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Warren Gregory, a native Califbrnian, received the A.B. degree
at the University of California with the Class of 1887. He was
graduated from Hastings College of Law in 1890, and for 37
years practiced law in San Francisco. He served as president of
the Alumni Association and as a Regent of the University of Cali-
fornia from 1 91 9 to 1922. This book was purchased from the
income of a memorial fund established by his family.

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WARREN GREGORY • 1864-1927









No. 838 Market Street.

Contents of Volnme V'.

Arithmetic — Method of Presentation Malcolm Mac Vicar, Ph.D., LL.D. n

-A"An Error of Judgment (a poem) Chas. M. Drake 139

A Few Questions about Primary Reading C. M. Drake 489

•4cA Lesson on Beetles Irene Hardy 1 52

^«A Martyr to Art Clara G. Dolliver 276

A Method of Teaching Advanced Reading Geo. A. Richardson 361, 415

Among the German Schools Boston Advertiser 407

-\ A Lesson from the Apiary C. M. Drake 440

A Defect in the School System of California Walter Lindley, M. D 447

Bells of Lynn Fred. £. Weatherby ., 10

Book Notices 38, 84, 216, 265, 348, 392, 434, 474, 519

Bulletin of the University of California 97

Baby's First Year at School C. M. Drake 148

jyBy the Seaside (a poem) Geo. Gossman, A. M 233

Block Exercises. . New York School Journal 237

*\ Common Slips in Writing and Reading Prof. E. R. Sill 100

Care of the Teeth Practically Considered Dr. W. H. Robinson 136

-^CChats With Country Teachers Chas. H. Shinn 143

Culture Outside the Schools Miss L. M. Washburn 224

Condensed Directions for Teaching Ungraded

Schools John Swett 317

Comet b, 1881 Prof. Geo. Davidson 349

County Institutes 465

Definitions in the Lower Grades Xantippe 27

Educational Intelligence 32, 80, 130, 160, 207, 258, 300, 341,

385, 470

Educational Groove-Runners W. B. Turner 493

Examination Questions 82, 169, 306

Editorials. — For the New Year 20 — The Journal for 1881 — Convention of County
Superintendents 21 — Change — The Meeting of the State Association of Teachers 22
— The Educational Review 23 — School Superintendence 60 — Teachers' Institutes
61 — Some Contributions and Contributors 62 — Examinations and Promotions 114 —
To Superintendents and Trustees, Concerning the Agency 116 — Premium Essays
116 — Recent Meeting of the State Teachers' Association 117 — Omissions 117 — The
State University Bulletin 117 — Progress 118 — Wanted, A School for Newspaper
Writers 155 — Swett's Methods of Teaching 157 — The Facts 198 — Fairly Met 199 —
State Normal School 199 — From Across the Water 199 — Branch Normal School
200 — Examinations and Promotions 200 — Proceedings of the State Association of
Teachers 200 — A Thought on Education by the State 240 — National Education 241 —
Old Diplomas 243 — Book Notices 243 — Trustees, Superintendents, and Teachers
244 — A Gratifying Result 244 — The Revolution of the State University 288 — A
Fundamental Defect 289 — Changes and Promotions 29Q— Closing of Our Schools 291


3H W5T


— Institutes 291 — Dr. R. H. McDonald's Benefaction 329 — Lessons of the Attempt-
ed Assassination 331 — "To Point a Moral and Adorn a Tale " 331 — Articles on
Methods of Teaching 333 — Over-Educating the Masses 372 — What Our Teachers
Need 373 — Educational Meetings East 374 — State University Matters 376 — To
Superintendents 376 — Language Teaching 377 — County Institutes 377 — How to
Make a Good Course of Study 419 — The Death of the President 421 — Such Stuff as
Inquisitors Are Made of 422 — Reviving Interest 423 — Credit System 455 — Visit of
Commissioner Eaton to the Pacific Coast 457 — The Twin Evils 458 — Change of
Name 458 — On Closing our Fifth Volume 498 — Prison Reform 499 — Educational
Progress under the New Constitution 500 — On the Proposed Methods for Reforming
English Spelling 501 — Meeting of the State Association of Teachers 501 — Business
Matters 502 — Gen. Eaton's Visit to the Pacific Coast 502 — Silk Culture 504 —
Worthy Attention 504.

