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soldier left here by the Nieuic Middelburgh. and of Jacob ran
Orimpen, third cooper on the Loosduynen. 2nd. The Loosduynen
leaves. 3rd. Bartered 34 sheep and 3 oxen from the Cochoquas.

October 6th. The Commander and 10 soldiers drive to the
country in an empty wagon, with mattocks, shovels and spades,
to see whether he could not, by way of the back of the Bosheuvel,
pierce a certain kloof of the Steenbergen and thus reach a fine
forest with beautiful timber, so that if the ground be somewhat
levelled the spot might be reached with wagons, as the Company
can no longer obtain any timber here, especially planks.

Ootober 7th. The soldiers return this evening, and reported
that they had, with the Commander and the wagon, gone deep into
the kloof, but in consequence of an abrupt rooky declivity, which
no wagon could descend, much less ascend, His Honour had sent
them back. 8th. The Commander returns, having found in
various places small forests between the mountains, which
contained good timber, but as already mentioned, unapproachable
by wagons, so that, within 2 or 3 years' time, we may likely suffer
great want of timber, especially planks.

Note received from the skipper of the Haringh at Saldanha Bay,
mentioning that he had 15 casks full of fish. He would continue
fishing until the 10th, when he would fill his vessel with shells
and return.

A63. M



162

October tOth. The S. Easter blows for the first time this season,
and so violently, that no one could continue at the work of levelling
the ground on which the new Fortress is to be erected, nor could
the ordinary exercises of the soldiers take place.

October llth. Sunday. Death in Hospital of Jacob Clement,
soldier, left here by the N. Middelburgh.

October 14th. Fifty soldiers sent to the Forest to drag some
crooked timber (cromhouten) from it.

October 15th. The large new limekiln between the old and
projected new Fort finished to day.
The men return from the Forest.

October 16th. Dark morning. About noon there was terrible
lightning accompanied by very heavy thunder, such as is seldom
heard here, succeeded by a very heavy rain, very desirable for the
crops. About three o'clock in the afternoon it once more began
to rain so heavily that finally all the rivulets in Table Valley
overflowed their banks, and rushed so violently into the sea, that
one of them, passing through our new " passer" (market), carried
away the walls on both sides, as well as a large piece of ground,
so that if we had not propped up the building in time, it would
have been in danger of completely collapsing.

October 17th. This morning we discovered that the incessant
rains had done considerable damage to the Fort as well as to the
houses outside, as their walls had been built up with clay only> so
that two had fallen in. The rain continues so, that our workmen
can do nothing. This has never before been experienced here in
the second summer month.

The Oecroondf Haringh arrives from Saldanha Bay with 14
casks of salted fish and 3 do. inlaid dry fish, as well as with a large
quantity of shells.

October 20th. Arrival of the hooker Pimpel. Had left the
8.E. harbour of Mauritius on the 9th Sept. last. The Commander
of that Island, Sieur Jacobus van Nieuland, had died there on the
27th May last from apoplexy after three days' illness, and the
skipper of the Pimpel had appointed in his place the assistant,
Georgius Fredericus Wreede. It was found that no good
administration had been kept there during the life of the late Sieur
Nieuland, as the supplies of rice and brandy for the 12 men of the
garrison had already been exhausted three months ago, which had
caused gome wanton and obstinate fellows to refuse to work, so
that the skipper and council there had decided to put three of the
principal ringleaders in irons, put them on board, and bring them
hither for trial.



Otherwise everything, judging from the letters, appeared to go
on well there, especially the cutting down of ebony timber, if
there were only more men there for that work. Last year, and in
the beginning of this one, 130 slices (mooten) large and small, had
been cut of that hard wood, and sent us now with the hooker.
There was also an abundance of fish there, and a great variety of
birds, as well as of white (? wild) and tame cattle, but not easily
caught in snares or pits. However with a good dog they had
obtained 8 head of cattle, which are running at the Lodge in the
Kraal (? camp) and had become quite tame. On the other hand
they feared that agriculture would not be a success, as the latest
sown seed had mostly been eaten or injured by the rats, which
were in multitudes there. The said Wreede also sent us in a
small box, as a sample, some pieces of " Amber noir '' as he calls it,
which weighed 11^ Ibs. But as it is very brittle, too resinous
and glistening, we doubt very much whether it be the real kind of
amber. We shall however send it home, where it can be tested
by experts. 22nd. Obtained 14 sheep and 4 lean cattle from the
Choroguquas or Tobacco thieves.

