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19b. Ensatina eschscholtzi croceator (Cope), yellow-blotched salamander S, SP

19c. Ensatina eschscholtzi klauberi Dunn, large-blotched salamander S, SP

19d. Ensatina eschscholtzi oregonensis (Cirard), Oregon salamander C

19e. Ensatina eschscholtzi picta Wood, painted salamander C

19f. Ensatina eschscholtzi platensis (Espada). Sierra Nevada salamander C

19g. Ensatina eschscholtzi xanthoptica Stebbins, yellow-eyed salamander C

20. Hydromantes brunus Gorman, limestone salamander SR

21. Hydromantes platycephalus (Camp). Mount Lyell salamander S, SP

22. Hydromantes shastae Gorman and Camp. Shasta salamander SR

23. Plethodon dunni Bishop. Dunn's salamander S, r

24. Plethodon elongatus Van Denburgh. Del Norte salamander C

^Collins, Mitton, and Pierce (1980) suggest a thorough reexamination of the taxonomy of this species. The
undesecribed subspecies of A. tigrinum from Grass Lake, Siskiyou County, may represent a relect population
of tiger salamanders ( Mullen and Stebbins 1 978) . Further study is needed to clarify their taxonomic position.

'Taxonomy after Cehlbach (1967). Considered a distinct species by some authors (Storer 1925; Bishop 1943),
and listed as such by Collins et al. (1978).

* No subspecies of A. flavipunctatus are currently recognized (Lynch 1981).

'Taxonomy after Marlow, Brode, and Wake (1979).

'Taxonomy after Yanev (1980), who also reports two additional undescribed subspecies of B. pacificus in
California.

' Known only in California from three localities in Del Norte County (Bury, Fellers, and Ruth 1969; Storm and
Brodie 1970; Stebbins 1972). Common in Oregon and Washington.



AMPHIBIAN AND REPTILE CHECK LIST 155

25. Plethodon stormi Highton and Brame. Siskiyou Mountains salamander SR

Order Anura — Toads and Frogs.

Family PIPIDAE — Tongueless Frogs.

26. Xenopus laevis Daudin. African clawed frog* C

Family ASCAPH I DAE— Tailed Frogs.

27. Ascaphus ^we/ Stejneger. tailed frog C

Family PELOBATIDAE— Spadefoot Toads.

28. Scaphiopus couch/ Baird. Couch's spadefoot r

29. Scaphiopus hammondi Baird. western spadefoot S

30. Scaphiopus intermontanus Cope. Great Basin spadefoot C

31. Bufo alvarius Girard, in Baird. Colorado River toad S, r'

32. Bufo boreas Baird and Girard. western toad.

32a. Bufo boreas boreas Baird and Girard. boreal toad C

32b. Bufo boreas halophilus Baird and Girard. California toad C

33. Bufo canorus Camp. Yosemite toad S

34. Bufo cognatus Say. Great Plains toad r

35. Bufo exsul Myers, black toad SR

36. Bufo microscaphus Cope, southwestern Toad.

36a. Bufo microscaphus microscaphus Cope. Arizona toad S, SP, r

36b. Bufo microscaphus californicus Camp, arroyo toad S, SP

37. Bufo punctatus Baird and Girard. red-spotted toad C

38. Bufo woodhousi Girard. Woodhouse's toad.

38a. Bufo woodhousi woodhousi Girard. Woodhouse's toad r

Family HYLIDAE — Treefrogs and Their Allies.

39. Hy/a cadaverina Cope. California treefrog S

40. IHyla regilla Baird and Girard. Pacific treefrog C

Family RANIDAE — True Frogs.

41. Rana aurora Baird and Girard. red-legged frog.

41a. Rana aurora aurora Baird and Girard. northern red-legged frog S

41b. Rana aurora draytoni Baird and Girard. California red-legged frog S, SP

42. Rana boy/i Baird. foothill yellow-legged frog S

43. Rana cascadae Slater. Cascades frog r

44. Rana catesbeiana Shaw, bullfrog* C

45. Rana muscosa Camp, mountain yellow-legged frog C

46. Rana pipiens Schreher . northern leopard frog' C

47. Rana pretiosa Baird and Girard. spotted frog S, r '°

Order Testudines — Turtles.
Family CHELYDRIDAE— Snapping Turtles.

