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Exors. of her wiU with a bequest of £20. He had escorted the corpse of her
husband from France. In the same year, on May i8th, a warrant was issued
to the Treasurer and Chamberlains of the E.xchequer to pay to Sir John Corne-
wall for the custody of the Duke of Orleans at the rate of 4000 marks per
annum — to have of the King's gift by way of reward for the great labour and
expenses which he has taken and will sustain respecting the custody of the
said Duke. — Cotton MSS., Cleopatra. In the same MS. under date July 8,
1434, John CornewaU, Lord of Fownehope, before the King's Council consented
to the release of William Botiller, Knight, in exchange for Thomas Rempston,
Knight, the said William being one of the hostages of the Duke of Orleans
with the Count of Angoulesme. Provided that the other hostages do not
leave before the said Lord of Fownehope be satisfied of 2000 crowns and other
sums due.

In the British Museum (Add. Charters 12074) is an acquittance from the
King dated Nov. 28, 1440, and bearing a seal with the CornewaU arms. This
document acknowledges the receipt of 8,700 golden crowns from Charles Duke
of Orleans, being part payment of his ransom of 10,000 crowns, for which his
brother Jean, Comte d'Angouleme was detained as hostage for thirty years
after Agincourt.



THE HOUSE OF CORNEWALL. l8l

The Duke appears to have remained under custody until 19th Hen. VI.,
when the Rot. Pat. mentions an acquittance to Sir John Cornewall, Lord Fan-
hope, on the discharge of Charles Duke of Orleans.

Sir John Cornewall, on July 17, 1433, in open Parliament was created
Baron Fanhope, or Fownhope, of Fownhope, in the County of Hereford {vide
Courthope's Historic Peerage, p. 184), although, so Dr. Marshall states, he
was always summoned to ParUament as Lord Comewall^a circumstance
to which we have already adverted. And on January 30, 1442, he received
again in open Parliament, a fresh patent as Baron Milbroke, of Milbroke in
the County of Bedford — the intention or inner meaning of this second patent
being obscure. Anyhow his arms, surrounded by the blue ribbon of the Garter
are stiU to be seen in one of the clerestory windows of Millbrook Church.*
These honours were conferred in consideration of his great services in England,
France, and Normandy. No special mention being made either of Wales or
Scotland, we infer that his part in the Welsh and Scotch campaigns was unim-
portant.

In 1433 he was appointed Governor of St. Selerine, and in 1437 a long-
standing feud with Lord Grey of Ruthyn, a near neighbour in Beds, led to
high-handed proceedings on his part. We have before us some details of the
trial which ensued in the Star-Chamber, with the evidence of witnesses which
went to show that he had interfered with the King's Judges of Assize. These
written reports vnih such headings as " Knowledgeth Enderby," " Know-
ledgeth Pekke," convey no clear account of what occurred. Suffice it the
Lord Fanhope was too powerful an element in the state to be crushed by an
indictment, while eventually, as wiU appear. Lord Grey of Ruthyn obtained
more than ample compensation. The Rot. Pat., 17 Hen. VI., contain a grant
of pardon to Sir John Cornewall, Knight, Lord Fanhope, for having threatened
the King's Justices at Bedford.

The Cotton MSS. — Cleopatra — give indirect evidence of the paramount
position held by Lord Fanhope, e.g., " At a great Council at Westminster
Lord Faunhope (sic.) was present, in consequence of observations made by
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, respecting the conduct of the war in France,

* Levien remarks that he was always summoned as Sir John Comewaylle, Chevalier, and
when receiving his second patent — Baron Milbroke — his previous creation as Lord Fanhope was
ignored. On the surface this appears unprecedented, but he may have been held to have inherited
the peerage of Cornewall, or de Cornewall, granted liis father in 1365 — a circumstance that seems
to have escaped the notice of his biographers.



l82 THE HOUSE OF CORNEWALI..

which observations his brother John, Duke of Bedford, considered derogatory
to his honour. The dispute terminated by the King's declaration ' that he
considered both to be his affectionate and faithful uncles, and commanded
that no dissension should exist between them.' "

Again in the same MSS., 14th Feb., 1436 : " This day a letter under the
great Seal was issued to Le Sire de Fownhope informing him of the King's
intention to send an army under the command of the Duke of York, into
France in the ensuing month of April, for the purpose of putting a speedy end
to the war there, and praying him to lend £100 for the purpose aforesaid. —
' This as you will take right well to heart.' "

Ibid. April 9, 1437 — The following were appointed Commissioners to treat
for peace with France. The Archbishop of York, the Bishop of Lincoln, Earls
of Warwick and Suffolk, Lords Hungerford, Tiptoft, and Fanhope.