October 23rd. Sieur Gabbema sent to Eobben Island to see
whether Meerhoff is properly discharging his duties, and properly
administers the cash, provisions, materials, &c., entrusted to him.

October 25th. Sunday. The S. Easter continuing, it was
impossible to hold the usual Parade this afternoon. 26th. The
wind blows over our newly constructed boat, which however is
righted again. Obtained 7 good sheep from the Cochoquas.

October 27th. The South-easter still so bad that the carpenters,
who were busy erecting a turret above the gate, had to desist.
28th. Same heavy winds, so that no boat could leave Bobben
Island, and Sieur Gabbema, his mother-in-law and daughter (who
had accompanied him) were, as it were, kept prisoners on the
Island. 29th. The wind so violent that the houses shook and
trembled. Not only had the Pimpel dragged her anchors, but the
tiles were blown everywhere off the roofs, especially off that of
our new pottery. Towards evening we saw the large garden
behind the Fort, when the wind had somewhat abated, so laid
waste as if a thousand destroyers of soldiers had been encamped
there. Many young trees had been entirely bereft of their
blossoms, or wrenched root and branch out of the ground, and the
heads of the lilies, which were on the point of flowering, were
blown away so cleanly, as if they had been cut off with a knife.
The hedge, however, which encloses the garden suffered the most,
so that it will not require a little to put it to rights again.
[JgOotober 30th. Before the reveille was beaten this morning, the
cavalry sergeant came to ask whether he might open the gate, as



164

665 - Sieur Gabbema was standing outside. Permission having been
granted, OJabbema entered, and at once proceeded to the Com-
mander to report his doings. The wind had kept him on the
Island six days and nights longer than he expected.

October 31st, Obtained 5 cows and 77 sheep from the
Cochoquas. Such a large number we had not bartered for a whole
year.

November 1st.- The dreadful South-easter continuing. 2nd.
Same weather, wind evidently endeavouring to throw everything
under foot.

November 4th. Fine weather like yesterday. Commenced
this afternoon to advance money and goods to the men on account,
as happens twice annually, that all who receive any cloth, linen,
blankets or any other stuff for clothing may beware of lightly
squandering such indispensable articles for their bodies by selling
them to the freemen for a little money and far below their value,
as had been done ere this. Hence the placcaat forbidding this,
was again published to-day, and the officers (of Justice) ordered
to pay strict attention to this.

November 5th. At noon the sentences passed on the three
delinquents from Mauritius (see October 20th), were executed.
The principal ringleader was bound to a post and severely
scourged with rods ; and besides, forfeiting all his pay, he shall
serve in chains for ten years ; the second one was to behold the
scourging, and was afterwards also rivetted in chains, with the
loss of six months' pay. The third one got off with the loss of
three months' pay, and standing a whole day with 8 muskets on
his shoulders.

Before the sentences had been pronounced, a placcaat was
issued forbidding all, who had hitherto worked at the New
Fortress at a certain wage, to leave their work without consent of
their officers, and go to the brandy tavern, as they have hitherto
done, on pain of being chained for some months to their wheel-
barrows and thus assisting in the work without pay. 7th.
Obtained 4 sheep from the Caapmen.

November 8th, Sunday. This evening 50 soldiers were sent to
the forest to drag out some timber to the wagon track.

November 9th. To-day the large new lime kiln on the E. of
the Fort was set up for the first time, and after a whole hooker's
load of shells had been thrown into it, it was only half filled.
10th. Bartered 5 sheep from the Gaapmen.

November llth. About 6 o'clock in the evening, whilst the
S. Easter was blowing violently, a fisherman's house at the Salt
River accidentally caught fire and was completely burnt down



165

before we could quench the conflagration, to the no small loss of
the owners.

November 16th. Began to build a large shed on the spot on
which the New Fort is to be erected, in which to keep all the
tools, wheelbarrows, shovels, spades, picks, cordage, &o.

November 17th. The boat returns from the Island with the
carcase of an ox, which had, with the other oxen, run away with
the wagon there, and broken its neck.

November ISth. Arrival of the ship, Het Rhynland, of Amster-
dam. Had left the 1st July by the back route with 208 souls,
including 115 soldiers ; 35 deaths had occurred, not 5 of the rest
could be considered in good health, so that she could not lower
her long boat. She therefore asked us for ours, in order to land
her weakest patients to-morrow.

