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Preliminary report on the raw materials, manufacture and uses of hydraulic cements in Manitoba online

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NELLS



RAW MATERIALS, MANUFACTURE AND USES OF
HYDRAULIC CEMENTS IN MANITOBA





THE LIBRARY
OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



The RALPH D. REED LIBRARY

-O

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES, CALIF.



MINES BRANCH

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR.

HONOUKAULE FHANK OI.IVKK, M.I J ., MI.VISTKK.



PRELIMINARY REPORT



Raw Materials, Manufacture and Uses of
Hydraulic Cements in Manitoba.



J. WALTER WELLS.



OTTAWA, CANADA.

19(1.-).



MINES BRANCH
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR.

HONOURABLE FRANK OLIVER, M.P., MIKISTEH.



PRELIMINARY REPORT



Raw Materials, Manufacture and Uses of
Hydraulic Cements in Manitoba.



J. WALTER WELLS.



OTTAWA, CANADA.
1905.



Geology,
Library

TP



OTTAWA, May 4th, 1905.



SIR,



I have the honour to transmit herewith a Preliminary Report
on the raw materials, manufacture and uses of Hydraulic Cements
in Manitoba.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,
Your obedient servant,

(Sgd.) EUGENE HAANEL,

Superintendent of Mines.



HON. FRANK OLIVER, M.P.,

Minister of the Interior.



787419



OTTAWA, 30th May, 1904.
DEAR SIR,

You are hereby directed to proceed at the earliest moment
after receipt of this letter of instruction to Manitoba and the
North-West Territories for the purpose of investigating the
different deposits of Limestone, Clay and Shale which may be
employed in the manufacture of Cement, and to visit the Cement
Mills in North Dakota, in Minnesota and South Dakota, for the
purpose of studying the different methods used in the manufac-
ture of Cement, and to gather such other information as will
enable you to complete your former investigations on this subject,
and write a report on the making of Hydraulic and Portland
Cement from the raw material obtained from the deposits in
Manitoba and the North-West Territories, which will be of prac-
tical value in furthering the Cement Industry of the province.

Yours very truly,

EUGENE HAANEL,

Superintendent of Mines.

J. WALTER WELLS, ESQ., B.Sc.,

392 Markham Street,

TORONTO, ONT.



OTTAWA, 6th March, 1905.

SIR,

I have the honour to transmit herewith a preliminary report
on the raw materials,' manufacture and uses of Hydraulic Cements
in Manitoba. This involved the examination of the limestones,
marls, clays, shales and coal deposits of Manitoba so far as could
be done in a preliminary field survey during a period of five
months.

The facts were collected as far as possible by personal obser-
vation. What use can be made of them and what advantage
derived from them rests with the energetic people of Manitoba,
for whose benefit they have been collected and for whose infor-
mation they are now presented.

The analyses, unless otherwise stated, have been made by
M. F. Connor, official chemist.

I wish to express my thanks for the advice and suggestions
you have given me.

I have the honour to be,
Sir,

Your obedient servant,

J. WALTER WELLS.

DR. EUGENE HAANEL,

Superintendent of Mines,

OTTAWA.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



PAGE.
LETTER OF INSTRUCTIONS.

I. PRESENT INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS IN MANITOBA 13-14

II. SKETCH OF THE MANUFACTURE OF HYDRAULIC CE-
MENT 15-28

Definition of Hydraulic Cement 15

Portland Cement 15-22

Raw Materials 15-18

Proportion of Ingredients 18-19

Mixing of Materials 19-20

Calcination of the Mixture 20-21

Clinker 21

Grinding of Clinkers 21

Storage 22

Composition 22

Natural Rock Cement 22-27

Raw Materials 23

Composition of Natural Cement Rocks 23

Manufacture of Natural Cement . 24-27

Mining 24

Scheme of operation for making Natural Rock

Cement 24-25

Calcining of Material 26

Grinding of Clinker 26

Composition of Natural Cement 27

The Physical Qualities of Hydraulic Cement 27-28

III. AVAILABLE RAW CEMENT-MAKING MATERIALS IN

MANITOBA 28-39

Coal 28-29

Raw Materials Limestones, etc 29-31

Quarrying and Shipping Facilities 31-33

Marl and Chalk Deposits 33

Clay Shales 34

Benton Shales. . 34



10

PAGE'

Niobrara Shales 34-36

Pierre Shales 37-38

Clays 38-39

IV. METHODS OF CEMENT MAKING AND WHERE CEMENT

CAN BE MADE IN MANITOBA 39-54

Some methods of making Cement from Limestone

and Clays or Shales 40-41

Method of Manufacture in the Lehigh District,

Pennsylvania and New Jersey, U.S.A 41-42

Method of Manufacture, Edison Portland Cement

Company, Stewartsville, New Jersey 43-44

Method of Manufacture used at the Works of Al-
pena Portland Cement Company. Alpena,
Michigan 45-47

