Cambrensis Giraldus.

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V.3



UC-NRLF



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TEXTS FOR STUDENTS. No. 3



SCHOOL SERIES.

GENERAL EDITORS: Caroline A. J. Skeel. D.Lit. ;
H. J. White, D.D. ; J. P. Whitney, B.D., D.C.L.



SELECTIONS EROM
GIRALDUS CAMBRENSIS



LONDON
SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING
CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

1918



CONTENTS



CHAPTER PA

Inteoduction - - - - - vii



SELECTIONS FEOM "DE EEBUS A SE
GESTIS."

BOOK I.

I. OF THE PARENTAGE OF GIRALDUS AND THE DOINGS

OF HIS BOYHOOD AND YOUTH - - - 13

II. OF HIS EARLY DEFICIENCY AND LATER ADVANCE

IN LEARNING - - - - - 14

VI. HOW HE WITHSTOOD THE BISH(»P OF ST. ASAPH AT
KERRY AND MANFULLY RF,TA.N:h:D ALL THIS
CHURCHES OF THOSE PARTS - - - 15



BOOK II.

I. OF HIS DOINGS IN THE PRIME OF HIS MANHOOD - 21
IV. OF THE RETURN OF GIRALDUS AFTER HIS PRO-
LONGED STUDIES, AND OF THE THINGS THAT
CHANCED IN THE MEANTIME ON HIS JOURNEY - 23
V. HOW, COMING TO CANTERBURY, HE CALLED WORTHY
OF CORRECTION THE THINGS THAT HE SAW IN
THE CONVENT OF THE PRINCIPAL CHURCH - 24

XVI. OF THE COMPOSING OF THE " TOPOGEAPHIA HIBER-
NICA " AND THE READING OF IT AT OXFORD IN
ENGLAND - - - - - - 27

iii

A o er 4^ « f*!^



iv CONTENTS



CHAPTER PAGE

xvii. of the geneeal taking of the cross in eng-
land, and how both peter, bishop of st.
David's, and giraldus, the archdeacon,

WERE signed with THE CROSS - - 28

xviii. how baldwin, archbishop of canterbury,
preached the crusade throughout wales,
and how giraldus, the archdeacon, was
joined with him as his faithful com-
panion foe the work of preaching - 29
xix. how the archbishop imposed on the arch-
deacon the duty of preaching at st.
David's, and of the things that were
done in kemes and cardigan, gwynedd
and powys - - - - - 32

XX. OF THE archbishop's COMMENDATION BOTH OF

GIRALDUS AND OF HIS COMPOSITION - - 34

XXI. HOW HE WAS SENT INTO ENGLAND AND WALES
BY COUNT RICHARD AFTER HIS FATHER'S
DEATH - - - - - - 35

BOOK III.

1 - J^VIL OK TO^ J^^S'I JOURNEY OF GIRALDUS TO THE
''' * C0UE5:'<^F«R'0ME, AND OF HIS MISFORTUNE AT

' '- :- :'- '/-T^B o^TmT'' %' - - - - 40

'XYlii; 'KOW5 '^^^^^^'-^0 THE POPE, HE GAVE HIM

GIFTS OF BOOKS, NOT OF MONEY - - 42



SELECTIONS FEOM "GEMMA ECCLESI-
ASTICA."

PART I.

PREFACE - - - - - - 44

XXII. OF EUSEBIUS OF VERCELL^. - - - 46

XLIII. THAT PEOPLE OUGHT NOT TO INDULGE IN
DANCES AND SONGS IN CHURCHES AND
CEMETERIES - - - - - 47



CONTENTS



PART II.

