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Brown, D. )., and K. Bowler. 1977. A population study of the British freshwater crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes
(Lereboullet). Pages 33—49 inO. V. Lindqvist, ed. Freshwater Crayfish 3. Univ. of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
504 p.

Bulla, L. A. Jr., and T. C. Cheng (eds. ) . 1 977. Comparative pathiobiology. Vol. 2. Systematics of the microsporidia.
Plenum Press, New York. 510 p.

Carstairs, I. L. 1978. Report of microsporidia! infestation of the freshwater crayfish, Cherax destructor. Pages
343-348 in P. J. Laurent, ed. Freshwater Crayfish 4. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Thonon-
les-Balns, France. 473 p.

Cossins, A. R. 1973. Thelohania contejeani Henneguy, microspyoridian parasite of Austropotamobius pallipes
Lereboullet — an histological and ultrastructure study. Pages 151-164 in S.A.A. Abrahamsson, ed. Freshwater
Crayfish. Studentlitteratur, Lund, Sweden. 252 p.

Cossins, A. R., and K. Bowler. 1974. A histological and ultrastructural study of Thelohania conte/eani Heone^uy,
1892 (Nosematidae). Microsporidian parasite of the crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes Lereboullet.
Parasitology, 68:81-91.

France, R. L. In press. Response of the crayfish Orconectes virilisio experimental whole-lake acidification in the
ExF)erimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario, in C. R. Goldman, ed. Freshwater Crayfish 5.

Hobbs, H. H. Jr. 1972. Crayfishes (Astacidae of north and middle America. Biota of Freshwater Ecosystems.
Identification Manual No. 9. Environ. Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 1973 p.

1974. A checklist of the north and middle American crayfishes (Decapoda: Astacidae and

Cambaridae) . Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 166. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
161 p.

Jones, J. B. 1980. Freshwater crayfish Paranephrops planifrons infected with the microsporidian Thelohania. New
Zealand J. of Mar. and Freshw. Res., 14(1):45-46.

Krucinska, J., and E. Simon. 1968. On the parasites and epibionts of the branchial cavity in crayfish at Wroclaw

and vicinity. Przeglad Zoologiczny, 12:288-290. (In Polish; English summary.)
Kudo, R. R. 1924. A biologic and taxonomic study of the microsporidia. III. Biol. Monogr., 9(2 and 3):1-268.

Mazylis, A. 1978. On Astacus astacus L. infected with Thelohania contejeani Henneguy. Pages 471—473 in P. J.
Laurent, ed. Freshwater Crayfish 4. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. Thonon-les-Bains, France.
473 p.

O'Keeffe, C, and J. D. Reynolds. In press. The occurrence of crayfish diseases and their significance in Ireland,
in C. R. Goldman, ed. Freshwater Crayfish 5.

Quilter, C. G. 1976. Microsporidian parasite Thelohania contejeani Henneguy from New Zealand freshwater

crayfish. New Zealand J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 10(1 );225-231.
Schaperclaus, W. 1954. "Fischkrankheiten". 3 Auflage. Akademie-Verlog, Berlin. 708 p.


Sogandares-Bernal, F. 1962. Presumable microsporidiosis in the dwarf crayfishes Cambarellus puer Hobbs and
C. shufeldti (Faxon) in Louisiana. J. Parasitology, 48(3) :493.

Sprague, V. 1950. Thelohania cambarin. sp., a microsporidian parasite of North American crayfish. J. Parasitolo-
gy, 35(6):46.

Sumari, O., and K. Westman. 1%9. The crayfish parasite Thelohania contejeani Henne%uy (Sporozoa, Microspo-
ridia) found in Finland. Ann. Zool. Fennici, 7:193-194.

Vey, A., and C. Vago. 1973. Protozoan and fungal diseases of Austropotamobius pallipes Lereboullet in France.
Pages 165-179 in S.A.A. Abrahamsson, ed. Freshwater Crayfish. Studentlitteratur, Lund, Sweden. 252 p.