Method of Manufacture at Kansas Portland Cement

Works, lola, Kansas. 48-49

Method of Manufacture at the Works of the Inter-
national Cement Company, Hull, Que 50

Probable Locations for Portland Cement Works

in Manitoba 51-52

The Manufacture of Natural Cement in Manitoba. . 52-54

V. THE USES OF PORTLAND CEMENT IN MANITOBA 54-66

The Uses of Portland Cement as a Mortar 56-57

Portland Cement "Lime Mortar ~57

Portland Cement Plaster 57-58

Uses of Portland Cement in Common Concrete. . . . 58-59

The Preparation of Cement Concrete 59

Practical Uses of Cement Concrete 59-63

Foundation and Footings 60

Massive Monolithic Construction go

Monolithic Concrete Walls 61

Artificial Stone Building Blocks 61

Foundations for Posts 62

Sidewalks and Street Pavements 62

Road Foundations 62

The Uses of Reinforced Cement Concrete 63-65

Grain Storage Elevators 64

Posts for Fences and Wiring 64-65

Railroad Ties gc

Abutments, Bridges, Piers, etc 65



11

PAGE
List of Manufacturers of Cement Brick, Hollow

Block and Tile 66

VI. USES OF NATURAL CEMENT IN MANITOBA 66-70

Cement Plaster 67

Cement Mortar 67

Natural Cement Concrete 68

Directions for Mixing Concrete 68

Concrete Floors 68-69

Foundations, etc 69

Culverts and Bridges 69-70

Monolithic Walls . . 70



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



PLATE No. 1. Exterior view of the King Grain Storage Elevator,
Port Arthur, Ontario, mostly built of fire-proof reinforced
concrete.

PLATE No. 2. View of Arnold Cement Works, Pembina Hills,
showing vertical clinker kiln, clinker grinding house and
storage shed on the Canadian Northern Railway.

PLATE No. 3. View of a new dwelling house built of Miracle
patent stone building blocks at Emerson, Manitoba.

PLATE No. 4. Type of monolithic concrete house being adopted
in Ontario. This house at St. David's is built of natural
cement concrete from cellar to roof, and the foundations and
walls cost $670.

PLATE No. 5. A rough monolithic concrete stable at Virden,
Manitoba.

PLATE No. 6. Method of replacing decayed end of telegraph pole
by a cement concrete butt.

PLATE No. 7. Drawing showing Cement Concrete Fence Post
used in Michigan.



13



I. PRESENT INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS IN MANITOBA.

The present industrial condition of Manitoba calls for an
active propaganda in favour of utilizing the local natural deposits
of limestone, clays and shales for building purposes in order to
assist in the natural economic development of the Province. The
production of wheat and other cereals is the main source of wealth
in the Province and a succession of good crops has placed the
earlier settlers in a position to build a better class of dwelling
houses, barns, stables, etc. The great fertility of the soil in Man-
itoba and the ease with which it can be prepared to produce
cereals, combined with the fact that the Dominion Lands Depart-
ment is ever ready to furnish information regarding the unoccupied
land, have attracted emigrants from Great Britain and European
States. Many of the wealthy farmers in Western United States
are realizing the fact that they can sell their own farms and with
the proceeds purchase three farms equally as good in Manitoba.
So that a steady stream of settlers is coming into the Province
and new buildings are being erected.

A cheap, strong and warm building is demanded on the farm
and lumber is at present the common material used for farm
buildings, as it is convenient to handle. But, unfortunately, the
lumber must be imported from British Columbia, Western On-
tario, and the Western American States, so that the cost of pro-
duction combined with transportation charges makes the price of
lumber in Manitoba very high, in fact almost prohibitive.

Fortunately, the Province is well supplied with natural de-
posits of limestone, clays, shales, gravel and sand, so that by
expending money and energy in the proper direction cheap build-
ing materials may be produced, of a quality suitable for supple-
menting or even supplanting lumber and wood in the construction
of all grades of houses, stores, elevators, barns, etc. These natural
deposits seem to be a valuable asset to the Province, giving it the
privilege of dropping to a considerable extent the use of wood for
building purposes, if at any time the price should rise.

By utilizing the local materials home industries would be
started, employing many hands and keeping money within the
Province which otherwise would go out in payment for lumber
imported. So that self-interest should prompt the people of
Manitoba to utilize the local raw materials, especially since ex-



14

pensive experiments are not necessary as brick, quarry stone,
cement concrete and tile have stood centuries of trial in competi-
tion with wood as reliable building materials.