CHAPTER PAGE

XXXIV. OF THE SHEARING OF THE SHEEP, AND THE

EXCESSES AND WRONGDOINGS OF BISHOPS - 48
XXXV. EXAMPLES OF GROSS ERRORS WHICH SPRING
FROM THE IGNORANCE OR ILLITERACY OF
PRIESTS - - - - - - 51

XXXVI. THAT YOU WILL FIND SUCH DEFECTS IN THE

HIGHER CLERGY LIKEWISE - - - 54

XXXVII. HOW IGNORANCE OF LETTERS IS DUE TO THE
EXCESSIVE STUDY OF SECULAR LAW AND OF
LOGIC - - - - - - 56

XXXVIII. OF THE EMINENCE OP ECCLESIASTICAL RULERS

AND THEIR PERILOUS POSITION - - 59



INTRODUCTION

GiRALDUS Cambrensis (Gerald the Welshman) was born
at Manorbier Castle in Pembrokeshire, probably in 1147.
By descent he was partly Norman, partly Welsh ; his
father, William de Barri, belonged to one of the Norman
families that had settled in South Wales in the days of
Henry I.; his mother, Angharad, was a daughter of Gerald
de Windsor and Nesta, who was daughter of Khys ap
Tewdwr, the last of the Welsh kings. Many of Giraldus'
kinsmen took part in the conquest of Ireland under
Strongbow, but he at an early age showed a taste for
learning, and was called by his father "the little bishop."
His early education was undertaken by his maternal uncle,
David Fitzgerald, Bishop of St. David's ; later he studied
at the abbey of St. Peter, Gloucester, and then went to
Paris for three years, devoting himself specially to rhetoric
and theology, and gaining the reputation, as he is careful
to tell us, of being a model scholar. About the year 1172
he returned to Wales, was ordained and held various
livings ; his restless activity was soon shown in his attempts
to enforce the payment of tithes and to discourage clerical
marriage. In 1175 he became Archdeacon of Brecknock,
and in 1176 his uncle, the Bishop of St. David's, died.
Giraldus hoped to succeed him, and was actually one of
the nominees of the Cathedral Chapter, but Henry II.,
indignant that his consent to the nomination had not been
previously obtained, quashed it and made the canons



INTRODUCTION



elect Peter de Leia, Prior of Wenlock, the builder of
St. David's Cathedral.

Disappointed in his hopes of promotion, G-iraldus betook
himself to Paris, where from 1177 to 1180 he studied canon
law and theology. On his return he was made adminis-
trator of the diocese of St. David's during the absence of
the bishop. Henry II. used him in keeping the peace in
Wales and made him one of the royal chaplains. In 1185
he accompanied John on his expedition to Ireland, staying
there some time to collect material for his works the Topo-
graphy of Ireland SiTid the History of the Conquest of Ireland; the
former of these he read publicly at Oxford. In 1188 he
accompanied Archbishop Baldwin in his tour through Wales
to preach the Third Crusade ; a full account of the journey
is given in his Itinerary,

After the death of Henry II., Griraldus was employed to
allay the troubles stirred up in Wales by his kinsman Ehys
ap Gruffyd; the bishoprics of Bangor and Llandaflf were
offered to him, but he refused them both, for his heart was
set on being Bishop of St. David's, and making the see
independent of the See of Canterbury. On the death of
Peter de Leia in 1198 the Chapter of St. David's nominated
Giraldus as bishop, but the Archbishop of Canterbury,
Hubert Walter, refused to receive the nomination ; King
John at first accepted it, but would not ratify it publicly.
Finally Giraldus was elected, and it was decided that he
should go to Rome and receive consecration from the Pope,
During his absence in Ireland for the purpose of consulting
his kinsfolk, tlie Chapter of St. David's was ordered to elect
the Prior of Llanthony, Geoffrey de Henelawe. Late in 1 199
Giraldus journeyed to Rome, was courteously received by
Pope Innocent III., to whom he presented some of his own
writings, but got no definite promise of support : all that
the Pope did was to appoint a commission in England to try
the validity of the election and examine the claims of



INTRODUCTION



St. David's to independence of the See of Canterbury. On
returning to St. David's Giraldus found that a strong party
in the chapter had elected the Abbot of St. Dogmael's ;
once more the tireless fighter travelled to Rome with new
evidence for his case that he had discovered at St. David's.
After much wrangling the case was adjourned ; he came
back to Wales and finding himself deserted by the clergy,
turned for support to his lay relations. The contest had now
become open rebellion; he was outlawed and the papal
commissioner gave judgment against him. All he could
do was to appeal to the Pope and excommunicate his
enemies.