48. Chelydra serpentina (Linnaeus), snapping turtle *.

48a. Chelydra serpentina serpentina (Linnaeus), common snapping turtle * C



* Once fairly common in lowlands and fields bordering Colorado River in Imperial County. Fouquette (1970) cites
Crinnell and Camp (1917), Storer (1925), and Slevin (1928) for original records. Probably extirpated over
most of its native range in California due to habitat destruction and heavy use of pesticides. Last known
specimens taken 6 miles north of Winterhaven, Imperial County, on July 31, 1955 (Los Angeles County
Museum of Natural History; LACM 87044). Bufo alvarius has only been recorded from the Arizona side of
Colorado River in recent years (W. Loudermilk, Fisheries Biologist, Calif. Dept. Fish and Game, pers. com-
mun.).

' Reportedly native east of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and in the Colorado River Basin (Bury and Luckenbach
1976). Introduced elsewhere in California (see the list of Established Exotic Species).

'"Known in California only from two specimens taken in Modoc County (Turner and Dumas 1972). Common
in northwestern states.



156 CALIFORNIA FISH AND CAME

Family KINOSTERNIDAE— Musk and Mud Turtles.

49. Kinosternon sonoriense (Le Conte). Sonoran mud turtle, t

49a. Kinosternon sonoriense sonoriense (Le Conte). Sonoran mud turtle, t SP

Family EMYDIDAE— Box and Water Turtles.

50. Chrysemys scripts (Sthoepff). slider *.

50a. Chrysemys scripts elegans (Wied). red-eared slider* C

51. Clemmys marmorata (Baird and Cirard). western pond turtle.

51a. Clemmys marmorata marmorata (Baird and Cirard). northwestern pond turtle C

51b. Clemmys marmorata pallida Seeliger. southwestern pond turtle S

Family TESTUDINIDAE— True Land Tortoises.

52. Copherus agassizi (Cooper), desert tortoise S, SP

Family CHELONIDAE— Sea Turtles.

53. Caretta caretta (Linnaeus), loggerhead O.

53a. Caretta caretta gigas Deraniyagala. Pacific loggerhead O FT, r"

54. Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus), green turtle O.

54a. Chelonia mydas agassizi Bocourt. Pacific green turtle O FT, r "

55. Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz). Pacific ridley O FT, r"

Family DERMOCHELYIDAE— Leatherback Turtles.

56. Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus), leatherback O.

56a. Dermochelys coriacea schlegeli (Carman). Pacific leatherback O FE, r "

Family TRIONYCHIDAE— Softshell Turtles.

57. Trionyx spiniferus Le Sueur, spiny softshell *.

57a. Trionyx spiniferus emoryi (Agassiz). Texas spiny softshall * C

Order Squamata — Lizards and Snakes.
Family GEKKONIDAE— Geckos.

58. Anarbylus switaki Murphy . Switak's barefoot gecko" SR

59. Coleonyx variegatus (Baird). banded gecko.

59a. Coleonyx variegatus variegatus (Baird). desert banded gecko C

59b. Coleonyx variegatus abbotti Klauber. San Diego banded gecko C

60. Phyllodactylus xanti Cope, leaf-toed gecko.

60a. Phyllodactylus xanti nocticolus Dixon, leaf-toed gecko S, r

Family IGUANIDAE — ^Iguanid Lizards.