The limestone quarries near Tyndal, around Stonewall, and
at the Narrows on Lake Manitoba are now producing first grade
building stone and rubble for concrete, which is shipped to all
parts of the Province, especially to the City of Winnipeg, where
building operations are active.

Large beds of clay are quite common throughout the country,
and at points where cheap fuel and transportation facilities are
available brick-making plants are now producing bricks which
seem to be the popular building material in the towns and vil-
lages, but as yet the price, averaging $10.00 per thousand, is too
high for common use on the farm. But sand and gravel are quite
common, especially in the hilly sections, so that along with cheap
Portland or natural cement, they can be used for the construction
of cheap and serviceable farm buildings.

Portland cement is not made in the Province, but is imported
from the cement factories in Ontario, such as at Owen Sound,
Durham and Hanover, having convenient shipping facilities to
the west. The American cement factories, especially those located
in Michigan and in Illinois, are also shipping Portland cement to
Manitoba. The average price for Portland cement laid down at
Winnipeg is about $2.75 per barrel.

There is apparently no reason why Portland cement should
not be made in Manitoba as the raw materials are available, while
labor and other costs are gradually being lowered, so that sooner
or later it will probably be cheaper to make cement in Manitoba
than to import.

Natural rock cement is being made by the Manitoba Union
Mining Company at Arnold. This cement finds a market, especi-
ally on farms, but has been used for the same purposes as
Portland cement in railway construction.



15

II. SKETCH OF THE MANUFACTURRE OF HYDRAULIC
CEMENT.

DEFINITION OF HYDRAULIC CEMENT. ,

Hydraulic Cement, as used in an engineering sense, means
such a chemical combination of alumina, lime, silica and iron that
when properly powdered and mixed with a proper amount of
water it has the property of hardening under water and in contact
with moist air.

Limestones carrying 8% or more clay, when properly burned,
produce hydraulic limes and cements. There is no hard and fast
distinction between these two materials except that the cements
have stronger setting qualities.

Two classes of hydraulic cement may be made in Manitoba
and used to good advantage in engineering work and buildings of
every description: (1) Portland cement* (2) natural rock cement.

PORTLAND CEMENT.

Portland or Artificial Cement. A chemical compound, con-
sisting essentially of lime, silica and alumina obtained by burn-
ing at a sintering temperature an intimate mechanical mixture of
a definite proportion of pure carbonate of lime and clay of pure
quality, the product being subsequently ground to a more or
less impalpable powder.

RAW MATERIALS.

The necessary materials for Portland cement are:

1. Carbonate of lime, usually in the form of bedded limestone,

crystalline limestone, chalk or marl.

2. A natural mixture of limestone and clay, such as the argil-

laceous limestones of the Lehigh Valley, Penn.

3. Clay or silicate of alumina more or less pure.

4. Shale which is indurated clay, often carrying more or less

carbonate of lime.

True Portland cement of uniform and reliable quality can be
made only from an artificial mixture of the raw materials. So
far no natural deposit of limestone has been found having uniform
composition with the right amount of clay. A variation of 1%



*Portland cement was invented in 1824 by James Aspdin, a bricklayer
of Leeds, England, and was so called because it resembled in point of colour
and texture the oolitic limestone from the island of Portland.



16

in composition from the correct standard is sufficient to reduce
the value of the resulting cement.

Carbonate of Lime for use in making Portland cement must
have the following qualities:

It should be as pure as possible except for the presence of
pure clay which may be present in considerable quantity. The
presence of magnesia is deleterious for the reason that it does not
seem to combine with the clay at the temperature required for
the burning of the cement and is left at the end of the process as
caustic magnesia (MgO). When water is added to cement con-
taining magnesia the magnesia seems slowly to absorb water,
forming a hard product of increased volume, hence producing a
cracking or disintegration of the hardened cement even after
several years. The precise allowable limit of magnesia is still
undecided, but 3% seems to be the maximum allowed in first
grade cement.

Sulphate of lime (gypsum) in quantities exceeding 2% is
objectionable in the raw material, as it is reduced to a sulphide
in the reducing flame of the rotary and vertical kiln, causing the
cement to turn a dark blue colour in hardening and to give poor
tests and unsightly concrete.

Hard pure limestones have the drawback of the high cost of
pulverizing the large quantity required to the necessary fine
powder. Limestones carrying a considerable quantity of clay
are much better as they are generally softer and much coarser
grinding will suffice to obtain a good combination in burning, as
the mixing is already partly done by nature.

