richly-dressed young girl, who was riding on a gorgeously-
caparisoned horse led by men. The Invocations : " Queen
of the Angels ! " " Queen of the Patriarchs ! " etc.,
were depicted by groups of characters in open carriages ;
each carriage, splendidly decorated, having the Virgin Mary
seated on a high throne, while at her feet were placed
picturesquely on steps the angels, patriarchs and prophets,
all of whom were dressed in their appropriate costumes,
and provided with their requisite attributes. Again,
at a festival which was held at Brussels, in September,
* ' Observations on Popular Antiquities, by John Brand, revised by
Henry Ellis.' London, 1813 ; Vol. I., pp. 396, 401.
170 DRAMATIC MUSIC OF UNCIVILIZED RACES.
1839, two parishes of the town arranged a grand Cavalcade,
in which a scene was represented commemorating a
political event from the history of Belgium. Many of the
riders were dressed in mediaeval costume, while some
appeared in Oriental dresses. The sons and daughters of the
most influential citizens generally undertake the represen-
tation of the principal characters in these processions.
Music is, of course, an indispensable assistance for the
solemnity of such pageants. However, as recitations are of
secondary importance in them, or are even entirely omitted,
the first attempts at dramatic music are less traceable in
these remains of mediaeval entertainments than they are in
the rude amusements of savages noticed in the beginning of
It has probably already occurred to the reader that the
" Opera of the Future," aimed at by Wagner, will be in some
respect a return to the opera in its infancy, inasmuch as it
will be devoid of the various artistically-written forms of
composition which greatly contribute to the clearness and
impressiveness of the music, and which Mozart has de-
veloped in his operas to the highest degree of perfection.
Much might be said on this subject, were here the proper
place for it. Enough if the facts which have been noticed
convince the reflecting musician that the contemplated
innovations alluded to might as well be termed retroces-
sions. Gluck was also a reformer of dramatic music,
who aimed at truth in its noble simplicity; but, his objection
to anything artificial in the opera did not mislead him to
disregard the artistic beauties de-pendent upon form, which
ensure the impressive total effect essential to a true work
Furthermore, the examples given in the preceding pages
will probably have convinced the reader that the origin
of the opera can be traced more minutely in the first
dramatic attempts of uncivilized races of the present time,
than by a reference to the theatrical performance of the
ancient nations. At any rate, the latter research does not
render the former superfluous ; they should go hand-
A SHORT SURVEY OF THE HISTORY
THE perusal of Chronological Tables illustrating the
history of music must appear to many readers a dry
occupation. Still, it enables the lover of music to obtain
in a short time a comprehensive and clear view of the
gradual development of the art from the earliest period of
its cultivation recorded in history to the present day.
Perhaps a coloured chart contrived like the "Stream of
Time," which at a glance shows the great events in universal
history, might answer the purpose even better. There is no
disconnection in the progress of an art, though certain
occurrences may appear to the superficial observer as being
entirely accidental. A musical "Stream of Time" might
exhibit in various colours the natural connection between
the several branches of the art of music, and their
modifications conspicuous in its history.
Or, this might be achieved by the representation of
a tree. As in the genealogical tree which has been
published of Johann Sebastian Bach the proper relation
of the numerous members of his family is at once brought
clearly before the eyes of the inquirer, so might the growth
and spread of the different branches of the art of music be
indicated, exhibiting distinctly their highest degree of
culture, as well as their infancy and decay.
Diagrams of this kind are, however, only suitable for
a very condensed historical survey. More detailed infor-
mation is better conveyed by means of chronological tables,
such as Carl Czerny has compiled in his ' Umriss der
A SHORT SURVEY OF THE HISTORY OF MUSIC.