61. Callisaurus draconoides Blainville. zebra-tailed lizard.

61a. Callisaurus draconoides myurus Richardson. Nevada zebra-tailed lizard r

61b. Callisaurus draconoides rhodostictus Cope. Mojave zebra-tailed lizard C

61c. Callisaurus draconoides ventralis (Hallowell). Arizona zebra-tailed lizard C

62. Crotaphytus bicinctores Smith and Tanner, western collared lizard " C

63. Crotaphytus insularis Van Denburgh and Slevin. Baja collared lizard.

63a. Crotaphytus insularis vestigium Smith and Tanner. Baja collared lizard r

64. Dipsosaurus dorsalis (Baird and Cirard). desert iguana.

64a. Dipsosaurus dorsalis dorsalis (Baird and Cirard). desert iguana C

65. Cambelia silus (Stejneger). bluntnose leopard lizard SE, FE

66. Cambelia wislizeni (Baird and Cirard). common leopard lizard.

" Occasional along the California coast (Stebbins 1972). More abundant in tropical nnarine waters further south.
" Common name as proposed by Murphy (1974). Listed as "Magic Gecko" by the California Administrative Code

(1980).
'^The taxonomy of this species remains disputed. Smith and Tanner (1972, 1974) placed it as a subspecies of

Crotaphytus collaris, while Axteil (1972) and Montanucci, Axtell and, Dessauer (1975) preferred to group it

under C. insularis. For the purposes of this paper, the phylogeny of Sanborn and Loomis (1979) is utilized.

They recognize C. bicinctores as a full species.



AMPHIBIAN AND REPTILE CHECK LIST 157

66a. Cambelia wislizeni wislizeni (Baird and Cirard). common leopard lizard C

66b. Cambelia wislizeni copei (Yarrow). Cope's leopard lizard r

66c. Cambelia wislizeni maculosus (Tanner and Banta). Lahontan Basin leopard lizard r

67. Petrosaurus mearnsi (Stejneger). banded rock lizard r

68. Phrynosoma coronatum (Blainville). coast horned lizard.

68a. Phrynosoma coronatum blainvilli Gray. San Diego horned lizard S '■*

68b. Phrynosoma coronatum frontale Van Denburgh. California horned lizard C

69. Phrynosoma douglassi (Bell), short-horned lizard.

69a. Phrynosoma douglassi douglassi (Bell), pigmy short-horned lizard r

70. Phrynosoma mcalli (Hallowell). flat-tailed horned lizard S, SP

71. Phrynosoma platyrhinos G\rard. desert horned lizard.

71a. Phrynosoma platyrhinos platyrhinos GWard. northern desert horned lizard C

71b. Phrynosoma platyrhinos calidiarum (Cope), southern desert horned lizard C

72. Sauromalus obesus Baird. chuckwalla.

72a. Sauromalus obesus obesus Baird. western chuckwalla S

73. Sceloporus graciosus Baird and Cirard. sagebrush lizard.

73a. Sceloporus graciosus graciosus Baird and Cirard. northern sagebrush lizard C

73b. Sceloporus graciosus vandenburghianus Cope, southern sagebrush lizard C

74. Sceloporus magister Hallowell. desert spiny lizard.

74a. Sceloporus magister transversus Phelan and Brattstrom. barred spiny lizard C

74b. Sceloporus magister uniformis Phelan and Brattstrom. yellow-backed spiny lizard C

75. Sceloporus occidentalis Baird and Cirard. western fence lizard.

75a. Sceloporus occidentalis occidentalis Baird and Cirard. northwestern fence lizard C

75b. Sceloporus occidentalis becki Man Denburgh. island fence lizard S,FP

75c. Sceloporus occidentalis biseriatus Hallowell. San Joaquin fence lizard C

75d. Sceloporus occidentalis bocourti Bell. Coast Range fence lizard C

75e. Sceloporus occidentalis longipes Bell. Creat Basin fence lizard C

75f. Sceloporus occidentalis taylori Camp. Sierra fence lizard C

76. Sceloporus orcutti Ste'ineger . granite spiny lizard S,r

77. Uma inornata Cope. Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizard '^ SE,FT

78. Uma notata Baird. Colorado Desert fringe-toed lizard.

78a. Uma notata notata Baird. Colorado Desert fringe-toed lizard S

79. Uma scoparia Cope. Mojave fringe-toed lizard '^ C

80. Urosaurus graciosus Hallowell. long-tailed brush lizard.

80a. Urosaurus graciosus graciosus Hallowell. western brush lizard C

81. Urosaurus microscutatus (Van Denburgh). small-scaled lizard r

82. Urosaurus ornatus (Baird and Cirard). tree lizard.

82a. Urosaurus ornatus symmetricus (Baird). Colorado River tree lizard r

83. Uta stansburiana Baird and Cirard. side-blotched lizard.

83a. Uta stansburiana stansburiana Baird and Cirard. northern side-blotched lizard C

