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THE

AMERICAN
ENCYCLOPEDIA AND DICTIONARY

OF

OPHTHALMOLOGY



EDITED BY

CASEY A. WOOD, M. D.. C. M.. D. C. L.

Professor of Ophthalmology and Head of the Department, College of Medicine, University of Illinois;

Late Professor of Ophthalmology and Head of the Department, Northwestern University

Medical School; Ex-President of the American Academy of Medicine, of the American

Academy of Ophthalmology, and of the Chicago Ophthalmological Society;

Ex-Chairman of the Ophthalmic Section of the American Medical

Association; Editor of a "System of Ophthalmic Therapeutics" and

a "System of Ophthalmic Operations"; Mitglied der Oph-

thalmologischen Gesellschaft, etc.; Ophthalmic

Surgeon to St. Luke's Hospital; Consulting

Ophthalmologist to Cook County

Hospital, Chicago, 111.



ASSISTED BY A LARGE STAFF OF COLLABORATORS



FULLY ILLUSTRATED



Volume IX — Institutions for the Blind to Lemotes



CHICAGO

CLEVELAND PRESS

1916



Copyright 1916

BY THE

CLEVELAND PRESS
All Rights Reserved.



INITIALS USED IN THIS ENCYCLOPEDIA TO
IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS



A. A.— Adolf Alt, M. D., M. C. P. and S. 0., St. Louis, Mo.

Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo.;
Author of Lectures on The Human Eye; Treatise on Opliihabnology for the
General Practitioner ; Original Contributions Concerning the Glandular Struc-
tures Appertaining to the Human Eye and its Appendages. Editor of the
American Journal of Ophthalmology.

A. C. C. — Alfred C. Croftan, Ph. D., M. D., Chicago, III.

Author of Clinical Urinology and of Clinical Therapeutics. Member of the
General Staff of the Michael Eeese Hospital, Chicago. Formerly Physician-in-
chief at St. Mary's Hospital; Physician to St. Elizabeth's Hospital; Physician
to the Chicago Post-Graduate Hospital ; Pathologist to St. Luke 's Hospital.
Late Professor of Medicine at the Chicago Post-Graduate College and the
Chicago Polyclinic; Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine, College of Physi-
cians and Surgeons (University of Illinois) ; Member of the American Thera-
peutic Society.

A. E. B. — Albert Eugene Bulson, Jr., B. S., M. D., Fort "Wayne, Ind.

Professor of Ophthalmology, Indiana University School of Medicine; Chairman
of the Section on Oiihthalmology of the American Medical Association; Oph-
thalmologist to St. Joseph's Hospital, Allen County Orphans' Home, and the
United States Pension Department; Editor of the Journal of the Indiana State
Medical Association, etc.

A. E. H. — Albert E. Halstead, M. D., Chicago, III.

Professor of Clinical Surgery, Northwestern University Medical School; At-
tending Surgeon, St. Luke's and Cook County Hospitals, Chicago; Consulting
Surgeon, Illinois Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary; Fellow American Surgical
Association.

A. N. M. — Alfred Nicholas IMurray, M. D., Chicago, III.

Ophthalmologist, New Lake View Hospital. Formerly Clinical Assistant in
Ophthalmology, and Assistant Secretary of the Faculty, Eush Medical College.
Once Voluntary Assistant in the T^nivorsitaets Aug(Mikliiiik, Hroslau. Author
of Minor Ophthahnic and Aural Technique. Secretary, Physicians' Club of
Chicago. Mitglied der Oi)hthalniologischen Gesellschaft, Heidelberg.

A. S. R. — Alexander Sands Rochester, M. D., Chicago, III.

M. D. Jefferson Medical College; Ex-Chief, San Lazaro Contagious Hospital,
Manila, P. I. ; Adjunct Oidithalmologist to St. Luke 's Hospital, Chicago.

B. C. — Burton Chance, M. D., Philadelphia, Pa.

Assistant Surgeon, Wills Hospital, Philadeli)hia.

C. A. 0. — Charles A. Oliver (Deceased).

C. D. C— Caki, Didley ('ami-, M. I)., Axx Akbor, Mich.

Clinical Professor of Diseases of the Ni'rvous System in tlic Mcdicjil Dep;nt-
meiit of the University of Michigan. Formerly, Instructor in Neur()i)atlioIogy
in the University of Pennsylvania. Member of the AnuM'ican Neurological
Association, American Association of P;ithologists and Pacteriologists, Anu'r-
icaii Therajieutic Society, American Medical .Association, etc. Author of
papers on the Anatomy, PliysioJogy and Pathohjgy of tlie Nervous System.

