Casey A. (Casey Albert) Wood.

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THE

AMERICAN
ENCYCLOPEDIA AND DICTIONARY

OF

OPHTHALMOLOGY



EDITED BY

CASEY A. WOOD, M. D., C. M.. D. C. L.

Professor of Ophthalmology and Head of the Department, College of Medicine, University of Illinois;

Late Professor of Ophthalmology and Head of the Department, Northwestern University

Medical School; Ex-President of the American Academy of Medicine, of the American

Academy of Ophthalmology, and of the Chicago Ophthalmological Society;

Ex-Chairman of the Ophthalmic Section of the American Medical ,

Association; Editor of a "System of Ophthalmic Therapeutics" and

a "System of Ophthalmic Operations"; Mitglied der Oph-

thalmologischen Gesellschaft, etc.; Ophthalmic

Surgeon to St. Luke's Hospital; Consulting

Ophthalmologist to Cook County

Hospital, Chicago, 111.



ASSISTED BY A LAF^GE STAFF OF COLLABORATORS



FULLY ILLUSTRATED



Volume I — A to Azoviolett



CHICAGO

CLEVELAND PRESS

1913



Copyright 1913

BY THE

CLEVELAND PRESS
All Rights Reserved.



INTRODUCTION



In adopting the strictly alpliabetical sequence of subject-headings it
has been necessary to review for the tirst volume practically the whole
range of tlie literature of Ophthalmology and its related sciences. It
will, as a consequence, easily be understood how difficult it has been
to collect and treat with complete satisfaction all the subjects com-
mencing with the first letter of the ali^habet, that directly and indi-
rectly relate to the eye and its diseases. However, it is the belief of the
Editor and his collaI)orators that no topic of importance has been neg-
lected. When a heading that quite evidently should have been noticed
has been omitted or, more likely, if new topics of interest arise' after
the publication of the volume to which they belong, alphabetically, they
will receive due attention in the appendix.

In addition to the attempt to write and edit a comprehensive
Encyclopedia of Ophtlutlmology the editor has made an effort to com-
bine with it a Dictionary of sucli English, Latin, French, German and
Italian words and phrases. as will be most useful to students of ophthal-
mology in general. This has l)een a heavy task, beset with many
difficulties. In the first place it is not an easy matter to decide whether
a particular word or phrase is of ophthalmic interest, or not. Broadly
speaking, the majority of medical and scientific subjects in the lan-
guages referred should be interesting and valuable to the educated
ophthalmologist l)ut, if most of the words and phrases utilized in gen-
eral medicine and surgery were so included, the additions would pad
this work to an unseemly degree. Even as it is, the inclusion of some
of the terms already chosen (although they were all taken from ophthal-
mic text-books) may give rise to criticism and to the imputation of
mere "filling."

It will, in this connection, be noticed that the array of German
words is much larger than those in other languages. There are sev-
eral reasons for this. In the first place, the German language occupies
a pre-eminent position in the world of science, and many English-
speaking ophthalmologists have received a considerable portion of their
foreign education in Germany and from Germans. Consequently,
the excess of German words naturally represents the largest proportion
of foreign literature accessible to the average English reader. Again,

5



6 INTRODUCTION

it has not been considered necessary to insert in the Dictionary foreign
words that closely resemble their English equivalents; and, since our
English scientific words and terms are mainly derived from the Latin
and the Romance languages, it necessarily follows that many of these
have been omitted. For example, Ablepsie (P.) and Ablepsia (L.)
have not been entered in the dictionary list, as it is quite evident that
they have exactly the same meaning as our English word Ablepsy, or
Ablepsia, blindness. For the same reason it does not seem desirable to
include such expressions as Abrasione della cornea (It.), as the
ophthalmic reader will at once recognize its English equivalent.

It will be readily seen how inevitable it is that certain repetitions
occur in a work of this kind and magnitude; and it may at once
be said that at least the majority of them in this Encyclopedia are
intentional. References to a section, a cut or a plate on another
page, or in another volume, are often found with some difficulty,
and even when the search has been successful the effort much inter-
feres with the concentration of thought required to grasp the matter
under consideration. In the interest of the reader, therefore, this draw-
back has, in certain instances, been avoided by duplication. For a
similar reason the Editor has plentifully supplied ample cross-references,
intended to aid the student in his search for information.