Grammar Hon. M. H. Sherman 8

Gaining Attention Exchange 234

Grube's Method . . . Y. Frof. Louis Soldan 352, 450

Gymnastics New York School Journal 405

Geography Mary E. Badlam, in Primary

Teacher 413

■*\ Hero and Hero (a poem) Clara G. Dolliver 52

Home Influence Exchange 59

How Long Should We Sleep ? Dr. F. L. Oswald, in Popular Sci-
ence Monthly 410

-V Incidents in the First Public Kindergarten Miss Kate D. Smith 324

-\ Joints in Our Armor Prof. H. B. Norton 104

Literary Notes 39, 84, 132, 172, 219, 267, 308, 348,

436, 476, 520

Lessons in Botany Frof. Volney Rattan, 54, 133, 221, 397

Letter Writing John Swett 444

Mental Calculation Educational Weekly 57

Mathematics Prof Wm. White 71

Monday-Morning Talks Mrs. Sarah M. Wyman 94

Memory E. Knowlton 150

Music— Wild Bird's Song 268, 396

Moral Instruction in the Common Schools Euote 269, 309

Momentum vs. The Professor The Teacher 278

-\Miss Jones Visits the School CM. Drake 280

Moral Hygiene Christina McConnell 437

Natural History in the Common Schools Ida M. Twitchell 477

News Record 29, 74, 128, 165, 210, 260, 304, 344,

39i. 431, 5*4
Ne^ Mode of Forcing Plants Progress of Science . . .* 369

"\Our Public Schools Chas. H. Shinn 1

Official Department State Supt. Fred. M. Campbell, 23, 63,

118, 157, 201, 244, 292, 333, 378, 423,

458, 505

Oral Lessons in Language Canada School Journal 48

Our Great Home Kate L. Brown 369


Practice What You Preach Miss Jennie Hodgins ' 15

Primary Reading Prof. Joseph Carhart 52

Picture Memory J. R 5^

Pedagogic Percolations frustrated) Mrs. Aurelia Griffiths 146

•^Personality in Teachers Emily Tracy Swett 285

V Prof. Downy Studies Entomology C M. Drake 314

Picnic Sam (a poem) Will Carlton, in Harper's Young

People 403

Practical Exercises in Geography John Swett 411

^Pedagogical Rules (Diesterweg) Translated by Henry Singer 412

President Garfield (a poem) H. W. Longfellow 443

\ Qualifications of Teachers for Primary Schools Pres. John Le Conte 85

Questions used at Quarterly Examination of Schools

of San Francisco 169

Regular Attendance Kellogg'' s School Managament 282

Reading in the Public Schools M. F. A 326

Special Endowments A. Clark 6

Science Record Edited by J. B. McChesney, 24, 68,

127, 159, 205, 252, 298, 339, 389, 429,

463, 509

Single and Double School Lessons Medical and Surgical Journal . . . 59

Songs of the Sciences Punch 94

Spun Glass (illustrated^ Prof. Volney Rattan 99

State Association of Teachers , 1 74

Sandwich Islands (Correspondence) A . C. Bloomer 26

Some Interesting Correspondence 235

Summer Institutes (Correspondence) 154

State Work (composition) Pomona 278

Spelling J. Praise Richard 371

Sandwich Islands, The. T. H. R 453

Teacher's Institutes 510

The Advantages of Ignorance , Prof P. W. Clark 17

The C. L. S. C Edited by Miss L. M. Washburn 28,

no, 194, 238, 418

That Swamp of Death (poetry) Will Carleton 483

The Proper Use of School Libraries Mrs. Kate B. Fisher 41, 89

The University and the High Schools Prof. E. W. Hilgard 139

The Children Laughed and Sang (a poem) Chamber's Journal 193

The Zodiacal Light Scientific American 232

The Great Admiral (a poem) R. H. Stoddard • . 274

The Study of English Pres. Wm. T. Reid 365

The Tale of a Comet (a poem) C. P. Cranch 367

The Boston Public Schools M. A. C 400

The King's English J.Russell Webb 485

Value of the Study of English in Our Schools Prof. Thos. P. Price 357


Writing Lessons for Little Folks L. D. Smith 19

What the Kindergarten Sees in the Future Miss Emma Marwedel 319


School and Home



Department of Public Instruction




TEACHING school is one of the occupations in which a person is, as it
were, a public character, to have each one of his or her acts examined
with critical solemnity, and commented upon with that delightful freedom com-
paratively venial when some one else is the subject, but startlingly unpleasant
when it becomes personal. Not yet in any civilized region of the world is the
man or woman whose thoughts, vitality, and whole existence are devoted to
the service of education rendered, except on rare occasions, fit reverence as
teacher — in which word, rightly interpreted by noble lives, there lies the
essence of prophet and high-priest. To those of us who, outgrowing in some
degree our earlier enthusiasms, have learned to see dangers in what men call
progress, and gathering storms in the not-remote future for nations and com-
munities, there is, humanly speaking, small hope for the race, unless man-