Ibid. AprU 16, 1437''' — At the Council Lord Fanhope agreed to lend the
King 250 marks. And on June 18 a warrant was issued to pay 20 marks to
Lord Fanhope ; while on July 23 summonses were issued by the King to " The
Funeral Solempnities at Caunterbery " of our graundm.oder. Queen Johane,
whom God assoUe. To be there August nth, e.g.,

* Membrane 6.
Calendar of Patent Rolls, Henry VI., Vol. 3, p. 195.
1437. Whereas by the petition of John Coruwaille, Knight, to the King and

Feb. 14. Council, it appears that the King's father when Prince of Wales and Duke of

Westminster. Cornwall, and within age, by letters patent granted to the present petitioner and
Elizabeth, late Countess of Htmtingdon, then his wife, for her life, the castle and
manor of Trematon, the manors of Calestok and .4ssbeburgh, the castle and park
and manoi of Rostormell, the manors of Penlj-m and Penknyth, the boroughs
and towns of Lostwithiell and Camelford, the whole fishery of the water of
Fowey, the manors of Tewynton, Moresk, and Tj-ntagell, with aU knights' fees,
chaces, parks, offices, mills, weirs, ferries, woods, warrens, fisheries, moors,
marshes, meadows, pastuores, fairs, markets, franchises, liberties, customs,
wardships, marriages, reliefs, escheats, services of free and bond tenants, and
reversions to the premises belonging ; which grant was confirmed by the same
prince, when of age, who afterwards further granted the petitioner, for his life,
400 marks a year out of the premises, which last grant was confirmed by the
present king [Patent Roll Calendar, 1422-9, p. 59] and on 18 March, 4 Henry
VI., by letters patent [not enrolled], the king granted to the petitioner the castle,
manors, park, &c., aforesaid, to hold during pleasure, instead of the 400 marks a
year, from the death of the said Elizabeth, at the yearly rent of 100 marks,
payable at the Exchequer ; and afterwards, to wit, on the same 14 February, on
which these presents are dated, the king by letters patent committed to him upon
certain mainprise the keeping of the premises for seven years at the same rent,
in which last named letters, howe\'er, the manor of Rostormell was accidentally
omitted ; and he having besought the king's grace in this matter and surrendered
the letters in question, the king now grants him the provinces, with all appurten-
ances, in lieu of his said annuity of 400 marks, to hold for life, as fully as he and
the said Elizabeth held them, but at the previous rent of 100 marks, with the
addition that he may deduct from the said 100 marks the annuity of £60 hitherto
payable at the Exchequer, which he has been holding by grant of Richard II.,
subsequently confirmed. — By P. S.



THE HOUSE OF CORNEWAIX. 183

My Lord of Gloucester.

My Lady of Gloucester.

The Earl of Huntingdon.

The Earl of Northumberland.

The Earl of Oxford.

The Lord Fanhope.

The Lord Poynings.
We also note from " Proceedings of the Privy Council," vol. v.— that
Lord Fanhope attended regularly from 1437 to 1443. In that year, Dec. 14,
Henry VL wrote concerning him that he " passed to God." By his will he
directed that he should be buried, not beside his royal wife, but in the Chapel
of the B.V.M., which he had founded in the Churchyard of the Friars Preachers,
by Ludgate in the City of London. We may assume that in his old age he had
become a Tertiary of that Order, and was therefore entitled to be interred
wearing its habit. This was regarded as a sort of prophylactic, and Leland,
writing in the reign of Henry VHL, stated that " the Lord Fanhope lyeth at
the Black Freres, and his wife on the right hand of hym and a child." He
appears to have assumed, because, as was usual at the time, wife and child
were associated with the father and husband in the same monument, that
therefore one tomb contained them all. This is a non-sequitur, but the account
is otherwise of value, for no doubt Leland had seen the Chapel and its monu-
ments. Both were destroyed in the great fire of London. There would
appear to have been several monuments to the Princess Elizabeth. Dr.
Marshall mentions one at Ampthill, but the legend at Burford indicates
positively the place of her interment. Pennant names among illustrious
personages interred at the Blackfriars, Hugh de Burgh, Earl of Kent and his
wife Margaret, sister of Alexander H. of Scotland, also the heart of Queen
Eleanor.