Voronin, V. N. 1971. New data on microsporidiosis of the crawfish, Astacus astacus (L. 1758). Parazitologya,
5(2):186-191. (In Russian; English summary.)


Calif. Fish and Game 69 ( 3 ): 1 84-1 92 1 983



An investigation of the food habits of a relatively dense (0.5/km^ Barrett
unpubl. data) coyote population was carried out on a 13,000-ha study area
apprpximately 20 km southeast of Red Bluff. The area is a Sierra Nevada foothill
woodland dominated by blue oak, Quercus douglasi (Barrett 1978). The pur-
pose of the study was to determine the degree to which coyotes on the Dye
Creek Ranch might be relying on feral pigs, Sus scrofa, as prey items.

From June 1967 through September 1969, 1,042 fresh coyote scats were
collected primarily along dirt roads and trails. Each scat was dated by season
(spring — March through May, summer — ^June through August, fall — September
through November, winter — December through February) and dried for stor-
age. Dried scats were broken apart and the predominant food items recorded
(Korschgen 1969)

The majority of scats contained a single food item. The major patterns re-
vealed are: (i) coyote foods in the dry summer and fall seasons were primarily
fruits from relatively uncommon shrubs; (ii) carrion of ungulates (including
livestock, mule deer, Odocoileus hem/onus, and pigs) composed roughly half
the winter and spring diets, and (iii) rodents composed a relatively constant
proportion of the diet throughout the year ( Figure 1 and Table 1 ) . Livestock and
deer were not available during the dry season, while pig carrion, particularly that
of very young piglets, was relatively common at that time. However, pig remains
were slightly more common in wet-season than dry-season scats. Most of the
ungulate material was probably eaten as carrion, as was evidenced by the
presence of mummified hide or maggot remains in the scats. Rabbits are a
dominant food item throughout most of the coyote's range (Beckoff 1978), but
thev are rare at Dye Creek, accounting for their scarcity in this study.

Spring Summer Fall

FIGURE 1. Food nabits of coyotes in eastern Tehama County, California.




TABLE 1. Seasonal Food Habits of Coyotes in Eastern Tehama County Indicated by the
Percent Relative Frequency of Occurrence of Food Items in 1042 Scats.

Percent relative frequency or occurrence

Food items

Spring (76) ' Summer (487) ' Fall (476) ' Winter (12)


Rodents 45.5 19.0 13.0 33.3 27.7

Thomomys bottae'

Dipodomys heermani

Peromyscus maniculatus

Neotoma fuscipes

Spermophilus beecheyi

Erethizon dorsatum
Rabbits 5.5 4.0 2,0 0.0 2.9

Lepus califomicus
Carnivores 3.0 0.8 0.6 0.0 1.1

Canis latrans

Canis familiaris

Urocyon cinereoargenteus

Lynx rufus

Procyon lotor

Mephitis mephitis

Susscrofa 14.5 5.7 S.4 25.0 12.7

Odocoileus hemionus 18.5 0.0 0.2 25.0 10.9

Bostaurus 1.5 0.0 0.0 16.7 4.5

Ovis aires 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4

Birds 5.5 2.5 1.7 0.0 2.4

Reptiles 3.0 1.0 0.6 0.0 1.2

Fish 0.0 0.8 0.4 0.0 0.3

Invertebrates 1.5 5.2 0.8 0.0 1.9




ANIMAL TOTAL 100.0 39.0 24.7 100.0 66.0


Arctostaphylos manzanita 0.0 37.0 40.6 0.0 19.4

Rhamnus californica 0.0 6.0 18.0 0.0 6.0

Juniperus californica 0.0 17.0 2.0 0.0 4.7

Vitis californica 0.0 0.0 10.5 0.0 2.6

Ceanothus cuneatus 0.0 0.0 1.7 0.0 0.4

Cercis occidentalis 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.1

Green grass 0.0 1.0 2.1 0.0 0.8

VEGETABLE TOTAL 0.0 61.0 75.3 0.0 34.0

' Sample size

' Within categories, species are listed in order of decreasing relative frequency of occurrence

Preferred coyote foods were most limited in the summer and fall. This was
corroborated by observations of very thirt coyotes with a high incidence of
mange in these seasons.