Since writing and editing two Systems, the Editor has seen no good
reason to change his opinion as to certain orthographic rules, and he
therefore repeats that in his humble judgment the spelling of words
used by English peoples throughout the globe properly varies in dif-
ferent continents, and even in small subdivisions of these continents.
It has long been his profound conviction that the English language —
obviously a living, vigorous ,and progressive one, not reduced to the
uniformity of certain other dead and dying dialects — in the very nature
of things nmst exhibit transitional and evolutionary stages in different
parts of the Anglo-Saxon world. Consequently, any spelling that can
show a recognized authority, whether that authority be American,
Canadian, British, Australasian or South African, is acceptable to him
and is employed indifferently throughout this work. He contends that
it is useless to lay down arbitrary rules for spelling or pronunciation,
especially in a work intended to circulate among English-speaking peo-
ple generally. In consequence of this belief he has decided not to
attempt uniformitj^ of spelling either on the part of his collaborators
or of himself. In any event, it strikes him as unimportant whether
cocaine is spelled with or without an '^e," whether one wi'ites it "physiol-
ogic" or "physiological," whether or not the second syllable of anes-
tJiesia is spelled with a diphthong, whether tumor terminates in or



INTRODUCTION 7

or our or center in re or er. Each contributor is allowed to do as he
pleases in this regard.

At first it seemed possible to adopt and apply some one of the vari-
ous methods of pronunciation to ophthahnic terms, but the difficulties
encountered were so great (for reasons that it is not necessary to elab-
orate) and the benefits to be derived so small that the attempt was
abandoned.

In the preparation of a work of this kind the Editor and his collab-
orators are much indebted to ophthalmic literature of all times and all
countries, but especially to those two principal monuments of ophthal-
mic industry, the Graefe-Saemisch Handhuch der gesamten Augenheil-
kunde and the Encyclopedie franqaise d'Ophtalmologie; and, while
they have endeavored to produce a work that will be of even greater
value to English-reading ophthalmologists, yet they acknowledge a large
debt of gratitude to the collaborators of these two Encyclopedias. The
EncyMopddie der Aiigcnheilliundc, although not yet completed, has
also been of considerable service to the Editor. In addition to these
the Editor is especially indebted to Norris and Oliver's System of
Diseases of the Eye, the Traite complet d'Ophtalmologie, Czermak
and Elschnig's Die AugendrtzUche Operationen, Beard's Ophthalmic
Surgery, Terrien's Chirurgie de VOeil, Lewin and Guillery's Die Wirk-
ungen von Giften auf das Auge, and to many other Monographs, Peri-
odicals, Year-Books, Transactions and Manuals of Ophthalmology, par-
ticularly the Nagel-Michel Jahresbericht, the Ophthalmic Y ear-Book,
Modern Ophthalmology, and the Italian Edition of Fuchs' Textbook.
The Editor has also utilized much of the material, duly revised, con-
tributed to Wood's System of Ophthalmic Therapeutics and System of
Ophthalmic Operations.

Both the Editor and Publishers of this Encyclopedia and Dictionary
of Ophthalmology wish to acknowledge, with thanks, the permission of
Messrs. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Messrs. Wm. AVood & Co., Messrs.
Longmans, Green & Co., Messrs. J. B. Lippincott & Co. and Messrs. "W.
B. Saunders Co. to reproduce, with modifications, some of the cuts used
in copyright works owned by them. Messis. Hardy & Co. have kindly
supplied some of the illustrative "electros." The Editor is also under
obligations to so many other friends for assistance that it is hardly pos-
sible even to mention their names. He once more acknowledges the
valuable services of the illustrator, Dr. Charles G. Willson of Chicago,
as well as of Dr. A. Arkin, Miss Lillian Hummel and Miss H. A. Fox
for their assistance while the proof-sheets were passing under review.
The initials of collaborators are signed to topics more than a few



8 INTRODUCTION

lines in length ; for unsigned rubrics the Editor is alone responsible.
In addition, a few friends have, on invitation, written some parts and
to their contributions the full name has been appended.

Casey A. Wood.