The Black Friars benefited by Lord Fanhope's burial in their Chapel,
for he bequeathed them a rent-charge of forty marks, due from the Fishmongers'
Company, for the celebration of the usual divine offices. He had previously
bestowed upon that Company a large tenement in Thames Street, subject only
to this comparatively small ground-rent, and it still forms part of the site of
their magnificent Hall. WTien the Fishmongers and the Stock Fishmongers
amalgamated in 1504, they passed a resolution to surrender all other tenements
in favour of the great house in Thames Street, the gift of Lord Fanhope. The



I04 THE HOUSE OF CORNEWALL.

ground-rent was duly rendered to the Friars up to the time of the Dissolution
of the Monasteries, when it escheated to the Crown and was redeemed by
the Company at twenty years' purchase. Since then the premises have been
held free, but the site presented by Lord Fanhope represents a very large
capital value, and he has always been held in memory as one of the chief bene-
factors of that ancient, honourable, and most useful guild.

The portrait of Lord Fanhope by Cornelii, painted in the reign of Henry
VIIL, at Queenborough Castle, represents him as a venerable old man, in
appearance not unlike his brother-in-law, King Henry IV. Therein are per-
ceptible but few traces of the bright and brave youth who trampled under
foot the lilies of France and won the heart of the usurping King's sister. It is
the visage of the statesman rather than the warrior, and doubtless, in a great
measure a fancy likeness. This portrait forms one among those of the sixteen
Governors of Queenborough, Lord Fanhope having been the sixth, and its
leading characteristic has been weU stj-led disappointment. Of all his honours,
all his possessions, not a wrack remains to those of his blood, indeed his only
material memorial is the stall-plate of the Order of the Garter in the Chape!
of St. George at Windsor — the last but two on the south side. It measures
eighteen inches, and unUke the later stall-plates is not square but moulded
to the shape of his shield. The scroll bears the legend " Mons. John de Corne-
wall."

He appears to have solaced himself with a mistress after the death of his
wife, by whom he had two sons (i) John, (2) Thomas. One account gives him
an illegitimate daughter Constance, married to John Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel,
but the fact of her not being mentioned in the will throws considerable doubt
on this legend. It is not impossible that she may have been legitimate.

Here we meet with a further elucidation of this question from a letter
contributed to Notes and Queries, 1875, by Mr. R. W. Greenfield of Southampton,
as follows : — " Sir John Arundell de ArundeU, Chevaler, Lord Mautravers,
Earl of Arundell, Duke of Touraine and K.G., who was born at Lychat Mau-
travers, Dorset, 14 Feb., 1407-8 (Escheats, 7 Hen. VI., No. 78). He received
writs of summons, dated 12 July and 3 Aug., 7 Hen. VI., 1429, as a Peer to the
Parliament ordered to assemble at Westminster in the Sept. following. He
died at Beauvais 12 June, 13 Hen. VI., 1435. His first wife is said to have
been Constance, daughter of Sir John de Cornewall, K.G., Lord Fanhope."






SIR JOHN CORN'EWALL, K.G.

LORD FAN'HOPE AND MILBROKE.



THE HOUSE OF CORNEWALL. 185

[Book of St. Albans, as quoted by Tierney]. If this was so, they were more
Hkely contracted in marriage only, while both were under age, and probably
she died a minor, for in the year that he attained his majority his only son
Humphry by his wife, Maude Lovell, was born, viz., 30th Jan., 1429.