Although they sampled no coyotes in Tehama County, Ferrel, Leach, and
Tillotson (1953) studied coyote food habits in the "Inland-Sierra Region" and
had results similar to mine, but they found a much less pronounced shift to
vegetable foods in the dry season. In the Lava Beds National Monument, Bond
(1939) also found a high utilization of fruits during the summer.

Wild pigs have increased dramatically in California since the 1953 study


( Barrett 1977) . It is likely that they are now utilized by coyotes throughout many
parts of the state, although wild pigs were not listed as coyote food by Ferrel
etal. (1953).


Barrett, R. H. 1977. Wild pigs in California. Pages 111-113 in C. E. Wood, ed. Research and management of wild
hog populations, proceedings of a symposium. Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute, Clemson University,
Georgetown, South Carolina. 113 p.

1978. The feral hog on the Dye Creek Ranch, California. Hilgardia, 46(9);283-355.

Beckoff, M., ed. 1978. Coyotes: biology, behavior and management. Academic Press, N. Y. 384 p.

Bond, R. M. 1939. Coyote food habits on the Lava Beds National Monument. J. Wildl. Manage., 3(3):180-198.

Ferrel, C. M., H. R. Leach, and D. F. Tillotson. 1953. Food habits of the coyote in California. Calif. Fish Came, 39(3):

Korschgen, L. j. 1%9. Procedures for food-habits analyses. Pages 233-250 in R. H. Giles, Jr., ed. Wildlife manage-
ment techniques. The Wildlife Society, Washington, D. C. 623 p.

— Reginald H. Barrett, Department of Forestry and Resource Management, Uni-
versity of California, Berkeley, California, 94720. Accepted for publication
February 1982.




The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency granted California an emergency
exemption (Section 18 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide
Act) in April 1981. The exemption allowed Bolero lOG ® to be used to control
sprangletop and barnyard grass in rice cultivation. The supplemental label in-
cluded the statement, "Before permits are granted, the Pesticide Investigations
Unit of the Department of Fish and Game must be consulted at (916) 445-0154
to determine if any rare or endangered species will be adversely affected." The
giant garter snake, Thamnophis couchi gigas, is the one rare species which
occurs in the rice growing region. No data were available to ascertain whether
this animal would be adversely affected by use of the herbicide. The purpose
of this study was to determine the effects of Bolero IOC ® on garter snakes in
order to fulfill the intent of the label restriction.


Bolero IOC ® is a granular herbicide. The formulated product contains 10%
thiobencarb. Aerial applications occur in spring when rice is in the two-leaf stage
and target weeds are susceptible. Carter snakes may be exposed to thiobencarb
either directly or through the food chain. The mountain garter snake, which
occurs within the range of the giant garter snake, was chosen as the test animal
to examine the two possible modes of exposure. It was considered inappropriate
to utilize the giant garter snake for the tests because of its scarcity. The metabo-
lism of thiobencarb in the mountain and giant garter snakes is assumed to be

Mountain garter snakes were collected on 28 April 1981 from Rancho Seco
Lake, Sacramento County. Snakes were held in terraria at the Department of Fish
and Came Field Station. They were fed, ad libitum, live golden shiners weighing
about 1g each. They were hand-fed thawed frozen squawfish and live golden
shiners in preparation for feeding and exposure trials. Bolero IOC ® was adminis-
tered orally in gelatin capsules implanted in fish to establish an approximate
acute toxicity level.



Data indicate accumulations of approximately 100 ppm (100 mg/kg) of thi-
obencarb are possible in fish (Chevron Chemical Company, unpub data). The
exposure to a typical 200-g garter snake would be about 1 .5 mg/kg if it ate three
small fish containing this level.