In 1203 Giraldus, after a perilous journey, came for the
third time to Rome; the Pope annulled both elections,
directing the chapter to begin proceedings afresh. He was
touched by Griraldus' persistent, though fruitless, efforts,
and said at his departure: "Doubtless, my brother, God
has for His own good purposes rescued thee from this stormy
life and has reserved thee for some nobler work." In the
end the chapter chose Prior Geoffrey of Llanthony, and
Giraldus withdrew his opposition. He had no support to
hope for from the Roman court, and the St. David's clergy,
for whom he had suflfered so much, had been the first to
desert him. Soon afterwards he was reconciled with the
king and the archbishop, resigned his archdeaconry
and made a fourth journey to Rome. Bishop Geoffrey
died in 1214, but Giraldus was again passed over ; he died
about the year 1223 and was buried in St. David's.

Giraldus was a born fighter, bent on achieving the
ecclesiastical independence of Wales, under the Bishop of
St. David's ; he would gladly have been the Becket of Wales,
but found few, in the end none, to stand by him. He was
courageous, zealous for reform, unwearied in his industry
and in his love for learning. He was not always very
scrupulous; for instance, when he was at Rome, some



IKTRODUCTION



letters from the Archbishop of Canterbury to the Pope
were stolen by a clerk and offered to him for sale. He
insisted on seeing one first, broke its seal, and finding it
full of invectives against him, returned all the letters. His
vanity is obvious ; he never misses an opportunity of
putting himself, his learning, and his energy in a favourable
light. He is at times inaccurate to a degree : Irish scholars,
as Miss Norgate remarks, '^ have almost from that day to
this justly declaimed against him for his atrocious libels
upon their country and its people." But he had the knack
of writing down in vivid and often amusing fashion much
that posterity has cared to know; he did not think it
beneath the dignity of an author to describe the life that
he saw around him.

The best known of G-iraldus' works are the Itinerarium
Kamhrice and the Descrijjtio Kamhrice (translated in Dent's
Everyman Library), the Tojwgraphia Hibernica and the
Expugnatio Hibernica (translated in Bohn's Antiquarian
Library). In these works he displays some of the qualities
of the modern journalist ; he touches on a wide range of
subjects with surprising ease and freedom. He is at his
best in the two works on Wales, and there is good reason
for the inclusion of his statue among the statues of Welsh
worthies in the City Hall, GardifF. His other works are :
De rebus a se gestis ; Gemma Ecdesiastica ; De Invedionibus ;
De jure et statu Menevensis Ecdesim ; Symbolum Eledorum ;
S;peciilum Ecdesice ; De prindpls instrudione ; various letters
and biographies.

The selections included in this volume are taken from
Giraldus' autobiography (De rebus a se gestis) and from the
Gemma Ecdesiastica, The autobiography gives an account
of Giraldus' life to about the year 1200, and was probably
written in 1204-5; it is incomplete, the third book con-
taining only 19 chapters out of the original 236. The only
extant MS. is in the Cottonian Collection in the British



INTRODUCTION



Museum (Tiberius, B. XIII. ). The Gemma Ecclesiastica

was Giraldus' favourite work, and he tells us with much

complacency that Pope Innocent III. would never allow it

to be out of his sight. It is valuable for the insight it

affords into the local customs of Wales and the state of

learning and morals among the clergy and laity. The

picture drawn is black enough, but it must be remembered

that Giraldus loved a good story, and too much must not

be made of his instances of ignorance and misconduct. The

only extant MS. of the Gemma Ecclesiastica is in the

Lambeth Library.