If this account be correct, then the absence of the name of Constance from
Lord Fanhope's will is accounted for. The writer proceeds to state that the
Earl's estates went to his uncle — patruus — William Fitzalan, so that apparently
he is in error in styling him, the Earl, Sir John Arundell, instead of Sir John
Fitzalan.

The following is the exact text of Lord Fanhope's will, as given by Gibbons
in his " Eaily Lincoln Wills." It will be noted that the document is partly
in Latin, partly in English : —

Page 166.
Bishop Alnwick's Register, 1436-1450.
John Cornewayll, knight, lord of Fa\vnehope. Dated at Ampthill 10 Dec. 1443 (fo. 3 and 22).
To be buried in the Chapel of the B.V.M. founded by me in the Churchyard of the Friars Preachers
near Ludgate, London.

Item lego cuilibet bastardonim meorum modo exis.cntium in AmpthuU, viz., Johanni D. >narc:as
el TItomre CCC. marcas.

John Coke to have the guardianship of John, and James ffenaunte that of Thomas till 21.
Exors. John Archbishop of Canterbury, Ralph Lord Cromwell, Nichs Assheton and Walter
Moyll Serjeants at law, John Wanlok Esq. and John Homwell and John Gest citizens of London.

Witnesses: — John Malcote, rector of AmpthuU, Rob. Weer, rector of Mylbroke, and John
Basse, rector of Stepyngley.

Schedule of Legacies.
Thomas Gazzard Thomas Pays

John Gregory Wm. Pynchester

Thomas Larkyng Thomas Byrdde

Thomas Yonge John Hoton

James Frere John Fferrow

Richard Warbolton Rob. & John Catour

Robert Waas John Sturmyn

Peter Worsley Symon Godard

Robert Purflew John Leggerd

Richard Fflete Adam Alford

John Hamwell Walter Pegeon

John Skydmore John Clopham

John Padyngton Isabel Lawnder

Wm. Striklond Thomas & Nichs Bower

John & Katherine GryS John Wagstafif

John Geroys Thos. Langton

John Hynton and a few others.



l86 THE HOUSE OF CORNEWALL.

Proved 6 January, 1443. before the Bishop of Lincoln sitting with the Archbp. of Canterbury
in quandam cameram reiratiu videlicet admagnam el principalem cameram infra manerium sive casirum
de Ampthull in fenestra occidentale ejusdem retrattus, when witnesses were examined and the seal of
arms of the deceased engraved in silver, and his signet engraved in gold, with which the testament
had been sealed, were produced to and examined by the said Archbp. and Bishop.

We now approach a problem which centres round Ampthill Castle. First,
in describing the Battle of Northampton, 1459, i.e., sixteen years after Lord
Fanhope's decease, Leland, temp. Hen. VIII., writes, " The Lord Fanhope took
King Henry's part. The Lord Gray of Rutheine did the same in countenance.
But a little before the field he practised with King Edward and other, saying
that he had a title to the Lord Fanhope's landes at Antehill and thereabout,
or depraving him with false accusations, so wrought with King Edwarde that
he with all his strong band of Walschemen telle to King Edwarde's part, upon
promise that if Edwarde won the fielde, he should have AntehiU and such
landes as Fanhope had there. Edward won the fielde, and Gray opteined
Antehill cum partinenciis, and still increasing in favour with King Edwarde
was at last made by hym Erie of Kent."

This legend, as we shall see, was improved upon by Old Fuller, e.g., under
the Sheriffs of Staffs, i Hen. IV. (in error probably as regards this detail for
Sir John Cornewall of Kinlet) he quotes " John Cornwall Miles— a person
remarkable on several accounts : —

(i) For his high extraction — descended from Richard, Earl of Cornwall,
and King of the Almains, his arms do evidence.

(2) Prosperous valour under King Henry the Fifth in France ; there

gaining so great treasure as that therewith he built his fair house at
Amp-hiU in Bedforshire (Camden's Brittannia in Bedfordshire).

(3) Great honour, being created by Henry the Sixth, Baron of Fanhope

and Knight of the Garter.

(4) Constant loyalty, sticking faster to King Henry the Sixth than his own

Crown did, faithfuUy following after all forsook him.

