seas ves.sids are gaining in popularity. The conclusions drawn from these ses-
sions indicate that once a suitable ice is perfected; a standardized box is ap-
])roved ; imi)roved automation techniques for handling, stowing and unloading the
c.itch are developed; and practical freezer units are designed, th(> (piality of tish
can be preserved aboard fishing vessels.

Ill the lin;il session, less emphasis was given to problems of technology and
there were more considerations of presenting vessel operators with practical means
of maintaning fish quality. Topics ranged from freezing fillets at sea. offal proc-
essing (slightly out of context with the other presentations, but nevertheless in-
tei-esting). and design of !uothershi]is and .•iltendant vessels to methods of ti'ans-
ferriug fish catches at sea.

AltlKMigh the iuform.ation in this book relates iirim.arily to the n(trtheastern At-
lantic hsaeries, many of the topics should be of interest to segments of the American
fishing industry. In particular, there are considerations for the fishing vessel op-
erator, ship buildi'r ;iud designei-, food technologist, processor, fi.sliing gear and
e(iuipmeut six'ciaUst. and the fishery biologist interested in o]dimuni fishery utiliza-
tion and developmeiil. 1 belie\e. lin\ve\er. lh.-it the wealth of information i)resent(>d
<ui this most impori.-inl subject unfortunately will receive limited distibntion due
to the high price of the book. Hopefully, through reprinting or the presentation of a
similar conference for American industr.\, this information may be disseminated
to its proper audience. — J. Gary titnUIi.

(30S )



BOOK REVIEWS 809

Modern Deep Sea Trawling Gear

By John Garner; Fishing News (Books) Ltd., London, 1967; 79 p., illustrated. £ 2 2s.

In the tradition of his past successes of writing fundamental and practical books
on trawling, John Garner's present accomplishment is a welcome addition. The
clarity and simplicity of expression and ample illustrations, one-third of which are
fold-outs, present the evolution of trawling gear from its beginning to current designs
for modern stern trawlers.

There are seven chapters outlining in detail the empirical development of trawl
gear, the design and operation of side trawl gear, and the design and operation of
stern trawl gear. Garner presents a comparison of side trawl gear and stern trawl
gear. The design and efficiency of otter boards are discussed, as well as the develop-
ment of gear for stern trawlers. General notes on operational procedures and assem-
blies also are presented. In the final chapter, the trawling gears of medium-class
stern trawlers are discussed.

Three appendices have been included which analyze the gear used by Aberdeen
trawlers, discuss the apprentice, and note future applications of trawling.

In my opinion, this book is a must for anyone, regardless of trawling experience,
who wishes to understand the fundamental principles and practical details of the
design and operation of modern deep sea trawling gear. — J. Gary Smith.

Fishing Boats of the Wmrld: 3

Edited by Jan-Oiof Troung; Fishing News (Books) Ltd., London, 1967; 648 -l- xlii p., illustrated.
£7.15.0 ($23.50).

This book is the third volume in a series resulting from FAO Congresses on Fish-
ing Boats of the World. The third Fishing Boat Congress was held in Gotenburg,
Sweden, in October 1965 and was attended by over 300 fisheries experts from 40
nations.

At this meeting particular attention was devoted to the design and study of the
smaller inshore and near-water fishing boats, mostly under 150 tons, in contrast to
the recent emphasis on large distant-water factory type vessels.

A total of 174 persons contributed material to this well-organized volume, which
is in itself a library of material on small fishing boat design. Fishing Boats of the
World: 3 is divided into six parts, which enables the reader to easily find the
information he may be looking for at any one time. Contents range from the social
and economic problems of boat building and mechanization of small boats in develop-
ing countries to the evaluation of the most recent trends in vessel design.

One of the primary purposes of the book was to cover the problems of the develop-
ing countries and determine how modern technology can be used to their advantage.

While the use of modern boat building materials, such as fiberglass reinforced
plastic and aluminum, and the intricacies of structural design are gone into in some
detail, an evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of indigneous small craft
design was also made. While it was found important to develop and utilize new
designs and materials for fishing craft, it was pointed out that many times there
were distinct advantages in modifying traditional designs and using wood properly
before going into more sophisticated construction techniques.

It was shown that in some of the highly developed countries certain inshore
fisheries can still be carried out efficiently by traditional fishing craft but only if
the modern materials such as plastics and fiberglass are used in their construction.
Examples of these adaptations were given for the lavar and shellfish boats used in
Japan and the unique surf skiffs designed for use along the southern California
Coast.

It would be impossible to describe all of the details of a book of this stature. This
book, along with others in the series, constitutes one of the most useful collections
of material on fishing boat design and utilization ever written and should be in-
cluded in any complete fisheries library. — Emil J. Smith, Jr.

Marine Molluscs as Hosts for Symbioses (Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 5)

By Thomas C. Cheng; edited by Sir Frederick S. Russell; Academic Press Inc., London and New
York, 1967; xiii + 424 p., profusely illustrated. 100s. $17.50.

As the first of its kind, this work is a welcome addition to the field of marine
biology.



310 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME

This book is divided into two sections. The first is concerned with an analysis
of the factors involved in syniliiosis (includes parasitism, nnitualism, conimcnsalism,
and phoresis), beginning with the host-symbiont contact, continuing with the estab-
lishment of the symbiont, and concluding with the departure of the symbiont from
the host. Excellent discussions of niolliiscan internal defense mechanisms, pathology,
and [)hysiology of intramolluscan parasites are given. The second section of the
book is cr)ncerned with systematics, life cycles, ecology, and pathology of the known
symbionts of commercially important marine molluscs.

The book is meticuously done, easily read, and provides a wealth of information
which would be virtually unavailable to the average person. The excellent photo-
micrographs, drawings, and extensive bibliography are additional features which the
worker or student will lind beneficial. By bringing together all known facts concern-
ing the symbionts of commercially important marine molluscs the author, T. C.
Cheng, has provided a guideline for future work to elucidate upon host-symbiont
relations.

This text should be considered a must for students, teachers, and biologists inter-
ested in malacology, parasitology, pathology, invertebrate physiology, and ecology. —
S. C. Katkansky.

Parasites of North American Freshwater Fishes

By Glenn L. HofFman; University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1967; x -|- 486
p., illustrated. $15.

Glenn L. Hoffman is known and recognized as a competent and experienced para-
sitologist who has made numerous contributions to the field of fish parasitology. This
work on parasites of North American freshwater fishes is the best and most com-
prehensive effort yet produced. The contents, which are presented in a scholarly
and readable manner, include chapters on Public Health Aspects of Fish Parasites,
Algae and Fungi, Protozoa, Monogenetic Trematodes, Adult Digenetic Trematodes.
Metacercarial Trematodes, Cestodes, Nematodes. Acanthocephala. Loochos. Parasitic
Copopods, and end with a host-parasite check list.

There arc GO pages of bibliography which provide a very good guide to the fish
parasite literature. Over 200 clear and well reproduced line drawings will be an


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