The text of the selections is reprinted, by the kind

permission of the Master of the Rolls, from vols. I. and II.

of the Rolls Series edition. The glossary contains only

such words as are not included in an ordinary Latin

dictionary.

CAROLINE A. J. SKEEL



SELECTIONS FROM
'^DE EEBUS A SE GESTIS"



BOOK I.

Chapter I.

Of the Parentage of Giraldiis and the Doings
of his Boyhood and Youth.

GiRALDUS itaque de Kambria oriundus et australi ejusdem
parte, maritimisque Demetise finibus, non procul ab oppido
principali de Penbroc, castello sc. de Mainarpir, ingenuis
natalibus prosapiam duxit. Ex matre nam que Angarath,
filia Nestae, nobilis filise Eesi principis Sudwallise, sc. filii
Theodori, viro egregio Willelmo de Barri matrimonialiter
copulata, processit. Qui cum ex fratribus quatuor
germanis pariter et uterinis natu minor existeret, tribus
aliis nunc castra nunc oppida nunc palatia puerilibus, ut
solet haec setas, preeludiis in sabulo vel pulvere protrahen-
tibus construentibus, modulo suo, solus hie simili prseludio
semper ecclesias eligere et monasteria construere tota
intentione satagebat. Quod dum pater ejus ssepius
intuendo cum admiratione considerasset, ductus ad hoc
quasi prognostico quodam, ipsum literis et liberalibus
disciplinis applicandum prsesaga mente decrevit ; eumque
ludendo et applaudendo suum episcopum vocare consuevit.
Accidit autem, ut nocte quadam hostili invasione terra
turbata, et juventute castri tota certatim ad arma prosili-
ente, puer hoc intuens et tumultum audiens cum fietu

13



U GIRALDUS OAMBEENSIS

proclamaret, quserens quonam declinare deberet, et petens
quatenus ad ecclesiam portaretur ; miro presagio pacem
ecclesiasticam et immunitatem domus Deo dicatse firmissi-
mam atque securam esse debere declarando. Cuncti vero
qui hoc audierant, cessante tumultu, verbum illud puerile
secum cogitandoj et inter se conferendo^ cum admiratione
recolebant, quod majorem sc. sibi securitatem in ecclesia
remota ventis et fortuitis eventibus exposita, quam in
oppido viris et armis referto, turribus et muris munitis-
simo, promittebat. Id etiam quotiens super dignitate
ecclesiastica et libertate^ quotiens de jure fori et poli inter
clerum et populum altercationes audiebat, ecclesiae se pro
posse protectorem et advocatum etiam puer opponebat ;
zelo eodem Deo inspirante et gratiam de die in diem
augmentante, per omnem setatem et usque in finem ei
perdurante. Nihil enim adeo in terris sicut ecclesiae
Christi gloriam amplam, profectum in omnibus et honorem,
quolibet aevo sta tuque suo cupiebat.



Chapter II.

Of his Early Deficiency and Later Advance
in Learning,

Puer autem in primis fratrum consortio festivis diebus
colludentium et militaria suae professionis negotia sum-
mopere collaudantium, quoniam a convictu mores forman-
tur, non mediocriter impeditus, longe segnius in proposita
disciplina profecit. Cseterum tandem a Menevensi
episcopo pise memorise Davide tunc prsesidente, qui et
avunculus ejus extiterat, correptus quidem et statim
correctus, clericorumque duorum ejusdem episcopi, quorum
unus in suggillationem ipsius declinabat durus, durior,
durissimus, et alter, stuUuSj stultior, stuUissimus, insultatione