83b. Uta stansburiana elegans Yarrow. California side-blotched lizard C

83c. Uta stansburiana nevadensis Ruthven. Nevada side-blotched lizard r

83d. Uta stansburiana stejnegeri Schmidt, desert side-blotched lizard C

Family XANTUSIIDAE— Night Lizards.

84. Xantusia henshawi Stejneger. granite night lizard.

84a. Xantusia henshawi henshawi Stejneger. granite night lizard S,r

85. Xantusia riversiana Cope, island night lizard SP,FT

86. Xantusia vigilis Baird. desert night lizard.

86a. Xantusia vigilis vigilis Baird. desert night lizard C

86b. Xantusia vigilis sierrae^ezy . Sierra night lizard r

Family SCINCIDAE— Skinks.

87. Eumeces gilberti y an Denburgh. Gilbert's skink.

87a. Eumeces gilberti gilbertiVan Denburgh. greater brown skink C

'* Bury (1972) considered this subspecies to be depleted, while Ashton (1976) considered it threatened.
'* Taxonomy after Rough (1973). England and Nelson (1977) discuss present status.
'* Taxonomy after Rough (1974).



158 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME

87b. Eumeces gilberti cancellosus Rodgers and Fitch, variegated skink C

87c. Eumeces gilberti placerensis Rodgers. northern brown skink C

87d. Eumeces gilberti rubricaudatus Taylor, western red-tailed skink C

88. Eumeces skiltonianus (Baird and Cirard). western skink.

88a. Eumeces skiltonianus skiltonianus (Baird and Girard). western skink C

88b. Eumeces skiltonianus interparietalis Tanner. Coronado Island skink r

Family TEIIDAE— Whiptail Lizards.

89. Cnemidophorus hyperythrus Cope, orange-throated whiptail.

89a. Cnemidophorus hyperythrus beldingi SXe'ineger . orange-throated whiptail S '',r

90. Cnemidophorus tigris Baird and Girard. western whiptail.

90a. Cnemidophorus tigris tigris Baird and Girard. Great Basin whiptail C

90b. Cnemidophorus tigris multiscutatus Cope, coastal whiptail C

90c. Cnemidophorus tigris mundus Cope. California whiptail C

Family ANGUIDAE— Alligator Lizards.

91. Cerrhonotus coeruleus VJ'iegmann. northern alligator lizard.

91a. Cerrhonotus coeruleus coeruleus W\egrr\ar\n. San Francisco alligator lizard C

91b. Cerrhonotus coeruleus pa Imeri Sle\nesef. Sierra alligator lizard C

91c. Cerrhonotus coeruleus principis (Baird and Girard). northern alligator lizard r

91d. Cerrhonotus coeruleus shastensis Fitch. Shasta alligator lizard C

92. Cerrhonotus multicarinatus (Blainville). Southern alligator lizard.

92a. Cerrhonotus multicarinatus multicarinatus (Blainville). California alligator lizard C

92b: Cerrhonotus multicarinatus scincicauda (Skilton). Oregon alligator lizard C

92c. Cerrhonotus multicarinatus webbi Baird. San Diego alligator lizard C

93. Cerrhonotus panamintinus S[ebb\ns. Panamint alligator lizard S,SP

Family ANNEILLIDAE — California Legless Lizards.

94. Aniella pulchra Gray. California legless lizard.

94a. Aniella pulchra pulchra Gray, silvery legless lizard C

94b. Aniella pulchra nigra Fischer, black legless lizard S

Family HELODERMATIDAE— Venomous Lizards.

95. Heloderma suspectum Cope. Gila monster.

95a. Heloderma suspectum cinctum Bogert and Martin del Campo.

banded Gila monster S,SP,r '*

Family LEPTOTYPHLOPIDAE— Slender Blind Snakes.