Free sand and an excessive amount of organic matter are
common objectionable impurities of marl, as the sand does not
combine readily while the organic matter tends to clog the kiln,
consuming fuel without adding to the output of cement.

The chemical composition of certain typical forms of carbon-
ate of lime used in the manufacture of Portland cement is given
by the following partial analyses made by the writer:

(1) (2) (3)



Silica, SiO 2 4 24


86 1 7 r>A


Alumina, A^Oa
Ferric oxide, Fe2Os
Lime carbonate, CaCOs


3.45
1.30
90.32


0.92
1.04
93 24


7.32

2.09

co 74


Magnesium carbonate, MgCOs
Lime sulphate, CaSO4


0.50
trace


0.26
trace


4.36
0.36



17

(1) Chalk used at Western Portland Cement Works, Yank-

ton, South Dakota, U.S.A.

(2) Marl used at Ontario Portland Cement Works, Brantford,

Ontario.

(3) Argillaceous limestone used at Lawrence Cement Works,

Siegfried, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Chalk and argillaceous limestone are ideal raw materials for
the manufacture of cement because they are generally soft and
pure.

In England a soft chalk is generally used. In Germany
chalk, limestone and mergel (soft, clayey limestone) are the com-
mon materials. At Yankton, South Dakota, a pure soft dry
chalk is used, producing a first grade cement.

In Pennsylvania and New Jersey argillaceous limestone, con-
taining slightly more clay than is required for a correct mixture,
is mixed with pure limestone. The grinding of the raw material
is comparatively coarse since the bulk of it is already of nearly
correct composition and is not expensive as the stone is medium
soft,

In Ontario marl is used at the nine factories in operation but
one factory is being constructed to use hard bedded limestone.

In Michigan both marl and hard bedded limestone are used.
In Kansas a Cretaceous limestone is used in all of the factories.

Clays and Clay Shale. These should be low in magnesia
and sulphates, high in combined silica, but practically free from
sand, as the latter does not combine to form silicate of lime at the
temperature obtained in burning cement clinker. The presence
of sand may be proved by the washing of powdered clay and shale
through a fine sieve. According to S. B. Newberry, who has con-
ducted laborious researches on cement, the silica in clay should be
equal to at least three times the alumina and iron oxides together.
For example, a clay containing 18% A1 2 3 and 4% Fe 2 O 3 should
contain at least 66% SiO 2 .

Clays high in alumina produce a fusible clinker and a quick
setting cement, Clays high in silica up to 70% SiO 2 show mix-
tures standing high heat in the kiln without fusing, and producing
a slow setting cement which being set steadily increases in strength.

Iron oxides lower the fusion point of cement clinker in burn-
ing, hence reduce the cost of burning. Clay carrying more than
5% of iron oxides will give a dark colored cement and the lower
the percentage of iron oxides the lighter in color the cement will be.



18

Alkalis are usually present in small quantities and seem to
assist in making the clinker more fusible.

The most desirable clay or shale is one free from the above
mentioned impurities, containing sufficient alumina and iron
oxides to render the clinker easily fusible, but not enough to make
the cement quick setting and reduce the proportion of tri-calcium
silicate (3CaO, SiO 2 ) which is the active ingredient in making the
cement harden on the addition of water.

PROPORTION OF INGREDIENTS.

The chemist in a cement factory has a responsible position as
he alone can determine the exact proportions in which the raw
materials shall be mixed to produce a combination of satisfactory
grade. The composition of the mixture must be under the control
of the chemist and the percentage of lime kept within 0.5% of the
limit.

Laborious researches on the composition of cement have
been made by Messrs. Newberry (Journal of Society of Chemical
Industry, November, 1897, page 889).

By synthesis they determine that :

1. Lime may be combined with silica in the proportion of 3

molecules to 1 to form (3CaO,SiO 2 ) and still give a product
of practically constant volume and good hardening pro-
perties, though hardening very slowly. With 3.5
molecules of lime to 1 of silica (3.5 CaO, SiO 2 ) the pro-
duct is not sound and cracks in water.

2. Lime may be combined with alumina in the proportion

of 2 molecules to 1 (2 CaO, A1 2 O 3 ), giving a product
which sets quickly but shows constant volume and
good hardening properties. With 2.5 molecules of
lime to 1 of alumina (2.5 CaO, A1 2 O 3 ) the product is
not sound.