(5) Vigorous vivacity, continuing till the reign of King Edward the Fourth,
who dispossessed him of his lands in Bedfordshire.

(5) Cheerful disposition, pleasantly saying that " not he, but his fine
house at Amp-hiU, was guilty of high treason " — happy that he
could make mirth at his misery, and smile at the losing of that which
all his prowess could keep no longer."



THE HOUSE OF CORNEWALL. 187

Once more as showing the crescendo of this legend. From an Encyclopredia
entitled " Magna Brittannia Antiqua ct Nova, 1738," we extract the following :

" Ampthill, a pretty market town, seated very pleasantly between two bills. A large house was
built here in the reign of Hen. VI. by Sir John Comewall, Baron of Fanhope, out of the spoils taken
in France. In the reign of Edward IV. it came to the Crown by forfeiture, Fanhope siding with the
House of Lancaster. King Edward gave it to Edmund Grey, Lord of Ruthin, whose grandson made
it over to Hen. VIII. By this means it was assigned to the Crown and made " The Honour of
AmpthUl." It deser\'es to be remembered that Queen Catherine, wife to Henry VIII., retired
hither after she was forbid the Court on account of the divorce. It was given by Charles II. to Lord
Bruce, created Earl of Aylesbury ; he had his title of Viscount from this place, and was made
" Hereditary Steward of the Honour of Ampthill."

Had these Genealogists referred to the Escheats of 22 Hen. VI., No. 21,
they would have read as follows : — " The grants made to Sir John CornewaU,
Lord Fanhope, of the ilanors of Cahstoke, etc., in Cornwall, and of the Manors
of Ampthill, Milbroke, Haughton, Tyngreth, Flytwicke, and Pelyng in Beds,
were only for term of life by the King's gift." So that they reverted to the
Crown on his decease in 1443.

The question arises whether there was a second Lord Fanhope ? Inas-
much as Sir John, the first Lord, left no legitimate issue, his successor to the
title — albeit, as we have shown, not to the estates — could only have been his
cousin and heir at law, Thomas, Baron of Burford, who certainly was attainted
in 1460, suffering the temporary loss of his estates, but there is not a shred of
evidence to show that he assumed the title of Lord Fanhope, neither was a
second Lord summoned in the reign of Hen. VI. or after. Moreover, the
entire legend of Leland, echoed by others, hinges on Ampthill Castle, which
may have been a bait to allure Lord Grey from his allegiance, but which cer-
tainly was not in 1459 in the possession of any Comewall. The notion of either
of the bastards calling himself Lord Fanhope is too absurd. From the very
small legacies assigned to them we can but infer that they were the sons of
some woman in humble circumstances — indeed the entire legend may be
termed nothing short of fabulous.

Ampthill Castle would seem to have fallen to ruins before the reign of
Elizabeth, when an architect named Thorpe undertook to create a seai in its
stead. In a letter to the Countess of Ossory, Horace Walpole mentions that
Thorpe's MS. was in the possession of Lord Warwick, and contained his Plan
of Ampthni. " Did I ever tell you," he further writes, " that Elizabeth,
Duchess of Exeter, sister of our Harry IV., and her second husband. Sir John



l88 THE HOUSE OF CORNEWALL.

Cornewall, Lord Fanhope,* lived at Ampthill and died there ? Their portraits
in painted glass were, in the Church, whence there is a pretty print in Sandford's
Genealogic History of the Kings of England, etc."

The oaks of the park, possibly planted by Lord Fanhope or by his Princess,
in 1796 were still standing, and of marvellous size. An article in The Gentle-
man's Magazine of August in that year gives a full description of them, the
circumference of the largest measuring 36 feet, and its diameter from bough to
bough 96 feet by 88 ; while another, though its circumference was only sixteen
feet, measured from bough to bough 106 by 102 feet.



*We remark with surprise, that The Dictionary of National Biography, which includes a host
of nonentities, has omitted to mention the name of Lord Fanhope, whose reputation, however, may
not have suffered, inasmuch as it thereby has escaped the slander which, in the teeth of the verdict
of such giants as Algernon C. Swinburne and Walter Besant, assailed Charles Readewith little short
of malignity in the pages of that unequal pubUcation.