96. Leptotyphlops humilis (Baird and Girard). western blind snake.

96a. Leptotyphlops humilis humilis (Baird and Girard). southwestern blind snake C

96b. Leptotyphlops humilis cahuilae Klauber. desert blind snake C

Family BOIDAE— Boas.

97. Charina bottae (Blainville). rubber boa '''

97a. Charina bottae bottae (Blainville). northern rubber boa C

97b. Charina bottae umbratica Klauber. southern rubber boa SR

98. Lichanura trivirgata Cope, rosy boa.

98a. Lichanura trivirgata gracia Klauber. desert rosy boa S

98b. Lichanura trivirgata roseofusca Cope, coastal rosy boa S,r

Family COLUBRIDAE— Colubrids.

99. Arizona elegans Kennicott. glossy snake.

"Considered threatened by Ashton (1976).

" Only recorded a few times in California from Imperial, Inyo, and San Bernardino counties (Bradley and Deacon
1966, Funk 1966, Ford 1981). Specimens reported by Klauber (1931) from jacumbra Mountain, San Diego
County, and Bury and Luckenbach (1976) from the residential areas of Walnut Creek, Contra Costa County,
are all escaped pets.

" Taxonomy after Stewart (1977).



AMPHIBIAN AND REPTILE CHECK LIST 159

99a. Arizona elegans Candida Klauber. Mojave glossy snake C

99b. Arizona elegans eburnata Klauber. desert glossy snake C

99c. Arizona elegans occidentalis Blanchard. California glossy snake C

100. Chionactis occipitalis (Hallowell). western shovel-nosed snake.

100a. Chionactis occipitalis occipitalis (Hallowell). Mojave shovel-nosed snake C

100b. Chionactis occipitalis annulata (Baird). Colorado desert shovel-nosed snake r

100c. Chionactis occipitalis talpina Klauber. Nevada shovel-nosed snake r

101. Coluber constrictor UnnAeus. racer.

101a. Coluber constrictor mormon Baird and Girard. western yellow-bellied racer ^° C

102. Contia tenuis (Baird and Girard). sharp-tailed snake S

103. Diadophis punctatus (Linnaeus), ringneck snake.

103a. Diadophis punctatus amabilis Baird and Girard. Pacific ringneck snake C

103b. Diadophis punctatus modestus Bocourt. San Bernardino ringneck snake C

103c. Diadophis punctatus occidentalis Blanchard. northwestern ringneck snake C

103d. Diadophis punctatus pulchellus Baird and Girard. coral-bellied ringneck snake C

103e. Diadophis punctatus regalis Baird and Girard. regal ringneck snake r

103f. Diadophis punctatus similis Blanchard. San Diego ringneck snake C

103g. Diadophis punctatus vandenburgi ^\dir\c\\Axd. Monterey ringneck snake C

104. Hypsiglena torquata (Gijnther). night snake.

104a. Hypsiglena torquata deserticola Tanner, desert night snake C

104b. Hypsiglena torquata klauberi J anner. San Diego night snake C

104c. Hypsiglena torquata nuchalata Tanner. California night snake C

105. Lampropeltis getulus (Linnaeus), comnnon kingsnake^'

105a. Lampropeltis getulus californiae (Blainville). California kingsnake C

105b. Lampropeltis getulus nigritus Zwe\ie\ and Norris. black desert kingsnake r

106. Lampropeltis zonata (Lockington, ex. Blainville). California mountain kingsnake.
106a. Lampropeltis zonata zonata (Lockington, ex. Blainville). Saint Helena mountain

kingsnake SP

106b. Lampropeltis zonata multicincta (Yarrow). Sierra mountain kingsnake SP

106c. Lampropeltis zonata multifasciata (Bocourt). coast mountain snake SP

106d. Lampropeltis zonata parvirubra Zwe\ie\. San Bernardino mountain kingsnake S,SP