DE EEBUS A SE QESTIS



plurimum adjutus, plus verecundia deinde quam virga,
plusque pudore quam prseceptore sive timore quovis,
proficere coepit. Taiita namque studium vehementia
postmodum est amplexatus, ut coaetaneos omnes et con-
scolares terrae suae infra modicum tempus longe transcen-
deret. Processu vero temporis causa studii ma j oris atque
profectus ter in Franciam transfretando, tresque status
annorum plurium Parisius in liberalibus disciplinis
faciendo, summosque prseceptores demum sequiparando,
trivium ibidem egregie docuit, et praecipuam in arte
rhetorica laudem obtinuit. Adeoque studiis ex toto
addictus fuerat, nil levitatis aut scurrilitatis actibus aut
animo gerens, ut quotiens de bonis scolaribus doctores
artium exemplificare vellent, Giraldum pree caeteris omni-
bus nominarent. Sicque scolastici officii praecellentis et
praeelecti in prima aetate, meritis id exigentibus bonis,
et annis adolescentiae, non petere exemplum sed dare
dignus erat.



Chapter VI.

How he withstood the Bishop of St. Asaph
at Kerry and manfully retained all the
Churches of those Parts.

Peractis igitur his quae ibi agenda videbantur, versus
Brecheniauc lora regirans ad domicilium suum de Landeov
reversus est. Ubi .cum paucis diebus, quia tantum tribus
aut quatuor moram fecisset ; venerunt clerici duo missi a
decano et capitulo partium praedictarum cum festinatione,
nuntiantes ei Lanelvensem episcopum Adam ad ecclesiam
de Kerri, quae finalis erat inter episcopatus, sed tamen de
eorum capitulo et diocesi Menevensi ab antiquo fuerat,
proxima dominica proculdubio venturum, ipsamque eodem



16 GIEALDUS OAMBEENSIS

die, ut earn sic cum tota provincia occupare possit,
dedicaturum ; asserentes quoque nullatenus ipsum ab hoc
impediri posse, nisi occurrens ei in propria persona archi-
diaconus adventaret. Asseverabant etiam, quod si
provinciam illam sic occupare permissus fuerit, totam
quoque terram usque Yagam, sc. Meilenith et Elevein
tanquam ad ecclesiam suam de S. Asaph pertinentem
firmiter occupare proposuit. Quo audito quanquam fessus
adhuc labore priori, cunctisque suis constanter dissuaden-
tibus, et his prsecipue qui secum antea fuerant, plus prse
timore tamen quam labore, cum ipso tunc ire recusantibus,
in crastino sc. feria sexta cum his quos secum ducere
poterat, iter iterum incunctanter arripuit, et Vagse fluvium
transvadando, silvestriaque de Elevein transpenetrando in
confinio de Melenith pernoctavit. Surgens autem sabbato
mane, post matutinarum et missarum solemnia nuncios qui
clericos undique convocarent eumque sequi facerent, varias
ad partes destinavit ; alios etiam ad principes et fratres sc.
^neam Glut et Cadwallanum misit, rogans quatinus de
familiis suis viros probos cum equis et armis, qui ei si opus
esset assisterent et jura Sancti David cum ipso defender-
ent, post ipsum mitterent; quoniam in manu forti cum
Powisensibus et de Keddewein episcopus ille venturus esse
dicebatur. Et sic Melenith transcurrendo apud ecclesiam
de Lanbiste non procul a Keri nocte ilia moram fecit.

Et cum mane Dominica sc. ad ecclesiam S. Michaelis de
Keri veniret archidiaconus, clerici duo participes ecclesiae,
qui obviam episcopo perrexerant, cujus etiam adventui
consenserunt, ecclesise claves absconderant. Sed qusesitis
illis diligenter et tandem inventis, archidiaconus. intravit;
et statim pulsatis campanis tanquam in investiturse signum
et possessionis, missam solemniter inchoari et celebrari
fecit. Interim autem veniunt nuncii episcopi cum persona
ecclesise, prsecipientes ecclesiam statim ad dedicandum
praeparari ; ac si satis pro imperio fieri debere nee resisti