ganzen Musik-Geschichte' (' A Sketch of the whole History
of Music'), published at Mayence, in the year 1851. Carl
Czerny, of Vienna, was a very industrious man, who,
although he gave pianoforte lessons during the whole day,
nevertheless found time to write above nine hundred com-
positions, not to mention his innumerable arrangements of
operas, oratorios, symphonies, and overtures. That he
could engage in such laborious research as. the preparation
of his chronological tables must have required is certainly
surprising, especially as he was a very practical man with
regard to money-making, and there is probably no musical
occupation less likely to yield pecuniary advantage than is
the compiling of chronological tables. It used to be said
of Czerny that he was in the habit of composing while
he was giving pianoforte lessons. If this is no false
rumour, it perhaps accounts for the enormous number
of his compositions, as well as for the slight merit of most
of them. But, chronological tables he may have compiled
in this way without detriment to them, since they do not
require to be written with feeling, even less with inspi-
ration, but merely with careful discernment, and with
perseverance. Be this as it may, he certainly was an
eminent pianoforte teacher, as is proved by his having
instructed Liszt, Dohler, and other distinguished pianists.
His finger-exercises, or pianoforte-studies, have outlived
his other compositions, and his chronological tables will
probably be used for reference long after his finger-exercises
have been supplanted by more modern ones.
As the object is to supply the lover of music with an
historical survey, similar to that of Czerny, but on a smaller
scale, it may be useful to notice the plan adopted by
He has divided his work into two Sections. The first
Section records the ancient traditions respecting the
origin of music, and gives an account of the music of the
nations before the Christian era, of the music of our fore-
fathers during the Middle Ages, and of the rise of our
modern tone-art. This Section is arranged in eighteen
Periods, thus :
A SHORT SURVEY OF THE HISTORY OF MUSIC. 173
First Period. The primitive Music of the Greeks until
the time of the Trojan War (B.C. 2000 1200). Mythic
and mythic-heroic Age. Beginning of the public games
Second Period. From the Trojan War until Pythagoras
(B.C. 1200 584). Gradual development of singing associ-
ated with poetry. Invention and improvement of different
Stringed Instruments, Wind Instruments, and Instruments
of Percussion. Encouragement given to artists by the
bestowal of great honours.
Third Period. From Pythagoras until Aristoxenus of
Tarentum (B.C. 584340). Highest development of all
the Arts in Greece. The Art of Music founded on fixed
Fourth Period. From Aristoxenus until the Birth of
Christ (B.C. 340 A.D. i). New Musical System. Decay
of the Arts.
Fifth Period. From the Birth of Christ until Hucbald
(A.D.I goo). Gradual decay of the Ancient Music. Origin
of the Christian Church-song.
Sixth Period. From Hucbald until Franco of Cologne
(A.D. 900 1200). The first attempts in Polyphonic Har-
mony. Invention of Musical Notation and Measure of
Seventh Period. From Franco of Cologne until Dufey
(A.D. 1200 1380). Invention and development of Counter-
Eighth Period. From Dufay until Ockeghem, or Ocken-
heim (A.D. 1380 1450). The elder Netherlandish School.
Developed Regular Counterpoint. Musical Notation fixed.
Composers according to the new system of Harmony.
Ninth Period. From Ockeghem until Josquin des Pre"s
(A.D. 1450 1480). The newer or second Netherlandish
School. Artificial Counterpoint. Beginning of the re-
putation of the Netherlandish masters. In Italy and
Germany executive artists on the Organ, Clavichord, and
other instruments, make their appearance.
Tenth Period. From Josquin des Pres until Willaert
(A.D. 1480 1520.) Commencement of the flourishing,
174 A SHORT SURVEY OF THE HISTORY OF MUSIC.
state of the Netherlandish masters, and their influence
upon all European countries. Masters in Counterpoint
arise in Germany. Meritorious teachers in Italy. French
musicians attain reputation in other countries besides in
Eleventh Period. From Willaert until Palestrina (A.D.
1520 1560). The Netherlandish masters institute Schools
in Italy and develope the art of music with great success in
that country. The Madrigal becomes the favourite kind of
composition of the Venetian School.
Twelfth Period. From Palestrina until Monteverde (A.D.
1560 1600). Commencement of the flourishing state of
the Italian musical artists. Conclusion of the great
Netherlandish epoch. Refinement of the stiff Nether-
landish style. Romish School. Church Music of a high
degree of perfection.
Thirteenth Period.- ^From Monteverde until Carissimi
(A.D. 1600 1640). Commencement of Operatic Music.