C. E. W.— Lieut.-Col. Charles E. Woodruff, :\I. D., U. S. Army, Re-
tired.

iii



iv INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTOKS

C. F. F. C. — Charles F. F. Campbell, Columbus, Ohio.

Sup'erintendent Ohio State School for the Blind; Secretary Ohio State Com-
mission for the Blind ; Secretary, American Association of Workers for the
Blind; Founder and Editor, "Outlaok for the Blind;" Previously executive
officer of the Massachusetts Association for Promoting the Interests of the
Blind, Massachusetts State Commission for the Blind, and Pennsylvania Asso-
ciation for the Blind ; At one time Teacher at the Koyal Normal College and
Academy of Music, for the Blind, London, England.

C. F. P. — Charles F. Prentice, M. E., New York City, N. Y.

President, New York State Board of Examiners in Optometry ; Special Lecturer
on Theoretic Optometry, Columbia University, New York. Author of A Treatise
on Ophthalmic Lenses (1886) ; Dioptric Formulce for Combined Cylindrical
Lenses (1888); A Metric System of Numbering and Measuring Frisms (the
Prism-dioptry) (1890); Tlie Iris as Diaphragm and Photostat (1895), and
other optical papers.

C. H. B. — Charles Heady Beard, M. D. (Deceased).

C. P. S. — Charles P. Small, A. M., M. D., Chicago, III,

Late Clinical Assistant, Department of Ophthalmology, Eush Medical College.
Author of A Probable Metastatic Hypernephroma of the Choroid.

D. C. Mc. — Douglas C. McMurtrie, New York City.

Editor American Journal of Care for Cripples; former Secretary, American
Association for the Conservation of Vision; Author of Education of and Occu-
pations for the Blind in the Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences.

D. H.— D'Orsay Hecht, M. D. (Deceased).

D. W. G.— Duff Warren Greene, M. A., M. S., M. D. (Deceased).

E. C. B. — Edward C. Bull, Pasadena, Calif.

E. C. E. — Edward Coleman Ellett, B. A., M. D., Memphis, Tenn.

Professor of Ophthalmology, University of Tennessee, College of Medicine.

E. E. I. — Ernest E. Irons, M. D., Ph. D., Chicago, III.

Assistant Professor of Medicine, Eush Medical College; Assistant Attending
Physician, Presbyterian Hospital; Attending Physician, Cook County Hospital;
Consulting Physician, Durand Hospital of the Memorial Institute for Infec-
tious Diseases, Chicago.

E. II. — Emory Hill, A. B., M. D., Chicago, III.

Late House Surgeon, Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia; Assistant in Ophthal-
mology, Eush Medical College (in affiliation with the University of Chicago) ;
Assistant Ophthalmologist to the out-patient department of the Children's
Memorial Hospital, Chicago; Assistant Instructor in Ophthalmology, Chicago
Polyclinic. Member of American Academy of Ophthalmology and Oto-
Laryngology.

E. J. — Edward Jackson, C. E., ]\I. A., M. D., Denver, Colo.

Professor of Ophthalmology in the University of Colorado; Former Chairman
of the Section on Ophthalmology of the American Medical Association; For-
mer President of the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Oto-Laryngol-
ogy; The American Ophthalmological Society, and The American Academy
of Medicine. Author of Skiascopy and its Practical Application ; Manual of
Diseases of the Eye; Editor of Ophthalmic Year-Book (nine volumes); Oph-
thalmic Review ; Ophthalmic Record; and Ophthalmic Literature.

E. K. F.— Ephraim Kirkpatrick Findlay, M. D., C. M., Chicago, III.

Assistant Clinical Professor of Oplithalmology, Medical Department, University



INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS v

of Illinois; Assistant Surgeon of the Illinois Charitable Eye and Ear Infirm-
ary; Assistant Oculist at the University Hospital.

E. S. T. — Edgar Steiner Thomson, M. D., New York City, N. Y.

Surgeon and Pathologist, Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital; Professor
of Ojihthalniology, New York Polyclinic Medical School and Hospital; Con-
sulting Ophthalmologist to Perth Amboy and Ossining Hospitals; Member of
the Kew York Academy of Medicine, New York Ophthalmologieal, and Ameri-
can Ophthalmologieal Societies. Author of Electric Appliances and Their Use
in Oplithahnic Surgery, in Wood's System of OpJitluilmic Operations, and
various monograjihs.