hood and womanhood are fostered in home and school by pure lives, fervid
zeal, gentle persuasions, and continual watchfulness.

While Europe is being shaken by the tread of armies, and grows black
with the smoke of factories; while the financial centers of the world are slowly
swinging from London and Paris to New York ; while the mightiest capitalists
and the most reckless speculators this stormy earth has ever known are playing
with transcontinental railroads and with the crops of States as with the ivory


checks of a gaming-table; while acres of corn and leagues of wheat are each
year sown on newly-broken soil, and the human tide sweeps over what were
waste wildernesses with a swiftness unparalleled in history; while Isthmian
canals, Asian railroads, flooding of African deserts, and similarly bold proposi-
tions take visible and practical shape; while these and such as these are brilliant
elements of the complex modern world, still now, as ever, it is divinely true
that the germ and potentiality of all that may be is in the child being taught, is
in the lessons he receives, is in the purpose and character of the person who
teaches him.

The greatness of a teacher's responsibilities can never be laughed down,
nor belittled, nor ignored. Standing forever by the gates — messenger of the
gods, translating their meanings not to men, worn, grey, hard of hearing,
dull of sight, but to children, young, eager, swift-footed, rapturous, keen of
apprehension — the true teacher is as one chosen from a multitude, and given a
sign from heaven, and so anointed and set apart forever. To feel this truth
strongly will give purpose and dignity to the teacher's character. The time is
coming, let us not forget, when " I am a teacher," will carry as much weight
and professional meaning as, "I am a lawyer, or, "I am a physician." This
is logically true, because neither law nor medicine are more a part of ultimate
human development than is the profession-to-be of teaching. As the world
grows wiser, the need of schools and colleges will be felt more and more; the
demand for professionally trained teachers will increase.

To make teaching a recognized profession, the friends of education must
develop the professional feeling. Now, teachers, as a class, do not know enough
of each other, or of the work which is being done in allied fields of human
thought. They must link themselves more closely with the grander movements
of the times. Suppose that the teachers of each county sent delegates to a
State convention, where the best lecturers and teachers of national reputation
were present; then, suppose that, after a week of solid work, and after even
the most lagging soul had caught the march and impetus of the occasion, dele-
gates were chosen to a great national convention, meeting each year to unify
the school laws of the States and the text-book systems, to brighten knowledge,
and to strengthen relationship. Then, too, there are social science associations
both in the United States and in Europe, and earnest meetings of geologists,
philologists, and student-masters of every sort. Shall not the common-school
teachers of America send delegates to each of these great convocations ? Will
they wait until new knowledge has drifted into text-books, or will they take it
as it falls fresh and glowing from the lips of the leaders of human thought ?
The movement to-day is toward unification, and a thorough organizing of
human forces into compact battalions.

The teacher of the future is to have a professional training as long, as
costly, and as arduous as that required for lawyer, physician, or minister. He
will feel himself allied with an influence social, moral, and intellectual, which is
everywhere known and respected. His diploma, once won, will pass current
in every civilized community. A National Department of Education will then
form a part of the governmental machinery, ranking in importance with that of


the Interior, and bringing the systems of the several States into healthy agree-
ment. For years there has been a Commissioner of Agriculture distributing
seeds, making costly experiments with new plants, and publishing ponderous
reports on whatever appears of horticultural interest. To have a Commissioner
of Education were of infinitely greater importance to Americans; for, although
no two farmers in the United States can farm in precisely the same way, yet
farmers' sons and daughters everywhere need the same sort of a strong, har-
monious mental development.