Five feeding studies v^ere conducted. One was a control, testing the proce-
dure with an inert ingredient. Snakes were held for 10 to 16 days after feeding
trials for observation of short-term effects.

Individual snakes were identified by marking with nail polish.


Snakes were taken to a field treated with Bolero lOG ®. An aerial application
of approximately 45 kg/ ha occurred 2 hours before placement of the snakes. The
theoretical maximum dissolved water concentration would be in the range of
4.5 to 3 mg/1 thiobencarb when water is 10 to 15 cm in depth. Two live-cars
containing one snake each were placed at the edge of a treated field. Two others,
also containing a snake each were placed in the field's untreated water supply
ditch as a control. The locations of the traps were adjusted as necessary for
fluctuating water levels.

The snakes were removed after 5 days exposure and held in the laboratory
for an additional 8 days for observation of short-term delayed effects.


No mortalities were observed in either laboratory or field tests. In a field
situation, for example, a snake could be exposed to fish which have accumulat-
ed up to 100 ppm in their tissue. Since a small fish weights about one gram, and
a snake might consume three of these in a day, an exposure would be to 0.3 mg
thiobencarb. We conclude the possibility of a direct acute effect is minimal
(Table 1 ) since no mortalities were observed in dosage levels approximately 160
times this expected dose.

TABLE 1. Results of Single-Dose Oral Exposure of Mountain Garter Snakes to
Bolero 10G ® (thiobencarb).









of snake




dose (mg)






















'inert ingredients only as a control.

The use of rice fields for field trials was permitted by the Demeter Corporation
of Woodland, California.

— £ £ Littrell, California Department of Fish and Came, Pesticide Investigations
Unit, 1701 Nimbus Road, Suite F, Rancho Cordova, CA 95670. Accepted for
publication, March 1982.



As part of a long-term effort to develop a wildlife survey system for California,
a cooperative project between the University of California, the U. S. Forest
Service, the California Department of Fish and Game, and the U. S. Fish and
Wildlife Service was carried out during 1979 and 1980 to develop and test
techniques for assessing the distribution and relative abundance of furbearers in
the Sierra Nevada. The techniques must be applicable to all types of terrain at
all seasons of the year. They must be efficient in terms of time and labor and
be suitable for sampling a wide range of furbearers, inducing mustelids, canids,
felids, and procyonids.

The most widely used technique for this purpose has involved attracting
animals to bait or scent and recording visits by detecting tracks in fine soil or
snow surrounding the bait station (Cook 1949; Richards and Hine 1953; Stains
1956; Wood 1959; Pimlott, Shannon, and Kolenosky 1969; Bamford 1970; Linhart
and Knowlton 1975; Lindzey, Thompson, and Hodges 1977). Live-trapping
methods are relatively expensive, and methods by which observers count tracks
while walking transects in snow (Ruff 1939, Priklonski 1970) produce extremely
variable results.

During the summer of 1979 the dirt track plot method (Linhart and Knowlton
1975) was tried on a 71 -km ^ portion of the Inyo National Forest extending from
Owens Valley west to the Sierra Crest. One plot was located within 100 m of
the center of each 1000-m cell of the UTM grid (Myers and Shelton 1980:160).
Powdered rotten egg capsules, provided by the Fish and Wildlife Service, were
randomly allocated to half the plots, and a bait consisting of decomposed fish
and cod-liver oil was allocated to the remainder. The latter bait was smeared
on a stick placed in the track plot. Coyotes visited only plots with egg scent. No
other animals displayed a significant preference for one attractant. The plots
were checked five times at 2-day intervals. Despite the generally inaccessible
location, two technicians were able to run 16 plots in 14 days, including 2 days
for travel to and from the study area.

After 21 plots were established it was clear that the use of fine sand or soil
was inappropriate. The local soils were too rocky and transporting in soil was
not feasible.