First attempts in the Recitative style, in the melodious
song for a single voice (Monody) and in the Concertante
Fourteenth Period. From Carissimi until Alessandro
Scarlatti (A.D. 1640 1680). Improvements in the Recita-
tive and in the Dramatic Melody. Origin of the Cantata
and the Oratorio. Introduction of Concertante Instruments
to the song. Neapolitan School.
Fifteenth Period. From Alessandro Scarlatti until Leo
and Durante (A.D. 1680 1720). Essential improvement
in the Recitative and in Dramatic Music. Increase of the
Orchestral Instruments. Development of Instrumental
Music. Rise of great Composers in Germany.
Sixteenth Period. From Durante until Gluck (A.D.
1720 1760). Flourishing state of the Neapolitan School.
Reform in Melody. The highest art in Counterpoint in
Germany. Oratorios. German Composers study in Italy,
and write Italian Operas.
Seventeenth Period. From Gluck until Haydn and Mozart
(A.D. 1760 1780). Reform in the style of the Opera.
Introduction of the Ensemble pieces and the Finales.
A SHORT SURVEY OF THE HISTORY OF MUSIC. 175
Rise of the French Opera. Development of Instrumental
Eighteenth Period. From Mozart until Beethoven and
Rossini (A.D. 1780 1820). Great improvement of the
Orchestra, and of Instrumental Music in general. Develop-
ment of the German Operatic Style. Tone-artists of the
Vienna School. Beginning of the popularity of the
Pianoforte. Beethoven brings Instrumental Music to the
highest degree of perfection. Flourishing state of the
French Opera. With Rossini commences a new and
effective epoch in Italian Operatic Music. Numerous
Virtuosos on instruments. In the Opera, amalgamation
of different styles. In the most recent time, an undecided
Thus much about the Eighteen Periods noticed in
Section I. of Czerny's work. Only the first seven periods
are fully treated in this Section; the others form the subject
of Section II., which is divided into Three Principal
Epochs, thus :
First Principal Epoch. From the establishment of our
Theory of Harmony until the commencement of the Opera
(A.D. 1400 1600). Separation of the four chief nations:
i, France (with the Netherlands); 2, Italy (with Spain and
Portugal); 3, England; 4, Germany (with Bohemia,
Hungary, Poland, Sweden, and Denmark).
Second Principal Epoch. From the commencement of
the Opera until the development of Instrumental Music and
Chamber Music (A.D. 1600 1700). Division of the Art of
Music into Church Music and Operatic Music. First
appearance of some distinguished performers on instruments.
1, Italy (with Spain and Portugal); 2, France (with the
Netherlands); 3, England; 4, Germany (with Bohemia,
Hungary, Poland, Sweden, and Denmark).
Third Principal Epoch. From the development of Instru-
mental Music until the end of the Eighteenth Century (A.D.
1700 1800). Division of Church Music, Operatic Music, and
Instrumental Music. i, Italy (with Spain and Portugal);
2, France (with the Netherlands) ; 3, England ; 4, Germany
(with Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Sweden, and Denmark).
1/6 A SHORT SURVEY OF THE HISTORY OF MUSIC.
After these Divisions and Sub-divisions follows an
alphabetically - arranged Register of the names of the
musicians who are mentioned in the different Periods
and Epochs. But also here we have Divisions and
Sub-divisions, so that the Register, in fact, consists of
six Indices, each containing the musicians of a certain
epoch or a certain country, from A to Z. The author
says that the plan of the work renders this arrangement
necessary ; but, as he does not prove his assertion, students
using the work for reference will probably arrive at the
conviction that one general Index, containing all the names
in alphabetical order, would be more convenient. Another
disadvantage is that the Indices are entirely restricted to
the names of musicians, no reference being made to im-
portant events relating to the history of music. In fact,
the chief aim of the work is to notice a great many musicians.