DE EEBUS A SE GESTIS 17

posse constaret. Archidiaconus autem hoc audito, post
missam completam misit quosdam de clericis suis discretos,
simul cum decano provinciae, obviam episcopo nunciantes
ei ex parte ipsius, quod si pacifice veniret et tanquam
amicus et vicinus, hospitio libenter cum omni honore
susciperetur ; sed alio modo non accederet. Quod cum ei
dixissent, diligenter inquirens si archidiaconus in propria
persona jam advenit, et admirans, cum paulo ante de
provincia recessisset ; tandem inito cum suis concilio, ne
vinci videretur, quia superciliosus erat valde et pra3sump-
tuosus, suae morem gerens arrogantise, respondit se non ut
hospitem et vicinum, sed tanquam episcopum loci illius, et
ad dedicandum ecclesiam illam, et officium episcopale in
parochia sua faciendum, continenter accessurum. Decanus
autem et clerici missi hoc audientes, sicut edocti fuerant,
ne in hunc modum propius accederet neve in aliena pa-
rochia dedicationem non vocatus ad hoc nee invitatus
facere prsesumeret, constanter inhibuerunt, et ad summum
pontificem appellaverunt. Sed quoniam ipsum per hoc
tardare non poterant, quosdam ex suis in equis fortioribus,
sicut prsemuniti fuerant, hoc archidiacono nunciantes cum
festinatione prsemiserunt. Qui cum venissent, relictis in
ecclesia de comitatu suo quibusdam, qui earn servarent
interius et ostia serarent, statim exivit archidiaconus
obviam episcopo venienti ad introitum coemeterii. Epis-
copus autem, ut venit, praecepit archidiacono, quatinus
cum suis festinanter abiret, ecclesiamque suam et coemi-
terium ad faciendum quod disposuit ei relinqueret. Alio-
quin ipsum, licet invitus, quia Parisius olim socii fuerant
et conscolares, excommunicaret. Archidiaconus autem e
contra rogavit, episcopum, quatenus causa amicitia? et
societatis antiqua) in pace discederet, et nihil in injuriam
suam sua^que detrimentum jurisdictionis attemptaret.
Quod cum facere penitus recusaret, ne dedicationem vel
aliquod officium episcopale ibi faciendo falcem mitteret in

2



18 GIR ALDUS CAMBRENSIS

messem alienam, ex parte Dei dominique papse et archi-
episcopi necnon et regis Auglise, in cujus manu et custodia
tunc erat ecclesia Sti. David paulo ante orbata pastore,
firmiter inhibuit et appellavit. Episcopus autem his
auditis literas archiepiscopi Cantuariensis, a quo non
longe ante consecratus fuerat, produxit et legi fecit;
quibus episcopatum Lanelum cum cunctis pertinentiis suis
ei confirmavit, et omnes qui aliquid ei in juste auferrent
excommunicavit. Quibus perlectis subjunxit episcopus
ecclesiam de Keri, sicut et omnes ecclesias inter Vagam et
Sabrinam, ad ecclesiam suam Laneluensem jure parochiali
pertinere ; et in ejus rei testimonium librum produxit
antiquum, in cujus id fine contineri dicebat ; quod et legi
fecit; dicens et asserens, quod nisi archidiaconus cito de-
sisteret, incontinenti ipsum et suos excommunicaret.
Archidiaconus autem ad hasc respondit, ecclesiam de Keri
et alias inter Vagam et Sabrinam, de Eleyein sc. et Melen-
ith et Warthrenniaun, nee ad diocesin Laneluensem nee ad
archiepiscopi confirmationem illam ullatenus pertinere ;
puta quas trecentis annis et pluribus intra diocesim
Menevensem contentas fui^sse dinoscitur. In libro autem
suo scribere poterat quod volebat. Sed si cartam inde
haberet cum authentico sigillo vel privilegium, ostenderet ;
et cum hoc non haberet, si ipsum excommunicare vellet,
quia pro ecclesia suae stabat defensione, et ipse in eum
sententiam simili temeritate prajcipitaret. Respondit ille
se episcopum esse, nee licere archidiacono episcopum
excommunicare. Cui archidiaconus: "Si episcopus,'*
inquit, " es ; non es episcopus meus ; nee potestatem uilam
"habes sententiandi in me, sicut nee ego in te. Ideoque
" valeat sententia quantum valere poterit, utrimque temere
" et indebite data."