The formula 3 CaO, SiO 2 corresponds to 2.8 parts lime (CaO)
to 1 part silica (SiO 2 ) and the formula 2 CaO, A1 2 O 3 corresponds
to 1.1 parts lime (CaO) to 1 part alumina A1 2 3 and,
therefore, the following formula is given as representing the
maximum of lime in an ideal Portland cement:

% CaO = % SiO 2 X 2.8 + % A1 2 3 X 1.1.
By experimental synthesis of Portland cement with mixtures



19

containing various percentages of alumina they show that cement
made according to the above formula gives satisfactory results,
while cement containing 3 molecular proportions of lime to 1 of
alumina, according to the maximum laid down by Le Chatelier's
formulae, is unsound, thus showing that the lime limit has been
exceeded.

Newberry's formula is commonly used in Canadian cement
factories.

MIXING OF RAW MATERIAL.

When marl and clay are used as raw materials they are
usually mixed by a wet process. After being thoroughly stirred
and mixed with water in separate wash mills, the materials are
pumped into separate measuring cylinders and drawn off as re-
quired into a mixing pan supplied with an agitator and then
through tube mills and emery mills to thoroughly pulverize the
mixture or slurry which passes into storage pits, where it is
sampled and analyzed by the chemist, who allows the slurry to
pass into the rotary kilns, if it is satisfactory, or calls for more
marl or clay, if required.

At many factories using marl and clay the wet materials are
mixed in a plastic condition and fed directly into the rotary kilns
in the form of wet pulp.

It is claimed that a wet mixture is more perfect than a dry
one, but the product requires more fuel to produce the cement
clinker, owing to the fuel consumed in evaporating the large
amount of water present.

At some modern cement factories in Ontario the marl is
calcined in separate rotary kilns, driving off water, organic matter
and a portion of carbon dioxide; the product, after being mixed
with the correct amount of dried clay, is ground in Griffin mills
and passed to the clinker kilns.

When the raw materials are naturally in a more or less dry
condition and more or less perfectly mixed by nature, the dry
mixing process is preferable and is the common practice in the
Lehigh Valley and New Jersey cement mills, which produce 60%
of the cement used in the United States. The dried materials are
pulverized, 85% passing a 100-mesh screen, again moistened to
prevent dust, and burned in rotary kilns.

Improvements are being made to use the waste heat from



20

the clinker kilns for drying the crushed rock. Gyratory crushers
are used for coarse crushing. Emery mills, griffin mills, ball
mills and tube mills are generally used for dry grinding of the
coarse crushed raw materials. If the raw material, such as
argillaceous limestone, is already approximately of the correct
composition coarser grinding is allowed, thus saving some expense.

CALCINATION OF THE MIXTURE.

The calcination of the mixture is done both in vertical kilns
and tilted rotary kilns.

Of the different forms which have been in use, the rotary
kiln has proven the best adapted to the process of producing a
satisfactory clinker, having the following advantages:

1. A reduction of labor as the process is automatic and con-

tinuous.

2. The raw material does not require to be briquetted before

entering the kiln, as in the case of vertical kilns, thus
saving labor, time and expense.

3. The process admits of complete control and a uniform

product. The operator in charge of the kiln has three
variables at his command the feed of the mixture,
the speed of the kiln and the feed of the pulverized
coal forced in by air blast.

The rotary cement kiln consists of a slightly tilted steel
cylinder, from 60 feet to 100 feet in length, and about 7 feet in
diameter, lined with fire brick and revolving on rollers at about
one revolution in two minutes, effected by a large gear surround-
ing the shell about half-way from either end. The speed can
be varied by means of a counter shaft. Dried, pulverized bitu-
minous coal, carrying 30% or more of volatile combustibles, is
generally used for fuel and is driven in at the lower end by an
air blast giving a temperature of about 3,000 F. in the hottest
zone, extending from 5 to 30 feet back. The dried coal is usually
pulverized in Griffin mills or ball mills followed by tube mills
so that 95% passes a 100-mesh screen.

The rotary kiln usually requires 110 pounds of dried pul-
verized bituminous coal per barrel (280 pounds) of cement, so
that fuel costs are higher than in the case of the vertical kilns.



21

but improvements are being made by cement engineers to utilize
the waste heat from the clinker kilns in drying the raw material
before calcination.

A new style of rotary kiln, 150 feet in length and 9 feet in
diameter, has recently been put in operation at the immense
plant of the Edison Cement Works, Ste warts ville, New Jersey.
It is claimed that this kiln reduces the cost of production 3
cents per barrel of cement by using less coal.

The vertical kilns are so little used in modern Portland
cement factories that they may be considered as obsolete. Their
great advantage is low cost of fuel per barrel of cement.

CLINKER.

A properly burned clinker should be dense in texture and
greenish black in colour. Over-burned clinker is fused and slag-
like and is usually slow in hardening, though it may show good


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