From the letters of the 27th June brought by her, we gathered
that our people had, for the first time on the 13th of the same
month, a very severe engagement with the English, in which
our Admiral, Opdam, and various other vessels were blown up, so
that afterwards of our 8 squadrons, which consisted of 118
warships, 16 or 17 were missing. From the English we had taken
a warship with 45 guns, as well as some prizes laden with ammu-
nition, but how many of the enemy's ships were stranded, burnt
or sunk, or how many had fallen on both sides, there was as yet
no certain news of.

Instead of the three East Indiamen, viz., the Orangie, Maers-
seveen and Nayclbooin, which were also in the battle, and after-
wards were lost (verongeluckt waren), the Masters intended to
send out various newly bought and hired vessels, to bring to us
and to India the things requisitioned for. They were already
prepared for departure. One of them would take on board the
Hon : Q,ualbergen, the successor of Commander Wagenaer.

Deaths in hospital of Harman Jansz : Keyser, sailor, who
arrived in Ret Kasteel van 31<'<(f>iblik, and of Anthony du Pre,
soldier, left here by the N. Middelbury.

November 19th. Heavy rains during the past night and this
day. An occurrence never observed here before at this time of
the year.

Sixty scurvy patients landed from the Rhi/nland. One died in
the evening, and was at once buried with two other corpses brought
from board. Obtained 4 cattle and 13 sheep from the Cochoquas.

November 20th. Landing our goods from the Rhynland pro-
ceeding very slowly, as there are so many sick in hospital, and
the others j so weak and stale (outback en) from the voyage,
that we shall have to lend the skipper 10 or 12 arquebusiers.



166

166-5. Obtained 12 sheep from the Cochoquas. 21st. Bartered 20
more from the same tribe, also one lean cow.

November 23rd. Five selected sawyers sent out to a newly-
found small forest, in order daily to help the free sawyers in
rawing as many planks as possible, as we are at present so poorly
provided with them that we have hardly enough for coffins for
those now dying.

November 24th. Early this morning notices were affixed in
the Fort, outside in the town (quartier) and in the country,
notifying to all that the agents of the Hon : Van Riebeeck
intended to sell on Saturday next to the highest bidder, his lands
situated below the Bosheuvel. The sale to take place in the large
hall in the Fort here. 25th. Obtained 8 sheep from the
Cochoquas.

November 25th. Death in Hospital of Jan Joosten, who arrived
here as sailor in the Amtrsfoort. Obtained 10 sheep from the
Goringhaiconas.

November 28th. The hooker Pimpel returns from Saldanha
Bay with 8 casks of salted fish, some largo dried ones, and a
large quantity of dried mussels and shells for our new lime kilns.

At noon the aforesaid lands belonging to the departed Com-
mander Van Riebeeck were offered to public auction (met becken-
slagh uijtgeveijlt) and bought by the foreman and agriculturist,
Jacob Van Roosendaal, for the sum of fl,600, payable in three
instalments.

November 29th. Sunday. Because the south-easter was so
violent during the night and this day, none of the country people
were in church, nor could the usual parade be held in the after-
noon.

December 1st. The farewell dinner given to the officers of the
Rhijnland this afternoon. Some of the sick that had recovered,
were sent on board in our large boat.

December 3rd. A mechanic and some other persons being
missing this morning, the Fiscal was sent on board to search for
them, but he could only find a runaway sailor of the Haringh and
a farm servant.

This morning, after the roll was called, 20 soldiers ran away
towards the sand hills (duyntjes) near here, wishing no longer to
work at the Fort, saying straight out that they had not come to
India for that, so that we were obliged to chase some with horses
to bring them back to the Fort, but the rest, finding towards
evening that on those dry sandhills the cook would not cater,
returned oi their own accord, with various flimsy (blauwe)



167

excuses, which could not be accepted, so that, as a warning to
others, they will be punished, that the evil may not creep further.
The Rhynland leaves. 4th. Death in Hospital of Sander
Francen, sailor, left here by the Rhynlund.

This evening 10 Hottentoos and 7 pack oxen arrived, sent by
Gounomoa, Chief of the Cochoquas, with the request that we
would accompany them to his kraal, and pack our goods on the
oxen. But as he is far away from this, and we have hardly
sufficient tobacco left to barter the few animals brought us from
time to time, we have declined his invitation and let the Hotten-
roos depart with a present to their Lord, after having been well
entertained.