The number of composers, theorists, and performers entered
amounts to 1713, of whom 236 belong to the ancient Greeks
and Romans, 132 to the Middle Ages, and 1345 to European
nations from A.D. 1400 to 1800. Many of these musicians
have left no mark upon the history of their art, and their
names have justly fallen into oblivion. These might better
have been omitted. Of what use, for instance, can it be
to the student to be supplied with the names of the
musicians who played before Alexander the Great on the
occasion of his marriage with Roxanen, at Samarkand, in
the year B.C. 328 ? Especially among the 1345 composers
who distinguished themselves during the four centuries
from A.D. 1400 to 1800 are many who might now as well
have been left at rest. What possible advantage can the
student derive from a record of mediocre pianoforte
composers whose productions were not held in much esteem
even during their lifetime ? On the other hand, it was
prudent in the author not to extend his list beyond the
year 1800. The distinguished musicians of the present
century are known to readers who take an interest in the
history of the art, and who are most likely to use the book.
Anyhow, it would be a delicate task to admit the names of
living musicians, some of whom may still become more
A SHORT SURVEY OF THE HISTORY OF MUSIC. 177
celebrated than they are, while others may show that they
really are not so clever as they at first appeared to be.
It is impossible to assign his proper place in the history
of his art to an artist before he is dead.
Czerny has had the happy thought of placing in a
column before each chronological table short memoranda
of the events in general history of the time when the com-
posers lived. Nothing can be more advisable to a professional
musician than to make himself familiar with this column
of facts bearing directly upon his art. There can hardly
be a doubt that other artists, especially painters and
sculptors, generally possess more historical knowledge
than musicians. Perhaps their occupation suggests to them
more forcibly the value of such information. Be this as it
may, the music of an intelligent musician is better than
that of an ignorant, narrow-minded one; even for this
reason, musicians ought to study universal history, were it
not on account of the intimate connection of the cultivation
of the arts with the progress of civilization.
Moreover, if we are exactly acquainted with the political
and social conditions of the time in which a distinguished
artist lived, we are the better able to appreciate his merits.
Unfortunately, Czerny records the musicians under the date
of their birth. Thus, many are mentioned in the century
previous to that in which they flourished. Take for instance
Handel and Sebastian Bach : both were born in the year
1685, and produced their great works during the first half of
the eighteenth century. Now, if the plan of recording the
musicians under the date of their birth had been throughout
adhered to, the student might, as a general rule, surmise
the time of their activity to have been about half a
century later. But, of several celebrities the date of whose
birth is unknown, Czerny gives some year in which they are
known to have distinguished themselves, and this deviation
from the plan leads to confusion in the chronological
arrangement. True, it is impossible to determine exactly
the year in which the musician in his lifetime exercised the
greatest influence upon his art; but, this can be done as
nearly as possible by adopting his fortieth or fiftieth year as
178 A SHORT SURVEY OF THE HISTORY OF MUSIC.
that of his best period. Those who did not attain that age
might be noticed under a date referring to the period when
they most distinguished themselves, which was generally
the case during the last few years of their life.
Again, the mention of the musicians of each country
separately has too little advantage to justify the incon-
venience thereby occasioned to the student. Cherubini,
like Bellini and Donizetti, is classed with the Italian com-
posers ; he would, however, have been more properly placed
with the German composers. Rossini, when he wrote
' Guillaume Tell,' was more German than some musicians
born in Germany. Lulli, the founder of the old French
opera is certainly more properly mentioned with the French
musicians than with the Italian. Other examples could
be pointed out which evoke the question whether such a
complicated classification really serves a scientific purpose.
In the ' Chronology of the History of Music' offered in
the following pages, in which Czerny's tables have been of
great assistance, the aim has been to avoid the defects just
noticed. It will be seen that only a brief survey of the most
important events in the history of music has been attempted.
When the student has ascertained these, he will probably
choose to refer to some treatise on the history of music
instead of a more extensive chronological table. But the
latter may afterwards be of use to him inasmuch as it will
assist him in recalling to his memory in proper order those
facts with which he has become more minutely acquainted
by reading the treatise.
As some account of the mythological traditions respecting
the origin of music has already been given in the present
work, * there is no necessity to advert to them here.
The recorded dates of the Greek music with which
the survey commences must not be taken as authentic
until we arrive at about the seventh century before the
* Vol. I., p. 74.