106e. Lampropeltis zonata pulchra Zweifel. San Diego mountain kingsnake S,SP

107. Masticophis flagellum (Shaw), coachwhip.

107a. Masticophis flagellum fuliginosus (Cope). Baja California coachwhip r

107b. Masticophis flagellum piceus (Cope), red coachwhip C

107c. Masticophis flagellum ruddocki Brattstrom and Warren. San Joaquin coachwhip S

108. Masticophis lateralis (Hallowell). striped racer.

108a. Masticophis lateralis lateralis (Hallowell). California striped racer C

108b. Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus Riemer. Alameda striped racer SR

109. Masticophis taeniatus (Hallowell). striped whipsnake.

109a. Masticophis taeniatus taeniatus (Hallowell). desert striped whipsnake C

110. Phyllorhynchus decurtatus (Cope), spotted leaf-nosed snake.

110a. Phyllorhynchus decurtatus perkinsi K\auber. western leaf-nosed snake C

111. Pituophis melanoleucus (Daudin). gopher snake.

111a. Pituophis melanoleucus affinis (Hallowell). Sonora gopher snake r

111b. Pituophis melanoleucus annectens Baird and Girard. San Diego gopher snake C

111c. Pituophis melanoleucus catenifer (Blainville). Pacific gopher snake C

Hid. Pituophis melanoleucus deserticola Stejneger. Great Basin gopher snake C

Hie. Pituophis melanoleucus pumilis Klauber. Santa Cruz Island gopher snake S,FP

112. Rhinocheilus lecontei Band and Girard. long-nosed snake.

112a. Rhinocheilus lecontei lecontei Baird and Girard. western long-nosed snake C

113. Salvadora hexalepis (Cope), western patch-nosed snake.

113a. Salvadora hexalepis hexalepis (Cope), desert patch-nosed snake r

113b. Salvadora hexalepis mojavensis Bogert. Mojave patch-nosed snake C

113c. Salvadora hexalepis virgultea Bogert. coast patch-nosed snake C

114. Sonora semiannulata Baird and Girard. western ground snake.^



22



" Fitch, Brown, and Parker (1981) consider this snake to be a full species.
^' Taxonomy after Blaney (1977).

" Frost and Van Deventer (1979) prefer to consider Sonora semiannulata as a highly variable species with no
subspecies.



160 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME

114a. Sonora semiannulata isozona (Cope). Great Basin ground snake C

114b. Sonora semiannualata linearis Stickel. vermilion-lined ground snake C

115. Tantilla hobartsmithi Jaylor ^\ southwestern black-headed snake ^^ r

116. Tantilla planiceps (Biainville) ^^ western black-headed snake C

117. Thamnophis couchi (Kennicott). western aquatic garter snake ^^

117a. Thamnophis couchi couchi (Kennicott). Sierra garter snake C

n7b. Thamnophis couchi aquaticus Fox. aquatic garter snake C

117c. Thamnophis couchi atratus (Kennicott, in Cooper). Santa Cruz garter snake C

117d. Thamnophis couchi gigas Fitch, giant garter snake SR

117e. Thamnophis couchi hammondi (Kennicott). two-striped garter snake S

117f. Thamnophis couchi hydrophilus^*' Fitch. Oregon garter snake C

118. Thamnophis elegans (Baird and Girard). western terrestrial garter snake.

118a. Thamnophis elegans elegans (Baird and Girard). mountain garter snake C

118b. Thamnophis elegans biscutatus (Cope). Klamath garter snake ^'' r

118c. Thamnophis elegans terrestris Fox. coast garter snake C

118d. Thamnophis elegans vagrans (Baird and Girard). wandering garter snake r

119. Thamnophis marcianus (Baird and Girard). checkered garter snake.

n9a. Thamnophis marcianus marcianus (Baird and Girard). checkered garter snake r

120. Thamnophis ordinoides (Baird and Girard). northwestern garter snake r

121. Thamnophis sirtalis (Linnaeus), common garter snake.

121a. Thamnophis sirtalis fitchi Fox. valley garter snake C

121b. Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis (Biainville). California red-sided garter snake C

121c. Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia (Cope, in Yarrow). San Francisco garter snake .. SE,FE

122. Trimorphodon biscutatus (Dumeril, Bibron, and Dumeril). lyre snake.

122a. Trimorphodon biscutatus lambda Cope. Sonoran lyre snake C

122b. Trimorphodon biscutatus vandenberghi K\auber. California lyre snake S



Family HYDROPHIDAE— Sea Snakes^*

123. Pelamis platurus (Linneaus). yellow-bellied sea snake



.r



29



Family VIPERIDAE— Vipers.