Consequently, the technique of smoking a hard, smooth surface with a kero-
sene-benzene flame, as used in small mammal studies ( Mayer 1 957, Justice 1 961 ,
Sheppe 1965, Marten 1972, M'Closkey 1975), was adapted by using two 814 X
407 X 0.6 mm aluminum panels for the tracking surface. Normally the aluminum
was packed to the plot and smoked on site using an 80-cm aluminum wand with
a cotton wick on one end-to hold the kerosene-benzene mixture. The mixutre
was transported in an aluminum bottle. After a 1-m radius plot was cleared to
mineral soil and leveled, the aluminum panels were smoked by placing each on
a 200 X 2000 mm strip of aluminum lawn border material which had been bent
in a semicircle. The burning wand was passed back and forth under the panel
until a solid layer of soot was deposited on it. The panels could be smoked
elsewhere and transported to the plots in a box with slots to keep the panels from


rubbing against each other. One person can pack materials for up to 10 plots,
although normally only 4 to 5 plots were visted per day. Other potential tracking
mediums include ink (Lord et al. 1970) and liquid talc (Brown 1969). These
would eliminate the fire hazard but are more difficult to remove than soot, which
can be simply polished off with fine steel wool.

The smoked aluminum plots worked well except in rain. Tracks of even the
smallest mammals were readily observed. Most tracks were extremely clear and
easily identified. Fifteen species of mammals were recorded, including fisher,
Martes pennant/) marten, Maries amencana; striped skunk. Mephitis mephitis;
long-tailed weasel, Muste/a frenata; coyote, Canis iatrans; and bobcat. Lynx

Although suitable for the relatively dry summer season, the large ground plots
are inappropriate for winter surveys. A smaller version of the smoked aluminum
panel (458 X 165 X 0.6 mm) was used inside a plywood box mounted on the
trunk of a tree. This design was intended specifically for a winter survey of
marten in a 2500-ha portion of the Sagehen Creek basin within the Tahoe
National Forest. The boxes were intended to hold live traps as well as tracking
panels. Each of the 53 boxes was located at the center of a 200-m cell of the
UTM grid. Sample cells were chosen in a random start, systematic fashion
( Myers and Shelton 1 980) . One technician ran all the plots semimonthly ( 1 5 ±
3 days) from January through June 1980. Nine full days were required when deep
snow necessitated using snowshoes or skis, while later in the season, when a
vehicle could be used, the same work could be accomplished in 4 to 5 days.

Occasionally, heavy snowfall damaged the boxes; however, in general they
were very effective for detecting martens in winter when baited with raw fish.
A test without bait for two periods resulted in a reduction in estimated relative
density (Bamford 1970) of 15% relative to two previous baited periods. Other
species detected included flying squirrels, Glaucomys sabrinus; Douglas squir-
rels, Tamiasciurus dougiasii; deer mice, Peromyscus manicuiatus; and porcu-
pine, Erethizon dorsatum. Coyotes, raccoons, Procyon lotor, and bobcats, Lynx
rufus, were the only other furbearers in the area but they could not be sampled
by these relatively small boxes located on tree trunks.

To assess pine marten sampling methods, a comparison was made between
the tracking boxes and a hair snare (Department of Fish and Game, Sacra-
mento). The hair snares consisted of 610 X 254 mm cylinders of welded mesh
wire containing coils of barbed wire and a bait box of hardware cloth. Snares
were attached vertically to tree trunks. Animals reaching for the bait would catch
tufts of hair in the barbed wire. The hair was collected and identified microscopi-
cally by comparison with a reference collection. Thirty-nine hair snares were
interspersed with 42 tracking boxes, all using the same fish bait and checked at
the same intervals.

The tracking boxes were considerably more efficient than the hair snares
(Table 1 ) . The cumulative percentage of pfots visited by martens was 64 for the
boxes and 38 for the snares. No doubt many of these visitation records represent
repeated visits by the same individual; nevertheless, since the tracking box
visitation rate stablized after only four tracking periods at a level nearly twice
as great as that for the hair snares, the boxes provide more data per unit of effort.
Hair snares might be more appropriate for sampling larger species where plots
cannot be checked at intervals of less than a month. For winter surveys of pine


marten and similar sized furbearers, the tracking boxes are recommended if the
plots can be run at least semimonthly.