It happens at present that there is an outcry, partly ignorant, partly mali-
cious, against precisely what eminent educators feel is best for the teachers,
namely, thorough professional training. " Would you make a corner on teach-
ers ? " cry these ridiculous people. " We object to hard examinations, normal
schools, and' these years of preparation you talk about. We have daughters
who want pin-money, sons-in-law who can 't find anything to do except teach-
ing. If we have n't, our neighbors have." Stripped of non-essentials, the
under-thought is often of this nature. The answer must be plain and decisive,
and those to whom knowledge of the wider sort has been the breath of life should
stand by their guns bravely. Sometimes, and indeed often, men, who in their
hearts know better, will for social and political reasons give a cowardly assent
to foolish and ruinous doctrines, hoping dimly, indeed, that the deluge may not
come until after their time. Most of the evil in this world exists because men
have not the courage to fight for their own convictions.

In the vitally important matter of choosing a teacher for a public school,
the only honest rule for trustees and parents to follow is to require not mere
fitness — for there are many after a fashion fit — but to demand the highest, most
complete fitness. No one ever knew too much to teach school successfully.
The common phrase is a fallacy. Truly, indeed, a person, though with daz-
zling attainments in certain ways, might lack important connecting links, or
fail to possess the power of imparting his knowledge. But these things would
bar success in any field of intellectual activity. It is impossible to know too
much of a trade, art, or profession. The young men and women of a commu-
nity, if they choose to teach, must first make themselves thoroughly fit — capable
of the highest tests, and this in other words means professional training. How
much more this means than technical and hasty examinations can ever decide,
and how much healthier mental growth is thus secured, can hardly be expressed
by any comparison. It is right that every person now teaching successfully
should pass unchallenged. But if from this time forward only graduates of
State universities and colleges of the first rank, and of normal schools properly
equipped and officered, were allowed to teach, the morale and efficiency of
the profession would be infinitely better. Doubtless many successful teachers
began without this professional training, and struggled up, paying double tax of
toil and brain-waste for each victory won. To them all honor; but we must
remember that the better teacher a person is by nature, the better weapons
he or she should be given — Damascene steel and Toledo blades from heav-
en's illimitable armories, where men are made ready to fight the gods' battles
against woe and ignorance.


Returning to the subject of choosing teachers: if the mass of people were
good judges of the fundamental differences between teaching and pretending
to teach, the case would not be as bad as it is. Unfortunately a pleasant, good-na-
tured young person, who has a knack with children, and flatters the parents, can in
many localities, mispronounce half the words in the language, foully assault the
Queen's grammar, and show utter, blind ignorance of the most ordinary and
vital facts of human progress and of civilized existence, without exciting com-
ment or arousing inquiry. He or she " has a certificate, is popular, keeps
good order. What more," cries the stupid giant Public, "can you restless
critics require?" And so he goes to sleep again, as of old, with much

Meanwhile the heavens grow thick with combat, and the war is at our
gates, and forces strong in their growth clash and mingle, that the newest and
best may have birth, after long wrestle with men and with demons. Nations,
governments, systems, religions, society itself, and, indeed, the whole fabric
of civilization, are being tried by fire, and questioned as to the spirit that is in
them. If they falter or fail, they perish. In the midst of complex movements
and currents, spiritual and intellectual, whose full meaning no one man can fully
grasp, the whole and only safety for any people lies in choosing and obeying wisest
leaders, not merely for places of national honor, but more particularly for the sort
of fundamental work which the teacher is appointed to do. We need a man or
woman of pure mind, singleness of purpose, and simplicity of speech, for each
one of the schools in city and country, in each county and State from Hatteras
to Mendocino, and from Key West to the frontiers of Montana. It has grown
to be a greater question than one of mere expediency. The question of how
to better educate the people finds place in presidential messages, and in lectures
by college professors. The writers for dailies, weeklies, and monthlies begin to
consider it. No matter what a man does, or hopes to do, if he be intelligent, he
cannot but feel that the influence of the public school system is about him as a
subtle atmosphere, folding his daily life and making better things possible-
Beyond and above all this, the truth that the existence of the American repub-
lic, and the perpetuity of our institutions, are involved in the problem of educa-
tion faces us this moment, the living issue of the hour, with mute gesture, dread-
ful and appealing. This has been thought, said, and written time and time
again. On this the terrible prophecy of Macaulay was based. Yet, the fact itself
is inexpressibly portentous. Heedless, brutal voters, when in the majority, can
and will make vulgar and poisonous enactments, follow wandering lights of num-
berless " isms," become slaves of prejudice and tools of knaves, lay the ax at
the roots of prosperity, and stab the genius of social order to the heart. If to-
day, or to-morrow, or next year, the apathy of the friends of education leads
them to relax their efforts to strengthen its foundations and widen its bulwarks,
there will come a time, as the struggle deepens, when that earlier forgetfulness
may prove fatal. Indeed, for those who try to educate the young each day is
doomsday, and has an influence infinitely widening through space, so far as we
know endless, and immeasurably solemn. The same is true of those who by
their friendship or enmity may help or mar the harmonious development of


