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and coronary fat. Petechial hemorrhages were evident on the coronary fat,
pancreas, and mucosal surface of the proventriculus and intestine. Intestinal
contents were gray and mucoid. The liver appeared swollen and fatty; focal
necrosis was not evident.

Pasteurella multocida, the causative organism of avian cholera, was cultured
from the liver and spleen. The isolate was identified as serotype I (Heddleston's
scheme) by standard agar gel diffusion test at the National Veterinary Services
Laboratory, Ames, Iowa. This serotype is found commonly in waterfowl epizoot-
ics in the Pacific Flyway (NWHL, unpubl. records).

Tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin disclosed a mild periportal inflam-
matory cell infiltration in the liver. Pale basophilic particulate material in tissues
surrounding vessels of the liver and spleen was believed to represent bacteria;
there was no evidence of an inflammatory reaction to this material. Acute
vacuolar degeneration of endothelial cells of blood vessels and surrounding
reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen was observed. We speculate that the
vascular changes observed represent a peracute toxic response to P. multocida.
The absence of an inflammatory response to the bacteria within the liver and
spleen supports this contention.

This case is the first reported occurrence of avian cholera in a flamingo, and
adds to the large number of avian species known to be susceptible to this disease
(Rosen 1971, Wilson 1979). In this instance, the specimen was of presumed
captive origin and outside the natural range of the species.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We thank L. Dean, Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge, for field collections
and observations; and L. Siegfried, NWHL, for histopathology observations.

LITERATURE CITED

Rosen, M. N. 1971. Avian cholera. Pages 59-74 in). W. Davis, R. C. Anderson, L. Karstad, and D. O. Trainer
(eds.) Infectious and Parasitic Diseases of Wild Birds. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa. 344 p.

Wilson, S. S. 1979. A bibliography of references to avian cholera. U.S. Dept. Interior, Fish Wildl. Serv., Spec. Sci.
Rep. 217:1-18.

— Christopher J. Brand and Ruth M. Duncan, National Wildlife Health Labora-
tory, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison, Wl 53711.
Accepted for publication April 1982.

REPRODUCTION OF ARCTIC GRAYLING, THYMALLUS

ARCTICUS, IN THE LOBDELL LAKE SYSTEM, CALIFORNIA

Arctic grayling were first brought to California and held at Sisson Hatchery
(now Mt. Shasta Hatchery) in 1904 (Emig 1969). Several attempts to establish
this species in California waters from 1905 to 1933 resulted in success only at
Grayling Lake in Yosemite National Park (Emig 1969). The resultant population



192 CALIFORNIA FISH AND CAME

apparently remained viable until 1934 (Shapovalov, Cordone, and Dill 1981).

From 1969 to '•'^75, the California Department of Fish and Game stocked 58
high mountain lakes and one stream in an effort to reestablish Arctic grayling (A.
Cordone, Senior Fishery Biologist, Calif. Dept. Fish and Game, pers. commun.).
Good survival ard growth were documented at many of these waters but
reproduction had not oecn confirmed (Shapovalov, Cordone, and Dill 1981).
Included among these waters was Lobdell Lake, Mono County, a 19-ha reservoir
with a mean depth of 7.5 m (at maximum pool) situated at the 2800 m elevation
in the eastern Sierra Nevada. It was stocked with 500 catchable-sized Arctic
gra/ling from Arizona in 1970; no subsequent plants have been made (A. Cor-
done, pers. commun.).

In May 1980, I collected a total of 12 Arctic grayling by angling from Lobdell
Lake and its outlet stream, Desert Creek. This prompted more intensive sampling
efforts in September 1980. A seine of 3-mm mesh size was used for sampling in
Lobdell Lake, while a Smith-Root Type Seven electrofisher was utilized to sample
two 45-m long sections of Desert Creek, beginning at 2 km and 3 km downstream
from the Lake, respectively. Standard length was recorded and scales were
obtained from each fish prior to release.

Thirty-one fish collected from Desert Creek ranged in length from 76 to 107
mm, with a mean length of 88 mm. The 27 fish from Lobdell Lake ranged from
62 to 310 mm, with a mean of 120 mm. Based on scale analysis, all 31 fish from
Desert Creek were age 0-I-. Seventeen of the Lobdell Lake fish were age 0+,
nine were age 1 -I-, and one was age 2 + . Age 0+ Lobdell Lake fish ranged from
62 to 94 mm (x=80 mm), age 1 -|- fish ranged from 161 to 181 mm (x = 176
mm), and the age 2+ fish was 310 mm long.

D. Wong, Fishery Biologist, Calif. Dept. Fish and Game (pers. commun.) also
found evidence of natural reproduction by Arctic grayling in the Lobdell Lake
system. In July 1980 at Lobdell Lake he collected seven age 1 + fish ranging from
155 to 170 mm fork length (fl) (x"= 162 mm), four age 2+ fish of 290 to 301
mm PL (X = 297 mm), and a 3-1- fish of 373 mm fl

Consistent with these findings, Arctic grayling were observed spawning in the
inlet stream, a channel routing water from Deep Creek to Lobdell Lake (E.
Gerstung, Assoc. Fishery Biologist, Calif. Dept. Fish and Game, pers. commun.).
Thus, it is apparent that the Lobdell Lake system contains a reproducing Arctic
grayling population, the only such population known to exist in California.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I wish to thank K. Benecke, R. Burhans, J. Cech, B. Hilton, P. Moyle, B.
Vondracek, and the AMAX Foundation for their help in this study.

LITERATURE CITED

Emig, J. W. 1%9. The Arctic grayling. Calif. Fish Came, Inland Fish. Admin. Rep. No. 69-5, 31 p.

Shapovalov, L, A. J. Cordone, and W. A. Dill. 1981 . A list of the freshwater and anadromous fishes of California.
Calif. Fish Came, 67 (1): 4-38.

—Richard W. Rieber, Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Biology, University
of California, Davis, California, 95616. Accepted for publication June 1982.

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Online LibraryCalifornia. Dept. of Fish and GameCalifornia fish and game (Volume 69, no. 3) → online text (page 8 of 8)