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME 1, TO IDENTIFY
INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS*



A. A.— Adolf Alt, M. D., M. C. P. and S. 0., St. Louis, Mo.

Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo.;
Author of Lectures on The Human Eye; Treatise on Ophthalmology for the
General Practitioner ; Original Contrilmtions Concerning the Glandular Struc-
tures Appertaining to the Human Eye and its Appendages. Editor of the
American Journal of Ophthalmology.

A. C. C. — Alfred C. Croftan, Ph. D., M. D., Chicago, III.

Author of Clinical Urinology and of Clinical Therapeutics. Member of the
General Staff of the Michael Eeese Hospital, Chicago. Formerly Physician-in-
chief at St. Mary's Hospital; Physician to St. Elizabeth's Hospital; Physician
to the Chicago Post-Graduate Hospital; Pathologist to St. Luke's Hospital.
Late Professor of Medicine at the Chicago Post-Oraduate College and the
Chicago Polyclinic; Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine, College of Physi-
cians and Surgeons (University of Illinois) ; Member of the American Thera-
peutic Society.

A. N. M. — Alfred Nicholas Murray, M. D., Chicago, III.

Ophthalmologist, New Lake View Hospital. Formerly Clinical Assistant in
Ophthalmology, and Assistant Secretary of the Faculty, Eush Medical College.
Once Voluntary Assistant in the Universitaetes Augeuklinik, Breslau. Author
of Minor Ophthalmic and Aural Technique. Secretary, Physicians' Club of
Chicago. Mitglied der Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft, Heidelberg.

A. S. R. — Alexander Sands Rochester, ;M. D., Chicago, III. .

M. D. Jefferson ^Medical College; Ex-Chief, San Lazaro Contagious Hosi>ital,
Manila, P. I.; Adjunct Ophthalmologist to St. Luke's Hospital, Chicago.

C. A. 0. — Charles A. Oliver (Deceased).

Joint Editor of A System of Diseases of the Eye; Writer of numerous mono-
graphs oir ophthalmic subjects.

C. F. P. — Charles F. Prentice, M. E., New York City, N. Y.

President, New York State Board of Examiners in 0})tometry; Special Lecturer
on Theoretic Optometry, Columbia University, New York. Author of A Treatise
on Ophthalmic Lenses (1886) ; Dioptric Formulce for Combined Cylindrical
Lenses (1888); A Metric System of Numbering a)id Measuring Prisms (the
Prism-dioptry) (1890); The Iris as Diaphragm and Photostat (1895), and
other optical papers.

C. H. B. — Charles Heady Beard.

Surgeon to the Illinois Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary (Eye Department) ;
Oculist to the Passavant Memorial Hospital and the North Star Dispensary
(Chicago) ; Member and Ex-president of the Chicago Ophthalmological Society;
Member of the American Ophthalmological Society, Etc. Author of Ophthal-
mic Surgery (1910); and of Ophtludmic Semiology and Diagnosis (1913).

* A complete list of the contributors to this work will appear in the final
volume.



10 INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS

D. H.— D'Orsay TIecht.

Assistant Professor of Nervous and Mental Diseases, Northwestern University
Medical yehool; Consulting Neurologist to the Cook County Institutions for
the Insane at Dunning, Illinois ; Attending Neurologist to the Michael Eeese
and St. Elizabeth 's Hospitals, Chicago.

E. C. B. — Edward C. Bull, Pasadena, Calif.

E. C. E. — Edward Coleman Ellett, B. A., M. D., Memphis, Tenn.

Professor of Ophthalmology, University of Tennessee, College of Medicine.

E. E. I. — Ernest E. Irons, M. D., Ph. D., Chicago, III.

Assistant Professor of Medicine, Ensh Medical College; Assistant Attending
, Physician, Presbyterian Hospital; Attending Physician, Cook County Hospital;

Consulting Physician, Durand Hospital of the Memorial Institute for Infec-
tious Diseases, Chicago.

E. J. — Edward Jackson, C. E., M. A., M. D., Denver, Colo.

Professor of Ophthalmology in the University of Colorado ; Former Chairman
of the Section on Ophthalmology of the American Medical Association; For-
mer President of the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Oto-Laryngol-
ogy; The American Ophthalmological Society, and The American Academy
of Medicine. Author of Skiascopy and Us Practical Application ; Manual of
Diseases of the Eye ; Editor of Ophthalmic Year-BooJc (nine volumes) ; Oph-
thalmic Review; Ophthalmic Becord; and OphtJialmic Literature.