Episcopus autem his auditis se parumper retrahendo,
statim equo dilapsus, capiti suo mi tram imponi fecit ; et
sic mitratus baculumque pastoralem nudatum manu



DE REBUS A SE GESTIS 19

bajulans, ut majoris auctoritatis ejus sententia fore videre-
tur, cum turba suorum pedes accessit. Archidiaconus e
contra sacerdotes et clericos plures albis stolis et super-
pelliciis ac sacerdotalibus cseteris indutos, cum cereis
accensis et cruce bajula ac prseambula in modum proces-
sionis de ecclesia exeuntes in faciem procedere jussit.
Noverat enim hominis naturam ; quod praeceps erat in
actibus suis et prajsumptuosus. Ideoque dum verbis
contendebant, quia garrulus erat ille et verbosus, haec
prseparari caute curaverat archidiaconus. Quos cum
videret episcopus, quaesivit quidnam hoc esset, et ad quid
illi sic venirent. Cui archidiaconus : " Ad hoc," inquit,
" ut si in nos et ipsos sententiam dare prsesumpseritis, et
"ipsi non minus audacter in vos et vestros vice versa
" sententiam donent." Episcopus autem, hoc audiens ait :
" Propter amicitiam quae inter nos olim fuerat et scolasti-
"cam societatem, parcemus nunc personse vestrae et his
" qui vobiscum sunt ; nee nominatim in quemquam
^'vestrum sententiam dabimus. Generaliter autem sicut
" archiepiscopus in Uteris suis, omnes, qui jura Sancti
"Asaph patroni nostri nobis auferre et sibi usurpare
"nituntur, sententia excommunicationis involvemus." Ad
hsec archidiaconus : " Si talem," inquit, " sententiam
"generalem dederitis in montibus illis" (ostendens montes
in parochia Laneluensi non procul inde distantes) " a mane
"usque ad vesperam, quoniam in nullo nos tangeret, qui
" tan turn jura nostra tuemur, nihil omnino curaremus.
*^Sed propter populum astantem qui non intelligeret, sed
" potius putaret sententiam vestram, si hie daretur sub hac
" quacunque forma, in nos quidem aut prse judicium
"nostrum datam esse, nolumus quod hie aliquatenus fiat."
Et cum episcopus juraret se prsedicto modo ubi statim
excommunicare- velle ; et archidiaconus se sub forma
consimili sententiam daturum asseveravit. Cumque
episcopus in genere, ne nihil egisse videretur, excommuni-



20 GIEALDUS CAMBRENSIS



care hostes et adversaries Sancti Asaph alta voce coepisset ;
et archidiacorius altiori voce cum suis in coemiterio omnes
qui jura Sancti David praeripere vel perturbare praesum-
erent excommunicavit ; et respiciens campanas, quae juxta
ipsos ab alto pendebant, praecepit quatinus in ignominiam
adversariorum et quasi sententiae suae confirmationem simul
omnes trino intervallo pulsarentur. Quod cum fieret,
quoniam Walenses sonum hujusmodi campanarum, cum in
ipsos pulsantur, multum abhorrent, confestim episcopus et
sui equos scandentes, interrupta sententia, quam citius
poterant abscesserunt. Populi vero qui ad hoc specta-
culum undique concurrerant, clamorem magnum, ut mos
est gentis illius, post ipsos extoUentes, glebis etiam et
lignis ac lapidibus fugientes a tergo sunt prosecuti.
Cumque versus Cadwallanum, cujus assensum habuerat,
apud Melenith episcopus iter ageret, turbam magnam
dericorum in equis bonis, lanceis etiam et sagittis, qui


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