F. A. — Frank Allport, M. D., LL. D., Chicago, III.

Ex-Professor, Ophthalmology and Otology, Minnesota State University; Ex-
President, Minnesota State Medical Society; Ex-Chairman and Secretary,
Ophthalmic Section, American Medical Association; Ex-Professor, Ophthal-
mology and Otology, Northwestern University Medical School; Ex-President,
Chicago Ophthalmologieal Society. Author of Tlie Eye and Its Care; Co-
Author of An American Text-Boole of Diseases of the Eye, Ear, Nose and
Throat; A System of Ophthalmic Therapeutics, and A System of Ophthalmic
Operations. Eye and Ear Surgeon to the Chicago Board of Education and
to St. Luke's Hospital, Chicago.

F. C. T.— Frank C. Todd, D. D. S., M. D., F. A. C. S., Minneapolis,
Minn.

Professor of Ophthalmology and Chief of the Division of Eye, Ear, Nose and
Throat, University of Minnesota, Medical Department; Chief of Eye, Ear, Nose
and Throat Staff, University of Minnesota Hospitals; Eye, Ear, Nose and
Throat Surgeon to Hill Crest Hospital; Eye Surgeon to the C. M. & St. P. R. R.
Co., etc.; Cliairman of the Section of Ophthalmology, A. M. A.; President ot
the Minnesota Academy of Ophthalmology and Oto-Laryngology ; Vice-President
of the A. M. A., etc. Monographs: An Exact and Secure Tucking Operation for
Advancing an Ocular Muscle; A Method of Performing Tenotomy ivhich En-
ables the Operator to Limit the Effect as Bequired; Mules' Operation ; Kera-
tectasia ; Heport of a Case ivith Transparent Cornea; The Implantation of an
Artificial Vitreous as a Suhstitute for Enucleation of the Eyeball; Simple
Method of Suturing the Tendons in Enucleation; Malingering (Pretended
Blindness) ; The Physiological and Pathological Pupil.

F. E. B.— Frank E. Brawley, I'h. (}., M. D., Chicago, III.

Co-Author of Commoner Diseases of the Eye, A System of Ophthalmic Thera-
peutics and A System of Oplithahnic Operations ; formerly voluntary assist-
ant in the Universitaets Augciikliuik, Brcslau, aiul the I\oyal Loudon Ojilitiial-
mic Hospital (Moorficlds) ; Oculist and Aurist to St. Luke's Hospital, Chicago.
Editorial Secretary of The Ophthalmic Record.

F. P. L. — Francis Park Lewis, M. D., Buffalo, N. Y.

President American Association for the Conservation of Vision; President
]-!oaid of Trustees N. Y. State Scliool for tlio Blind; I'rcsident N. Y. State
Commissions for the Blind (1!)(J3 and 1906); Chairman Committee on Preven-
tion of Blindness, American Medical Association; Ophthalmologist Buffalo
State Hospital and Buffalo iromeoj)athic Hospital; Consulting Ofihthalmologist
J. N. Adam Memorial Hospital; Fellow Academy Oi)iithaluiology and Oto-
Laryngology.

G. C. C— She G. C. S.

G. C. S.— G. C. Savage, M. D., Nashville, Tenn.

Professor of Oj)li11ialm(ilogy in the Medical Departincnt of Vajulerbilt Uni-
versity; ExI'rcsidciit of the Nashville Academy of Medicine; Ex-President of
the Tennessee State Medical Society. Author of New Truths in Ophthalmology
and Ophthalmic Myology.



vi INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS

&. F. L. — George Franklin Libby, M. D., Oph. D., Denver, Colorado.

Ex-Assistant Surgeon to the Maine Eye and Ear Infirmary; Ophthalmologist
to National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives, Mercy Hospital, and Children 's
Hospital, Denver; and Denver, Laramie and North Western Eailroad; Member
of the American Ophthalmological Society, Academy of Ophthalmology and
Oto-Laryngology, and Colorado Ophthalmological Society (its Secretary for six
years) ; Author of Monocular Blindness of Fifty Years' Duration: Bestoration
of Vision Following Hemiplegia ; Polyps in the Lower Canaliculus ; Silver Salts
in Ocular Therapeutics ; Ocular Disease in Relation to Nasal Obstruction and
Empyema of the Accessory Sinuses (Bihl.) ; A Case of Complete Albinism:
Observations on the Changes in the Diameters of the Lens as Seen through the
Iris; Consanguinity in Belation to Ocular Disease; Heredity in Eelation to the
Eye (doctorate thesis, Univ. of Colo., 1913); Acquired Symmetrical Opacities
of the Cornea of Unusual Type; Tuberculosis of the Bulbar Conjunctiva, etc.