E. S. T. — Edgar Steiner Thomson, M. D., New York City, N. Y.

Surgeon and Pathologist, Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital; Professor
of Ophthalmology, New York Polyclinic Medical School and Hospital; Con-
sulting Ophthalmologist to Perth Amboy and Ossining Hospitals; Member of
the New York Academy of Medicine, New York Ophthalmological, and Ameri-
can Ophthalmological Societies. Author of Electric Appliances and Their Use
in Ophthalmic Surgery, in Wood 's System of Ophthalmic Operations, and
various monographs.

F. A. — Frank Allport, M. D., LL. D., Chicago, III,

Ex-Professor, Ophthalmology and Otology, Minnesota State University; Ex-
President, Minnesota State Medical Society; Ex-Chairman and Secretary,
Ophthalmic Section, American Medical Association; Ex-Professor, Ophthal-
mology and Otology, Northwestern University Medical School; Ex-President,
Chicago Ophthalmological Society. Author of The Eye and Its Care; Co-
Author of An American Text-Boole of Diseases of the Eye, Ear, Nose and
Throat; A System of Ophthalmic Therapeutics, and A System of Ophthalmic
Operations. Eye and Ear Surgeon to the Chicago Board of Education and
to St. Luke's Hospital, Chicago.

F. P. L. — Francis Park Lewis, M, D., Buffalo, N. Y.

President American Association for the Conservation of Vision; President
Board of Trustees N. Y. State School for the Blind; President N. Y. State
Commissions for the Blind (1903 and- 1906); Chairman Committee on Preven-
tion of Blindness, American Medical Association; Ophthalmologist Buffalo
State Hospital and Buffalo Homeopathic Hospital; Consulting Ophthalmologist
J. N. Adam Memorial Hospital; Fellow Academy Ophthalmology and Oto-
Laryngology.

H. B. W. — Henry Baldwin Ward, A. B., A. M., Ph. D., Champaign,
III.

Professor of Zoology, University of Illinois; Ex-Dean of the College of Medi-
cine, University of Nebraska. Author of Parasitic Worms of Man and the
Domestic Animals; Data for the Determination of Human Entosoa; Icono-
graphia Parasitorum Hominis; Human Parasites in North America.



INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS 11

H. S. G. — Harry Searls Gbadle, A. B., I\I. D., Chicago, III.

Professor of Oplithalmology, Chicago Eye and Ear College; Director of Oph-
thalmic Clinic, West Side Free Dispensary; ^Member of the Ophthalniologische
Gesellschaft, American Medical Association, American Academy of Ophthal-
mology and Oto-Laryngology.

H. V. W. — Harry Vanderbilt Wurdemann, ■M. D., Seattle, Wash.

Managing Editor, Oplitlialmology, since 1904; Editorial Staff of the Opldlial-
mic Becord since 18f)7; jNIanaging Editor, Annals of OiihihalmnJomi, 1897-

1904. Mend)er American Medical Association; Ex-Chairimni Section on Oph-
thalmology, American Medical Association; Hon. Mcmlier, Socieilnd Cientifica,
Mexico; N. W. Wisconsin Medical Society and Philosophical Society. Fel-
low American Academy of Ophthalmology and Oto-Laryngology. Author of
Visual Ecovomics (1901); Injuries to the Eye (1912); Brir/ht's Disease and
the Eye (1912); and numerous monographs on the eye and its disenses. Col-
laborator on many other scientific books-

J. G., Jr. — John Green, Jr., A. B., iM. D., St. Louis, jMo.

Assistant in Ophthalmology, Washington University Medical School ; Ophthal-
mic Surgeon to St. Louis Children's Hospital; Ophthalmic Surgeon to St. Louis
Eye, Ear, Xose and Throat Infirmary; Consulting 0]ihthalmic Surgeon to St.
Louis Maternity Hospital; Consulting Ophthalmic Surgeon to St. John's Hos-
pital, St. Louis.