TABLE 1. Relative Efficiency of Hair Snares and Tracking Boxes for Assessment of Pine
Marten Distribution and Relative Abundance.

Hair snare Tracking box

Number of plots 39 42

Semimonthly periods sampled 11 11

Cumulative percentage of plots visited by martens 7 34

Relative density estimate (see Bamford 1970) 0.49 1.03


Bamford, ). 1970. Evaluating opossum poisoning operations by interference with non-toxic baits. Proc. New

Zealand Ecol. Soc., 17:118-125.
Brown, L. E. 1969. Field experiments on the movements of Apodemus sylvaticus using trapping and tracking

techniques. Oecologia, 2:198-222.
Cook, A. H. 1949. Furbearer investigations. New York State Conservation Dept. PR Proj. 1-R, Suppl. G. Final Rep.

57 p.
Justice, K. E. 1961. A new method of measuring home ranges of small mammals. ). Mammal., 42:462-470.
Lindzey, F. C, S. K. Thompson, and J. I. Hodges. 1977. Scent station index of black bear abundance. J. Wildl.

Manage., 41:151-153.
Linhart, S. B., and F. F. Knowlton. 1975. Determining the relative abundance of coyotes by scent station lines.

Wildl. Soc. Bull., 3:119-124.
Lord, R. D., A. M. Vilches, J. I. Maiztegui, and C. A. Soldini. 1 970. The tracking board: A relative census technique

for studying rodents. ). Mammal., 51:828-829.
Marten, C. C. 1972. Censusing mouse populations by means of tracking. Ecology, 53:860:867.
Mayer, M. V. 1957. A method for determining the activity of burrowing mammals. |. Mammal., 38:531.
M'Closkey, R. T. 1 975. Habitat dimensions of white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus. Am. Midi. Nat., 93:1 59-

Myers, W. L., and R. L. Shelton, 1980. Survey methods for ecosystem management. John Wiley and Sons, N. Y.

403 p.
Pimlott, D. H., J. A. Shannon, and C. B. Kolenosky. 1969. The ecology of the timber wolf in Algonquin Provincial

Park. Ontario Dep. Lands and Forests. 92 p.
Priklonski, S. G. 1970. Winter transect count of game animals. Trans. Int. Congr. Game Biol., 9:273-275.
Richards, S. H., and R. L. Hine. 1953. Wisconsin fox populations. Wisconsin Conserv. Dep., Game Manage, Div.,

Tech. Wildl. Bull. 6 78 p.
Ruff, F. J. 1939. Region 8 techniques of wildlife inventory. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Conf., 4:542-545.
Sheppe, W. 1965. Characteristics and uses of Peromyscus tracking data. Ecology, 46:630-634.
Stains, H. J. 1956. The raccoon in Kansas; natural history, management and economic importance. Univ. Kansas

Mus. Natur. Hist, and State Biol. Survey of Kansas, Misc. Publ. 10 76 p.
Wood, J. E. 1959. Relative estimates of fox population levels. |. Wildl. Manage., 23:53-63.

— Reginald H. Barrett, Department of Forestry and Resource Management, Uni-
versity of California, Berkeley, California 94720. Accepted for publication
February 1982.


During January-March 1979, an avian cholera epizootic at the south end of
the Salton Sea in southern California killed an estimated 3,800 waterfowl, shore-
birds, and wading birds. On 12 February, an American Flamingo carcass was
found during disease surveillance and control activities by personnel of Salton


Sea National Wildlife Refuge (SSNWR). The bird was probably one of two
flanningos periodically observed in the area during the previous year and was
suspected to have escaped from a captive flock (L. Dean, SSNWR, pers. com-

The carcass was submitted to the National Wildlife Health Laboratory
(NWHL), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Madison, Wisconsin, for determination
of cause of death. The bird had abundant deposits of subcutaneous, mesenteric,

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