H. B. C— H. Beckles Chandler, C. M., M. D., Boston, Mass.

Professor Ophthalmology, Tufts Medical School, Boston; Senior Surgeon
Massachusetts Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary.

H. B. AY. — Henry Baldwin Ward, A. B., A. M., Ph. D., Champaign,

III.

Professor of Zoology, University of Illinois ; Ex-Dean of the College of Medi-
cine, University of Nebraska. Author of Parasitic Worms of Man and the
Domestic Animals; Data for the Determination of Human Entozoa ; Icono-
grapliia Parasitorum Hominis ; Human Parasites in North America.

H. F. H.— Howard F. Hansell, A. M., M. D., Philadelphia, Pa.

Professor of Ophthalmology, Jefferson Medical College; Emeritus Professor
Diseases of the Eye, Philadelphia Polyclinic Hospital ; Ophthalmologist to
Jefferson Medical College Hospital; Ophthalmologist to Philadelphia Hospital.

H. G. L. — Henry Glover Langworthy, M. D., Dubuque, Iowa.

Surgeon to the Langworthy Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Infirmary, Dubuque,
Iowa; Member American Academy of Ophthalmology and Oto-Laryngology; of
the Chicago Ophthalmological Society; of the American Medical Association,
etc. Writer of numerous monographs on the special subjects of eye, ear, nose
and throat.

H. S. G. — Harry Searls Gradle, A. B., M. D., Chicago, III.

Professor of Ophthalmology, Chicago Eye and Ear College; Director of Oph-
thalmic Clinic, West Side Free Dispensary; Member of the Ophthalmologische
Gesellschaft, American Medical Association, American Academy of Ophthal
mology and Oto-Laryngology.

H. V. W. — Harry Vanderbilt Wurdemann, M. D., Seattle, Wash.

Managing Editor, Ophthalmology, since 1904; Editorial Staff of the Ophthal-
mic Becord since 1897; Managing Editor, Annals of Ophthalmology, 1897-
1904. Member American Medical Association; Ex-Chairman Section on Oph-
thalmology, American Medical Association; Hon. Member, Sociedad Cientifica,
Mexico; N. W. Wisconsin Medical Society and Philosophical Society. Fel-
low American Academy of Ophthalmology and Oto-Laryngology. Author of
Visual Economics (1901); Injuries to the Eye (1912); Bright's Disease and
the Eye (1912) ; and numerous monographs on the eye and its diseases. Col-
laborator on many other scientific books.

J. D. L. — Joseph D. Lewis, A. M., M. D., INIinneapolis, Minn.

Ophthalmic and Aural Surgeon to the Minneapolis City Hospital; Consulting
Ophthalmic and Aural Surgeon to Hopewell Hospital and Visiting Nurses'
Association ; Member Minnesota Academy of Ophthalmology and Oto-Laryn-
gology; Fellow American College of Surgeons.



INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS vii



f



J. G., Jr. — John Green, Jr., A. B., M. D., St. Louis, Mo.

Assistant in Ophthalmology, Washington University Medical School; Ophthal-
mic Surgeon to St. Louis Children's Hospital; Ophthalmic Surgeon to St. Louis
Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Infirmary ; Consulting Ophthalmic Surgeon to St.
Louis Maternity Hospital; Consulting Ophthalmic Surgeon to St. John's Hos-
pital, St. Louis.

J. L. :\I.— John L. ]\Ioffat, B. S., M. D., 0. et A. Chir., Ithaca, N. Y.

Editor Journal of Opliihalmology, Otology and Laryngology. Consulting
Ojihthalmic Surgeon, Cumberland Street Hospital, New York; Member (v.-p.
]905, 1908) American Homoeopathic Ojihthalmological, Otological and Laryn-
gological Society; Member American ^Eedical Editors' Association; Member
(Senior) American Institute of Homn?opathy; Senior Member (ex-j)res.) New
York State Homa?opathie Medical Society; Senior Member (ex-pres.) Kings
County (N. Y.) Homoeopathic Medical Society; Honorary Member N. Y. County
Homcpopathic Medical Society.

J. ]\I. B. — James ]Moores Ball, ]M. D., LL. D., St. Louis, Mo.

Dean and Professor of Ophthalmology, American Medical College of St. I^ouis,
Medical Department of National University of Arts and Sciences. Author of
Modern OpJdhalmology; Andreas Vesalius the Eeformer of Anatomy.