J. L. I\I.— John L. Moffat, B. S., M. D., 0. et A. Chir., Ithaca, N. Y.

Editor Jonimal of Ophtlialmoloflfi, Otology and Larjinf/ology. Consulting
0|dithalmic Surgeon, Cumberland Street Hospital, New York; MemV)er (v.-j).

1905, 1908) American Homoeopathic Oidithalmological, Otological and Laryn-
gological Society; Member American Medical Editors' Association; Member
(Senior) American Institute of Homoeopathy; Senior Member (ex-pres.) New
York State Homceoi)athic Medical Society; Senior Memlier (ex-pres.) Kings
County (N. Y. ) Homreoiiathie Medical Society; Honorary Memlier N. Y. County
Homoeopathic Medical Society.

J. M. B. — James ^Ioores Ball, AI. D., LL. D., St. Louis, ]\Io.

Dean and Professor of Ophthalmology, American Medical College of St. Louis,
Medical Department of National University of Arts and Sciences. Author of
Modern Ophthalmology ; Andreas Vesalius the Eeformer of Anatomy.

J. R. C. — James Raley Cravatii, B. S., Chicago, III.

Electrical and Illuminating Engineer, Chicago; Vice-President, Illuminating
Engineering Society; foinierly associate editor Electrical Wor-ld ; joint author
Practical Illumination by Cravath and Lansingh ; joint nuthor Light — Its Use
and Misuse. ]ire]iared by committee of the Illuminating Engineering Society;
author of Illnmination and Vision ; Tests of the Lighting of a Small Eooni ; and
numerous other monographs.

L. H.— LuciEN Howe, M. A., M. D., Sc. D., Buffalo, N. Y.

Professor of Ophthalmology, LTniversity of Buffalo ; ]\Iember of the Royal Col-
lege of Surgeons of England; Fellow of the Eoyal Society of Medicine; Mem-
ber of the Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft and of the Societe Frangaise
d'Ophthalmologie. Author of The Muscles of the Eye.

M. S.— Myles Standish, A. M., M. D., S. D., Boston, Mass.

Williams Professor of Ophthalmology, Harvard University; Consulting Oph-
thalmic Surgeon, Massachusetts Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary and Carney
Hospital, Boston, Mass.



12 INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS

N. M. B.— Nelson M. Black, Ph. G., M. D., Milwaukee, Wis.

Author of Tlie Development of the Fusion Center in the Treatment of Strabis-
mus; Examination of the Eyes of Transportation Employes ; Artificial Illumina-
tion a Factor in Ocular Discomfort, and other scientific papers.

P. A. C— Peter A. Callan, M. D., New York City, N. Y.

Surgeon, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary; Ophthalmologist to St. Vin-
cent 's Hospital ; Columbus Hospital and St. Joseph 's Hospital, New York.

P. G. — Paul Guilford, M. D., Chicago, III.

Ex-Eesident Surgeon, Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia; Attending Oculist and
Aurist, St. Luke's Hospital; Attending Oculist and Aurist, Chicago Orphan
Asylum ; Consulting Oculist and Aurist, South Side Free Dispensary. Co-
Author of A System of Ophthalmic Operations.

T. H. S.— Thomas Hall Shastid, A. B., A. M., M. D., LL. B., F. A. C. S.,
Superior, Wis.

Honorary Professor of the History of Medicine in the American Medical Col-
lege, St. Louis, Mo. ; Late Editorial Secretary of The Ophthalmic Becord.
Author of A Country Doctor; Practising in Tike; Forensic Belations of
Ophthalmic Surgery (in Wood's System of Ophthalmic Operations) ; Legal
Belations of Ophtlialmology (in Ball's Modern Ophthalmology) ; A History of
Medical Jurisprudence in America (in Kelly's Cyclopedia of American Medical
Biography).

W. C. p. — Wm. Campbell Posey, B. A., M. D., Philadelphia, Pa,

Professor of Ophthalmology in the Philadelphia Polyclinic Hospital and
Graduate Medical School; Ophthalmic Surgeon to the Wills, Howard and
Children 's Hosj^itals ; Chairman of the Pennsylvania Commission for the
Conservation of Vision; Chairman of Section on Ophthalmology, College of
Physicians, Philadelphia. Editor of American Edition of Nettleship's Text-
book of Ophthalmology; Co-Editor, with Jonathan Wright, of System of Dis-
eases of the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat; Co-Editor, with Wm. G. Spiller, of
The Eye and the Nervous System.