December 7th. This day the 20 soldiers who would no longer
work on Thursday last, and boldly marched inland, were accord-
ing to placaat all riveted in irons, namely, 4 of the principal
ringleaders, in Batavia fashion, two and two together ; nine were
each separately chained to a wheelbarrow, and the remaining
seven, because they were all somewhat disabled (gebreckelyk) had
each a small chain attacked to the leg, and thus to Iab6ur for a
month as a punishment, and without pay. We hope that this
will make the others more careful and obedient in future. 9th.
Obtained one ox and 35 sheep from the Cochoquas. llth.
Death in Hospital of Joris Jorisz : sailor, left here by the JR/ti/n-
lant. Obtained 7 sheep from the Cochoquas.

December 1 2th. The S. Easter so violent that the men had
to desist from work at the Fortress, as in this dry season no one
can see anything in consequence of the dust and sand.

And because in this hot and unhealthy time of the year, the
aforesaid workmen are beginning to suffer much from dysentery,
originating, according to the surgeons, mainly in this, that as
they no longer obtain any wine or brandy as rations, and when
during the day they are heated by labour, they drink too much
cold water, the Commander and Council decided henceforth to
pitch a tent where they labour, where a clerk (schrijver) shall
sell them brandy at 2 heavy dubbeltjes per " mutsjen," the price
charged at the Company's stores, as otherwise they have to pay
3 heavy dubbeltjes, should they go to an inn, where it often
happens they stick, and do not know how to leave off. Provided
that no one shall be served with more than a 5 mutsjen daily for
cash (voor sijn gelt), which he daily receives as wages, viz. : in
the morning for whoever desires it, one " pimpeltje " (liqueur
glass) of brandy, or mutsjen in the morning, and the same
quantity at noon and in the evening, at one heavy stiver each.
"We trust that this will not only keep the workmen in good
health, but that they will also be better kept to their work. On
Sundays, however, before going to church, each one shall receive



168

16S - . a mutsje Spanish wine on behalf of the Company. 16th. Obtained
2 sheep from the Caepmen.

December 17th. Fiscal Lacus sent to the Island to inflict
proper punishment on certain convicts for their disobedience,
as complained of by the Superintendent there. He was also to
count the sheep there, and mark down the results carefully, as the
books are, as usual, closed this month.

Death in hospital of Sander Groebe, who arrived in the
Rhijnland.

December 18th. To-day we selected a suitable piece of
clay ground in Table Valley from which to bake bricks.
We found it behind the Fort to the east of the Com-
pany's Gardens. A brickfield will be established on it at once,
as the bricks and tiles, &c., which hitherto the freeman, Wouter
Cornelisz : Mostaert, had supplied, were too brittle and unser-
viceable, especially the bricks for heavy arches and vaulted roofs.

December 20th. Sunday. Lacus returns from the Island.
About nine this morning we were informed that a servant of the
agriculturist, Tielman Hendriksz :, whilst fishing outside in the
river, had been drowned. Bartered 7 lean sheep from the
Cochoquas.

December 21st. Early this morning the Fiscal and 2 commis-
sioners proceeded to the country to view the drowned man. On
their return they reported that they had not found the least sign
of blows or wounds on his body, but he had only, according to the
evidence of 3 of his mates, with whom he had been fishing, disap-
peared under the water in a deep place and before their eyes, so
that he was drowned before they could render him the least
assistance.

December 22nd. Towards evening to our joy the long expected
Achilles arrived, after a voyage of nine months from Zealand. She
had suffered great danger and trouble, and sustained much damage,
her starboard bulwards having been knocked away from the saloon
to the main mast. On account of the many sick, she had to call at
Cape de Loop, and afterwards at the Island Annaboa, where the
men, from eating much healthy fruit, especially oranges, recovered
within a few days. They had however previously lost 16 men by
death, among them the junior merchant Adriaan Weyers, who had
died at the aforesaid Cape. Moreover 16 men, soldiers and
sailors, had deserted there towards the forest among the blacks, so
that she brought hither 140 souls, including 47 soldiers and four
women and a child, who were all, excepting the sick visitor,
healthy people. We thank God for this, as we had long ago
already despaired of her safety.



169

December 23rd. Wednesday. In the afternoon a preparation
service for the Holy Supper was held, which will be celebrated the
day after to-morrow, the first Christmas day.

December 25th. Friday. Christmas. The Lord's Holy Supper
celebrated, which was attended by half as many more as the last
time, and because the S. Easter commenced to blow towards
evening more than 70 men of the Achilles were detained on shore.
28th. One service to day. Obtained 4 sheep from the Caapmen.