CHRONOLOGY OF THE HISTORY
Music, with other arts and sciences,
is introduced into Greece from Western
Egypt, settle in
Asia and Egypt.
The Jews have vocal music with
instrumental accompaniment. (Gen.,
Chap, xxxi., v. 26, 27).
The oracle of
Hyagnis, in Greece, improves the
flute and invents the Phrygian Mode.
Marsyas, a distinguished flute-player,
invents a new species of flute made of
invents the sails
" Linus ventures upon a musical con-
of ships, &c.
test with Apollo, and is killed by him.
"Then sang Moses and the children
of Israel." (Exod. xv.)
Orpheus, lyrist, singer, poet, and law-
led by Jason,
sail to Colchis.
giver, composes hymns.
Amphion, lyrist, singer, and composer,
improves the Grecian lyre.
Musseus, lyrist, sets music to the
words of the oracles.
Castor and Pol-
About this time the Greeks instituted
most of their public games in which
musical contests formed part.
Tyrus, on the
coast of Phce-
Olympus of Mysia, a celebrated flutist.
Daphnis of Sicily. To him is ascribed
the invention of the chalumeau, and of
by a colony of
the bucolic poetry.
CHRONOLOGY OF THE HISTORY OF MUSIC.
Thamiris, singer and player on the
brates the first
in honour of
kithara, a species of lyre, is chosen by
the Scythians for their King on account
of his musical accomplishments.
Euneus, a distinguished singer and
riors, from the
kithara-player of Greece. His descen-
dants remain during many generations
the privileged kithara-players at the
public festivities in Athens.
Troy taken by
Agias, a celebrated Greek musician
about the time of the destruction of
The invention of the Dorian Mode is
ascribed to Lamyras of Thracia ; the
A chill es,
invention of the Lydian Mode, to
Carius ; and the invention of the Ionian
Mode, to Pythermus.
Celmis, a priest of Creta, invents (or
probably improves) several instruments
Codrus, the last
Ardalus, of Troezen, invents a new
King of Athens
species of flute for accompanying vocal
tion of Royalty.
The Greeks about this time possessed
various kinds of stringed instruments
builder of the
and wind instruments, and the names
mid in Egypt.
of several musicians are recorded who
improved the instruments, or intro-
duced innovations in the construction
of the popular ones.
David, King of Judah, musician and
King David institutes in Jerusalem a
School for vocal and instrumental music
(I. Chron., Chap, xv., v. 16).
Dido builds the
Bardus, a King of Gallia, is said to
city of Car-
have introduced music into Western
thage on the
north coast of
Europe, and to have been the first of
the singers known as the Bards.
Homer, singer and poet, born pro-
bably in Chios. Iliad and Odyssey.
CHRONOLOGY OF THE HISTORY OF MUSIC.
the Republic of
Hesiodus, singer and poet, born in
Boeotia. Simmicus, inventor of an
and gives laws
instrument with thirty-five strings,
to the Spar-
called Simmikon or Simmicium. Thale-
tas, of Creta, musician and poet, com-
poses in Sparta, under Lycurgus, the
laws and war-songs for the voice.
Phcecinus, of Greece, sketches the first
Rome founded by
Olympus, of Phrygia, flutist, invents
the Enharmonic scale.
Archilochus, of Paros, singer, poet,
Important improvements in the music
of the Greeks.
Tyrtasus, of Athens, poet, singer, and
trumpeter, composes war-songs for
Sparta against Messenia.
^TERPANDER, of Lesbos, lyrist, flutist,
and composer. Important progress in
the music of the Greeks.
of the coast of
Arion, of Lesbos, kithara-player,
singer and poet, invents the Dithy-
rambs, or hymns of Bacchus, and
of Egypt (615).
improves the chorus-singing. He is
recorded to have healed sick persons
by means of music. The same is also
recorded of Menias, a Greek musician,
who lived about this time.
King of Baby-
Stesichorus, of Sicily, composes
choruses with instrumental accom-
lon, carries the
Jews into cap-
paniment, besides airs to his poems.
Alcseus, of Mytilene, singer, lyrist,
Sappho, of Mytilene, female singer,
lyrist, and poetess. To her is ascribed