W. F. H.— William Frederic Hardy, M. D., St. Louis, Mo.

W. H. W, — William Hamlin Wilder, A. M., M. D., Chicago, III.

Professor and Head of Department of Ophthalmology, Eush ^Medical College
(in affiliation with University of Chicago) ; Professor of Ophthalmology, Chi-
cago Polyclinic; Surgeon, Illinois Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary; Ophthal-
mic Surgeon, Presbyterian Hospital; Member American Ophthalmological So-
ciety.

W. 0. N. — Willis Orville Nance, M. D., Chicago, III.

Ophthalmic Surgeon, Illinois Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary; Late Oculist
and Aurist to Cook County Hospital; President, Chicago Ophthalmological
Society.

W. R. — Wendell Reber, M. D., Philadelphia, Pa.

Professor of Diseases of the Eye in the Medical Department of Temple Uni-
versity; Professor of Diseases of the Eye in the Philadelphia Polyclinic and
College for Graduates in Medicine; Ofihthalmic Surgeon to the Samaritan
Hospital, to the Philadelphia General Hospital, to the Garretson Hospital ; Con-
sulting Ophthalmologist to the Friends ' Asylum for the Insane ; Member of the
Council of the Oxford Ophthalmological Congress ; Past President of the Ameri-
can Academy of Ophthahnology and Oto-Laryngology; joint author of a Hand-
hook on the Miiscidar Anomalies of the Eye.



LIST OF LEADING SUBJECTS IN THIS

VOLUME



Abadie's ciliarotomy operation

Aberration

Abrus precatorius

Abscisson

Accommodation

Achromatism

Acid, Boric

Acids (various)

Acromegaly, Eye symptoms op

Actr'e immunization in bacterial infection

Acuteness of vision

Adaptation of the retina

Adrenalin

Advancement

After-cataract and its treatment

After-image

After-treatment of ophthalmic operations

Agnew, Cornelius Rea

Air, Therapeutic uses of

Albinism

Albuminuria, Diseases of the eye in

Alcohol (ethyl)

Alcohol (methyl)

Aleppo button

Alexia

Ali ben Isa

Allergy

Allport 's operation for enucleation

Allport 's operation for ptosis

Alphabets and literature for the blind

Alypin

Amanita

Amaurosis

Amblyopia from hemorrhage

Amblyopia, Hysterical

13



14 LIST OF LEADING SUBJECTS

Amblyopia, Toxic

Amblyoscope, The

Ametropia

Ammab

Ammon, F. a. von

Ammon-Agnew cantholysis, The

Amyloid degeneration

Anaphylaxis

Anatomy of the human eye and appendages

Anel, Dominique

Anesthesia in ophthalmic surgery

Anesthesia, Local

Aneurysm

Angioma venenosum of the orbit

Angles (various)

Aniline, Oculo-toxic symptoms from

Animals ' eyes, Uses of, in ophthalmology

Aniridia

Ankylostomiasis

Anophoria

Anterior sclerotomy

Antibodies

Antigen

Antipathy to binocular single vision

Antipyrine

Antisepsis and antiseptics

Apparent size of objects

Aqu^ (various)

Arc lights and their effect on the eye

Argyll-Robertson pupil

Argyrol

Aristotle

Arlt-Jaesche operation for trichiasis

Armitage, Francis Rhodes

Army, Visual requirements for the

Ar-Razi

Arsenical amblyopia

Arterio-sclerosis

Artrio-sclerosis, Ocular

Artificial eyes and similar devices

Artificial ripening of immature cataract

Aspiration of cataract



LIST OF LEADING SUBJECTS 15



As-Sadili

Asthenopia

Astigmatism

Astringents, Ocular

Atrophy op the optic nerve

Atropine

Auto-intoxication

Auto-ophthalmoscope

Ajsis

Axis, The, in refraction






AMERICAN ENCYCLOPEDIA AND
DICTIONARY OF OPHTHALMOLOGY



A. Just as in modern times one often uses the initial letter of the
name of a patient whose identity one desires to conceal, so the an-



Online LibraryCasey A. (Casey Albert) WoodThe American encyclopedia and dictionary of ophthalmology (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 68)