THE HOUSE OF CORNEWALL.



189



Chapter XI.



BAKONS OF THE 15TH CENTURY.

Richard Cornevvall, 5th Baron of Butford— Cecilia, d. of Sir John Merbury of Weobley.
(1360-1443) I



I
Edmund=(i) Alicia,

CORNEWALL d. S.p. I417

died 1435
vit. patr.=:(2) Elizabeth, d. of Thomas dela Barre.

I

I



William (?) Matilda=John VValcot

M.P. for Hereford. of VVJcot.



Thomas=Elizaeeth, d. of Sir



CORNEWALL

6th Baron
ofBurford
"died 1472



Roland Lenthall
(died 1489)



Otis— Katherine
M.P. for
Hereford

1459.
s.p.



Richard
s.p.



ELEAN0R=(i)Sir Hugh

Governess Mortimer

to the (2) Sir

Royal Richard

Princes. Croft.



|2

Sir Edmund:

CoRNEWALL

died 14S9,

7th Baron of

Burford.



jMary, d. of Sir T. Hoorde



Giles John Sir Roland, stated in error to be father of
d. inf. d. inf. Sir Richard Cornewall of Berington,

in the Visitation of Salop, 1623
(Harleian Soc.,Vol. 28, p. T47), where
he is placed as the eldest son. He
is also given as eldest son in Harl.
MS., 1948, fo. 199b, and is stated
there to have married and left three
daughters. This may have been so,
but he certainly left no male issue,
and must have died young and in
his father's hfetime.



Sir Thomas=Anne, d. of Sir R. Corbet.
Cornewall I (i47o-r54S)
8th Baron of
Burford I
(1468-1538) I



I 1

Anne=Peter Blount. Elizabeth =Thomas Cresset.



Edmund Richard Elizabeth:
Cornewall Cornewall
(1488-150S) gth Baron of Burford
s.p. (see next Chapter).



daughter^ |

=Arthur Newton Wigmore. Eleanor= Roger Vaughan

OF Hargest.



P ICHARD who succeeded Sir Bryan, his elder brother, as fifth Baron of
■^ *■ the Cornewall line, was born in 1360, being served forty years of age when
his eldest brother died, January 17th, 1400. As has already been stated,
in 14 Rich. II. — the Thursday after S. Martin — Bryan de Cornewall, Dominus
de Burford, Knight, granted to hun and to his sister Elena for their support
£10 per annum. He married Cecilia, or according to some, AUce, daughter of
Sir John Merbury, of Weobley, Knight, and by her had issue, with Matilda



igO THE HOUSE OF CORNEWALL.

who married John Walcot*, of Walcot, Salop, a son, Edmund Cornewall, and
probably a second son in William CornewaU, who was elected member for
the City of Hereford in 1427. Of this latter gentleman nothing is known, and
he is not included in any MS. pedigree, but as will appear, the grandson of this
Richard, Baron of Burford, represented the same constituency and both are



* The subjoined is the pedigree of Walcot : —

John Walcot=Maud, daughter of Richard Cornewall, Baron of Burford.
(Uving Hen. V.)of Walcot, I
5th in descent from
Sir Richard Walcot. |

RoGER= Margaret.
I
Edward=Alice, daughter of Sir Thomas Englishe.
I
John=Mary, daughter of Sir Peter Newton of Highley, Salop.



I I

Charles of Builth— Beatrice, daughter of Sir Humphry=Alice, d. of Richard Hale.

I Anthony Girling, K.G. of Walcot. |

Beatrix, d.=CHARLES=ELiZBAETH, d. of Sir Humphry=.Anne, d. of Thomas

of John Digby, I John Games.

Earl of Bristol.



Docwxa.



Thomas=J.\ne, niece of Lord Blayney. Mary=Joh.m Mi.nchi.v.
ofCrough, I

Executed (Whence Rev. Mackenzie Walcot,

1638. the Antiquary.)

I I ''
John=Elizabeth, d. of Sir Thos. Lucy Thomas=Mary, d. of Sir Adam
' of Walcot. I of Charlecote. of Bitterley. Littleton, Bart.