December 29th. Stores landed from the Achilles. .. . To-day
a certain horseman was so injured by the bursting of his musket
that three fingers of his right hand had to be amputated. 30th.
Obtained 19 sheep from the Ohariguriquas.

December 31st. This evening a certain farm servant was, by
the bursting of the barrel of his musket, so grievously wounded in
his leg, that some of the splinters were forced into it which
miserably crushed his calf and the lower fleshy parts.

Obtained 14 sheep from the Cochoquas.



1666.



January 1st. As we closed the old year with a desirable cattle-
barter in this scarce time, so we opened this one by bartering a
cow, two calves and 24 sheep from the Cochoquas.

And after we had, in the forenoon, thanked the Most High in
Public Church Meeting for all his many blessings received during
the past year, and prayed him for further grace and blessing in
this newly entered year, the Commander distributed on behalf of
the Company, according to usual custom, some moderate New
Years presents among the master workmen and other inferior
servants, as well as the school children.

January 2nd. After we have now been busy five months with
about 300 men levelling the spot, where the new royal stone
Fortress will be placed, and dug sufficiently deep and broad the
foundations of two faces of one of the westerly land points, the first
stone was this day at noon laid by the Commander Wagenaer, the
second by the Rev : Joan van Arckel, the third by the merchant
Sieur Gabbema and the fourth by the Fiscal, Sieur Hendrick Lacus.
Thereupon the masons, carpenters and smiths not only collectively
received a present of Rds. 30 on behalf of the General Netherlands
East India Company, but were also presented, as well as the
soldiers, who had hitherto laboured at the Fort, with 2 oxen, 6
sheep, 100 fresh baked wheaten loaves, and 8 casks of Cape
brewed beer, which food and drink were delivered and placed
before them, well cooked and prepared, on the levelled plain of



170

the aforesaid new Fort, with the hope that these sluggish fellows
will by this beneficence be henceforth better encouraged and made
more willing to work.

And that it may also somewhat be evident that by this
continued digging and delving in, and under the ground, poets
have also been found and thrown up, a certain amateur this day
presented to the Commander the following eight verses, which we
have considered worthy of insertion here, being literally as
follows :

Den Eersten steen Van't NIeuwe CasteeL Goede Hope heeft
Wagenaer gelecht Met Hoop van Goede Hope. (The first stone
of the New Castle Good Hope, has Wagenaer laid, with Hope of
Good Hope.)

AMPLIATIE.

'Soo worden voort en voort de rijcken uijtgespreijt,

Soo worden al de swart' en geluwen gespreijt,

Soo doet men uijtter aerd' een steene wall oprechten,

Daer 't donderend metael seer weijnigh can ophechten,

Voor Hottentoosen waren 't altijts eerde wallen.

Nu komt men hier met steen voor anderen oock brallen,

Dus maeckt men dan een schrick soowel d' Europiaen,

Als voor den Aes ! Amer ! en wilden Africaen,

Bus wort beroemt gemaeckt 't geheijligst Christendom,

Die zetels stellen in het woeste heijdendom,

Wij loven 't Groot Bestier, en zeggen met malcander,

Augustus heerschappij , noch winnend' Alexander,

Noch Caesar's groot beleijd zijn noijt daermee geswaerd,

Met 't leggen van een steen op 't eijnde van de Aerd !

(Thus more and more the kingdoms are extended ;

Thus more and more are black and yellow spread,

Thus from the ground a wall of stone is raised,

On which the thundering brass can no impression make.

For Hottentoos the walls were always earthen,

But now we come with stone to boast before all men,

And terrify not only Europeans, but also

Asians, Americans and savage Africans.

Thus Holy Christendom is glorified ;

Establishing its seats amidst the savage heathens.

We praise the Great Director, and say with one another :

" Augustus's dominion, nor Conquering Alexander,

Nor Caesar's mighty genius, has ever had the glory

To lay a corner stone at earth's extremest and)! "

[NoTK. The above is as near a literal translation as possible of
the original.]



171

January 3rd. Sunday. The Achilles receives her despatch, 166 *-
after having been well refreshed ; but though the wind was
favourable, the skipper was iiot inclined to leave, as appeared from
his firing that he preferred to be merry with his friends on board
to going under sail.

January 4th. The Achilles leaves. Death in hospital of
Leendert Claes Hardendoodt, sailor, who arrived here in 1664 in
the Eendracht. 5th. Obtained one sheep from the Cochoquas.

January 6th. This morning the Commander and the burgher
Councillor, W outer Cornelisz : Mostaert, went to the country to show



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