what is wise and pure in our educational system. The men who write edi-
torials and essays should look well to their work, nor ever let the desire to say
something brilliant, or witty, or new, overweigh that wish to speak the truth by
which alone writing is ever justified. Richard Grant White, purist, and profes-
sional critic of everything American, has recently furnished, in the pages of the
" North American Review," a noteworthy example of " reason's lack and judg-
ment's eclipse." The title of Mr. White's article is, " The Public School Fail-
ure." It claims to be a judicial indictment of the system, but it is merely a
recital of various abuses, real enough, but being reformed by educational work-
ers, and affording no just ground for Mr. White's hasty, reckless, and superficial
conclusions. He levels his lance against that general education which is, under
heaven, the only hope of the modern world, sore beset by dangers countless, and
trying to arrange in some endurable way for all men just governments and bet-
ter social relations. This we shall do in the fullness of time, but those who
stand by and cast a stone at us are somewhat to be blamed, much to be pitied.
They furnish weapons for the sectarian assaults of the classes who are scheming
to obtain a division of the school funds; but in the future as in the past we may
have courage, and go on building our walls, though we lay the mortar with one
hand while wielding the sword with the other.

Concerning those men and women who teach school, it seems to one who
stands somewhat apart and looks upon the whole business with remem-
brance of his own teaching days, and yet with the varied experience of other
occupations to guide him, as if the need of needs in the teachers of to-day were
sympathy with and knowledge of life as it is, complex, mysterious, and yet in
nature divine. That the teacher should be one apart, dignity-laden, sober-eyed,
and unduly formal, is one of the ancient dogmas, in no way to be reverenced by
the modern world. The thoughts and sympathies of the true teacher go wherever
men and women toil and conquer, not only in the realms of books, but in the
out-door world, gathering hints of what to teach and how to teach it. Where sail-
ors in midnight seas lie along the slanted yards, clinging fast with mighty thews as
they furl the straining sails; where, deep in dripping mines of Nevada and Califor-
nia, men grope along the metal-bearing ledges with pick and giant powder and
diamond drill; where on breeze-swept hills looking down on azure seas, or in
valleys wide and fair, the husbandman goes out to sow, the vigneron gathers
grapes, the orchardist buds and grafts; wherever, in short, the human activities
are free, healthy, and progressive — there, now, and forever, the true teacher will
find guiding hints of what to say in school-room and by fireside, to pupil and
parent. Thus, if one loves the work, these scattered hints, blown by silver
winds and floated by shining seas, will widen and brighten, till in the teacher's
heart there are voices of many lands, music of many epochs, and the plain
realities of life shall glow and gladden in his speech, shine about his daily path,
and glorify even dull moments and hard tasks.

If vexed with a child when instructing it, try to write with your left hand.
Remember a child is all left-hand. — J. F. Boyes.


[Birmingham, Conn.j

WHEN Paul Morphy plays seven games of chess at once, and blindfold;
when young Colburn gives impromptu solution to a mathematical prob-
lem involving fifty-six figures, we are struck with hopeless wonder.

Such power seems, by its very breadth of grasp, to be separated from our
mental operations.

But when we observe further that these feats are attended by little or no fa-
tigue; that this is the play, not the tension of faculty, we are almost tempted|to
regard it as a new kind, not merely a new degree, of intelligence.

These men seem to leap, not labor step by step, to their results.

The one sees through the tangled relations of a complication of moves,
the other of a complication of values, as readily as we see the relation of two
and two.

We seek in vain for the secret of this mastery.

It is as inscrutable to those who have it, as to those who have it not.

When we wonderingly inquire of them the secret of their power, in grasp-
ing so readily these complicated questions, they only answer by inquiring, with

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