124. Crotalus atrox Baird and Girard. western diamondback rattlesnake r

125. Crotalus cerastes Hallowell. sidewinder.

125a. Crotalus cerastes cerastes Hallowell. Mojave Desert sidewinder C

125b. Crotalus cerastes laterorepens Klauber. Colorado Desert sidewinder C

126. Crotalus mitchelli (Cope), speckled rattlesnake.

126a. Crotalus mitchelli pyrrhus (Cope), southwestern speckled rattlesnake C

126b. Crotalus mitchelli stephensi K\auher. Panamint rattlesnake C

127. Crotalus ruber Cope, red diamond rattlesnake.

127a. Crotalus ruber ruber Cope, red diamond rattlesnake r

128. Crotalus scutulatus (Kennicott). Mojave rattlesnake

128a. Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Kennicott). Mojave rattlensnake C

129. Crotalus viridis Rafinesque. western rattlesnake.

129a. Crotalus viridis helleri Meek, southern Pacific rattlesnake C

129b. Crotalus viridis lutosus Klauber. Great Basin rattlesnake C

129c. Crotalus viridis oreganus Holbrook. northern Pacific rattlesnake C



" Taxonomy after Cole and Hardy (1981).

" Common name as proposed to the SSAR Committee on Common and Scientific Names. Taylor (1937) did not

state a common name in his original description and Tantilla hobartsmithi synonymtzes all of T. utahensis and

part of T. atriceps.
^' The taxonomy of this species is currenty under review (G. Stewart, Professor of Zoology, Calif. St. Univ.,

Pomona, pers. commun,).
"The correct spelling of this subspecies is apparently T. c. hydrophilus, not T. c. hydrophila (Rossman 1979).
"The validity of this subspecies is presently disputed (Rossman 1979, Fitch 1980).
^'Classification after Pickwell and Culotta (1980).
" Strays occasionally are found in California waters ( Kropach 1 975, Pickwell and Culotta 1 980) . Such occurrences

are probably due to storm enhanced currents which sweep the snakes north of their breeding range off the

southern Baja California coast.



AMPHIBIAN AND REPTILE CHECK LIST 161

SUPPLEMENTARY LISTS

Native Species Extinct in California:

Order Testudines — Turtles.

Family KINOSTERNIDAE— Musk and Mud Turtles.

1. Kinosternon sonoriense (Le Conte). Sonoran mud turtle, f.

la. Kinosternon sonoriense sonoriense (Le Conte). Sonoran mud turtle* f-

Never abundant in the State. Positively known only from old records listed by Van Denburgh
(1922) at Palo Verde and Yuma Indian Reservation, Imperial County, along the lower Colorado
River (Stebbins 1954, 1966, 1972). Dill (1944) reported seeing K. sonoriense in the Colorado
River in 1942, but did not obtain any specimens. The species now appears to be extinct in
California even though it is protected by State law.

Distributionally or Taxonomically invalid Species:

Order Testudines — Turtles.
Family KINOSTERNIDAE— Musk and Mud Turtles.

1. Kinosternon flavescens (Agassiz). yellow mud turtle.

la. Kinosternon flavescens arizonense Gilmore. Arizona mud turtle".

Thought by Stebbins ( 1 966, 1 972 ) to be expected in California because of the subspecies' close
proximity in Yuma, Arizona. This is no longer considered to be true (Seidel 1978). The species
is listed as protected in California (California Fish and Game Code 1980).

Family TRIONYCHIDAE— Softshell Turtles.

2. Aspidonectes californiana Rivers. "Sacramento softshell".*

Described by Rivers (1889) from a specimen obtained by three fishermen from the Sacramento


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