J. R. C. — James Raley Cravath, B. S., Chicago, III.

Electrical and Illuminating Engineer, Chicago; Vice-President, Illuminating
Engineering Society; formerly associate editor Electrical World; joint author
Practical Illumination by Cravath and Lansingh ; joint author Light — Its Use
and Mi.suse, prepared by committee of the Illuminating Engineering Society;
author of Illumination and Vision ; Tests of the Lighting of a Small Boom; and
numerous other monographs.

L. II.— Lucien Howe, M. A., M. D., Sc. D., Buffalo, N. Y.

Professor of Ophthalmology, University of Buffalo; Member of the Royal Col-
lege of Surgeons of England; Fellow of the Eoyal Society of Medicine; Mem-
ber of the Ophthalmol ogisehe Gesellschaft and of the Societe Fran(;aise
d'Ophthalmologie. Authoi- of The Muscles of the Eye.

:\r. s.— :\ryLEs Standish, a. I\r., U. D., S. D., Boston, Mass.

Williams Professor of Ophthalmology, Harvard University; Consult iiiii Oph
thalmic Surgeon, Massachusetts Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary and Carney
Hospital, Boston, Mass.

X. ^,\_ B.— Nelson IM. Black, Ph. G., M. D., Milwaukee, Wis.

Author of The Development of the Fusion Center in the Treatment of Strabis-
mus; Examination of the Eyes of Transportation Employes; Artificial lllumina-
Hoii a Factor in Ocular Discomfort, and other scientific papers.

]'. A. C— Peter A. Callan, IM. D., New York City, N. Y.

Surgeon, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary; Ojihthalraologist to St, A'in-
cent's Hospital; Columbus Hospital and St. Joseph's. Hospital, New York.

P. G. — Paul Guilford, M. D., Chicago, III.

Ex-Resident Surgeon, Wills Eye Hospital, I'liiladolphia ; Attending Oculist and
Aurist, St. Luke's Hospital; Attending Oculist and Aurist, Chicago Orpliau
Asylum; Consulting Oculist and Aurist, Soutii Side Free Dispensary. Co-
Author of A System of Ojihthalmic Operations.

R. D. P. — Robert D. Pettet, Chicago, III.

Author of The Mechanics of Fitting Glasses.
S. II. McK. — Sa.mikl II ANioKi) McKee, B. A., "S\. D., IMontiikal, Que.

Lecturer in Pathology and Bacteriology, McGill University; Demonstrator in
Ophthalmology, McCill University; Assistant Oculist and Aurist to the i\Iont-
real General Ilospifai; Oculist to the Montreal Maternity Hospital; Oculist to



viii INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS

the Alexandra Hospital; Member of The American Association of Patliiologi9t3
and Bacteriologists. Author of The Bacteriology of Conjunctivitis ; An Anal-
ysis of Three Himdred Cases of Morax-Axenfeld Conjunctivitis ; Demonstraticm
of the Spirocheta Pallida from a Mucous Patch of the Conjunctiva ; The Patho-
logical Histology of Trachonm, and numerous other monographs.

T. A. W.— Thomas A. Woodruff, M. D., C. M., L. R. C. P.

Ex-President of Chicago Ophthalmological Society; Vice-President of the
Illinois Society for the Prevention of Blindness; Fellow of A. M. A.; Fellow
American Academy of Medicine; Fellow of American Academy of Ophthal-
mology; Formerly Editorial Secretary of the Ophthalmic Record; Fellow Ameri-
can College of Surgeons; Fellow of the Institute of Medicine of Chicago;
Member of Chicago Society of Medical History; Chicago Medical Society;
Author with Casey A. Wood of Commoner Diseases of the Eye; Formerly
Ophthalmic Surgeon to St. Luke's Hospital.

T. H. S.— Thomas Hall Shastid, A. B., A. M., M. D., LL. B., F. A. C. S.,
Superior, Wis.

Honorary Professor of the History of Medicine in the American Medical College,
St. Louis, Mo.; Late Editorial Secretary of The Ophthalmic Record, Author of
A Country Doctor; Practising in Pihe; Forensic Relations of Ophthalmic
Surgery (in Wood's System of Ophthalmic Operations) ; Legal Relations of
Ophthalmology (in Ball's Modern Ophthalmology) ; A History of Medical Juris-
prudence in America (in Kelly's Cyclopedia of American Medical Biography).

W. C. p. — Wm. Campbell Posey, B. A., M. D., Philadelphia, Pa,

Professor of Ophthalmology in the Philadelphia Polyclinic Hospital and
Graduate Medical School; Ophthalmic Surgeon to the Wills, Howard and
Children 's Hospitals ; Chairman of the Pennsylvania Commission for the
Conservation of Vision; Chairman of Section on Ophthalmology, College of
Physicians, Philadelphia. Editor of American Edition of Nettleship's Text-
book of Ophthcdmology ; Co-Editor, with Jonathan Wright, of System of Dis-
eases of the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat; Co-Editor, with Wm. G. Spiller, of
The Eye and the Nervous System.

W. F. C— W. Franklin Coleman, M. D., M. R. C. S. Eng., Chicago, III.

Professor of Ophthalmology Post-Graduate Medical School; Professor of Oph-
thalmology Illinois School Electro-Therapeutics; Member Chicago Ophthalmo-
logical Society.

W. F. H. — William Frederic Hardy, M. D., St. Louis, Mo.

Assistant in Ophthalmology, Washington University Medical School.

W. H. W. — William Hamlin Wilder, A. M., M. D., Chicago, III.

Professor and Head of Department of Ophthalmology, Eush Medical College
(in affiliation with University of Chicago) ; Professor of Ophthalmology, Chi-
cago Polyclinic; Surgeon, Illinois Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary; Ophthal-
mic Surgeon, Presbyterian Hospital; Member American Ophthalmological So-
ciety.

W. O. N. — Willis Orville Nance, M. D., Chicago, III.

Ophthalmic Surgeon, Illinois Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary; Late Oculist
and Aurist to Cook County Hospital; President, Chicago Ophthalmological
Society.

W. R. — Wendell Reber, M. D., Philadelphia, Pa.

Professor of Diseases of the Eye in the Medical Department of Temple Uni-
versity; Professor of Diseases of the Eye in the Philadelphia Polyclinic and
College for Graduates in Medicine; Ophthalmic Surgeon to the Samaritan
Hospital, to the Philadelphia General Hospital, to the Garretson Hospital; Con-
sulting Ophthalmologist to the Friends' Asylum for the Insane; Member of the
Council of the Oxford Ophthalmological Congress ; Past President of the Ameri-
can Academy of Ophthalmology and OtoLaryngology; joint author of a Hand-
toolc on the Musctdar Anomalies of the Eye.



LIST OF LEADING SUBJECTS IN THIS

V0LUA4E



Institutions for the blind

Instruments, ophthalmic

Interior decoration

Intracranial organs of vision

Intravenous injections

Iridectomy

Iridencleisis

Iridocyclitis

Iridoectomy

Iridotomy

Iris, atrophy of the

Iris, essential atrophy of the

Iris, tumors of the

Iritis

Irrigation of the eye

Jacob, Arthur

Javal, Louis E.^^LE

Jeffries, I^enjamin Joy

Keratectomy

Keratitis

Keratitis, filamentous

Keratitis, neikoparalytica

Keratitis, parenchymatous

Keratitis, phlyctenit,\i;

Keratitis, tubercular

Keratoconus

KxAPF', Hermann Jakob

Kkonlein's operation

Laboratory technique

LaCFUMAL .\I'I'.\I{.\TUS
L\.\n'S, OlMITHAI-Mir

Le Conte, Joseph

Legal relations of oimitif almology

ix



INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND 6^19

Institutions for the blind (continued). (C.) American institutions,

SCHOOLS AND OTHER RESOURCES FOR THE BLIND.

Probably every ophthalmologist has, at some time or other, been
asked where and how a blind person can be schooled or otherwise
armed for the battle of life. In the following survey, we have en-
deavored to make it possible for an inquirer in any one of the United
States, or provinces of Canada, by referring to this section of the
Encyclopedia, to find just what are the resources for the blind in his
own locality.

We have deliberately refrained from lengthy statements with regard
to the education and training of the blind on this continent in the
belief that the accompanying series of illustrations with their captions
will be more effective than many words. It will be observed, starting
with the care of infants, as exemplified in a nursery for blind babies
and ending with assistance for adults, that we show with these pictures
practically every phase of work for and by the blind in America.
The illustrations are typical of the best work in the country.

By referring to the sub-sections dealing with one's own state or
province there will be found the agencies in that locality available for
the blind. If there is no institution or organization in a particular
commonwealth applicable to the particular needs of the person in whom



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