Cecil George Savile Foljambe Liverpool.

The house of Cornewall online

. (page 4 of 33)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

Henley.

Rutland. — Casterton Parva, Oakham, Wrangvike.

Somerset. — Ilchester.

Suffolk. — Hadleigh, Wangford.

Sussex. — Old Shoreham, Bramber.

Wilts. — Corsham, Mere, Stourton, Wilton.

Yorks. — Knaresborough, with the Manors included under that Honour.
To this must be added the profits of farming the mint, and of amercing
the Jews. Moreover, when the Saracens broke the truce or treaty he had
concluded with them, and a new Crusade was launched to recover Jerusalem,
many Knights applied for a dispensation from their vow of the Cross. For a
sum down the Pope farmed these dispensations to Earl Richard, who is said
to have profited largely by his bargain.



24 THE HOUSE OF CORNEWALL.

It remains for his descendants to turn a deaf ear against such scurrilities
as the doggrel quoted by Levien, and to meet with reserve other legends
reflecting on his conduct and character. The custom of the period tolerated
patriarchal relations with the opposite sex on the part of a Prince of the blood.
Hence the legend of Joan De Valletort, whereof more anon, and that of a
fair German Fraulein of Gutenfels by Caub on the Rhine.* But to accuse
a Crusader of cowardice, and that in order to bolster up the cause of Simon
De Montfort, is to outrage probability. From such a distorted portraiture
we turn to the romantic devotion displayed towards Isabel De Clare ; to the
piety which founded the magnificent monastery of Hayles ; to the sublime
truth, that the Holy City of Jerusalem was won for the Cross by the prowess
of the heroic progenitor of The House of Cornewall.



* This legend is embodied in a Volkslied of contemporary origin, called " Der Grausame
Bride," e.g., A Pfalsgraf on the Rhine finds that his sister, though unmarried, is in the throes of
parturition. He kills her under circumstances of the most revolting barbarity, but the child, a boy.
is spared. Tlien there appears on the scene the King of the Romans, styled in the song. King of
England, who pierces with his sword the Pfalsgraf's heart, and carries the new-born babe to England.
Mr. F. P. Weber (1893), commenting on this VolksUed, printed with others under the title " Jung-
brunner ", in the Library at Ais, writes, " Considering that (Earl) Richard, in addition to his
own, inherited some of Coeur de Lion's popularity and fame ; that his power was chiefly on the
Rhine ; that even in this century he has been spoken of (e.g., by Goetz and Cappe) as King of England ;
it seems not unlikely, that the people among whom this Volkslied originated introduced an English
Piiuce into it by reason of confused tradition of Richard, King of the Romans, and his actual
power on the Rhine, and Richard L with his widespread reputation. Jean De Notre Dame in " Les
Vies des plus celibres et ancieiis poites Provensaux" published at Lyons, 1S75, falls into the same
error, inasmuch as he commences a Chapter (p. 139) thus : — Richard, sur-noinme C/rur de Lyon,
qui flit fils de Henri, Roy d'Anglelerrc et Empereiir {sic) des Komains." Whatever may be the actual
fact, Earl Richard apparently was accredited with an intrigue, which lent credence to the charge
of " swyuing " hurled by the anonymous author of the English ditty quoted above by Levien.



THE HOUSE OF CORNEWALL.



25



Chapter II.



THE ISSUE OF THE KING OF THE ROMANS.



Isabel de Clare=Earl Richard^Sanxhia of Provence=Beatrix de Fauquemont
(d. 1239) I (1207-72) I (d. 1261) s.p. (d. 1277)



I I

John Henry =Constance, widow of
(d. s.p. Prince of Alphonso of

1232). Almaine Arragon.

(d. 1270-1 s.p.)



Isabel
(1233-4).



E.^RL Edmund =
(1250-1300).



^Margaret de Clare
divorced 1294
(d. 1308).



Richard
[d. 1297 ?).



IT/E have already disposed of the error which gave Earl Richard for his first
' ' wife Rohese de Dover. The first love, and first wife of the Earl-King
was Isabel De Clare* a young wdow endowed, as the chroniclers assure us,
with singular beauty, whose decease in early middle Hfe was the cause of her
sorrowing husband taking the Cross. By her he had (i) John, who died s.p.

* The subjoined is the descent of this lady : —

Gilbert de Clare = . . .



Richard de Clare, Earl of Hertford=



Gilbert de Clare
2nd Earl of Hertford



Roger de Clare=.
3rd Earl of Hertford |



Richard de Clare=

4th Earl of Hertford |



Gilbert de Clare— . . .
Second son |

Richard de Clare=(ii7o) Eva, h. of

Earl of Pembroke | Dennot MacMur-

I rough. King of



Isabel DE=WiUiam Marshal,
Clare I E. of Pembroke.



Gilbert de Clare=Isabel,=(30 March 1231) Richard Earl of Comwall=SANCniA of



5th Earl ot Hertford and

ist Earl of Gloucester

(ob. Oct, 25, 1230)



Richard De Clare, 2nd =

Earl of Gloucester and i

6th Earl of Hertford



3rd daughter
eventually co-
heir fd.
1239-40.)

Maud, daughter of John

De Lacy, Earl of Lincoln

by Margaret, daughter of

Robert de Quincy,

Earl of Winchester



Provence,
(d. 1261)



Margaret De Clare (Octr. 6, i272)=Edmund Earl of Cornwall
(divorced 1294) (d. s.p. 1300)



26 THE HOUSE OF CORNEWALL.

1232, (2) Henry, (3) Richard, s.p., (4) Nicholas, who survived his mother only
a few hours, (5) Isabel, said by Sandford to have been born in 1233 and to have
died 1234, and to have been buried in Reading Abbey by the side of her
brother John. Of this family Henry, Prince of Almaine, alone reached
maturity, giving the highest promise of distinction in court and camp. He
commanded as his father's lieutenant the left wing of the King's army at
the battle of Lewes ; and after the battle of Evesham married, i.e., March 6th,
1269, Constance, eldest coheiress of Gaston de Moncade, Count of Beam, the
widow of Alphonso, son of James I., King of Arragon, shortly after joining his
half-brother Edmund in the 7th Crusade. On his return he was assassinated
while at his devotions in the Cathedral of Viterbo by Guy de Montfort in
revenge for his father's death. His body found a resting-place before the High
Altar in the Abbey of Hayles ; his heart was placed in the Shrine of Edward
the Confessor in Westminster Abbey — Lo cuor che'n siil Tamigi encor si cola —
Dante's Inferno, xii. This was on the 13th March, 1270-1, and the terrible
blow would seem to have hastened the end of his sire.

By Sanchia of Provence Earl Richard had two sons, Edmund, who suc-
ceeded him in the Earldom of Cornwall, and Richard. Born Dec. 5, 1250, the
former doubtless was present with his sire and half-brother at the fatal battle
of Lewes, inasmuch as he shared their subsequent captivity. The victory of
Evesham set him free, and he and Henry followed the example of the Earl-
King in taking the Cross. After the cruel tragedy of Viterbo he hastened
back to find his father a dying man and himself heir to all such of his vast
estates as had not been bestowed merely as life-grants, the Earldom of Corn-
wall alone affording a princely revenue. On his homeward journey from the Holy
Land he obtained a portion of the Cross of Calvary — a relic presented to
the Monastery of Hayles — and it may be that simultaneously, with or without
his father's assent, he added the relic known as the Holy Blood of Hayles,
of which mention has already been made. In 1295 he gave a similar rehc
to his religious foundation at Ashridge, styled in consequence Collegium S.
Sanguinis Christi, and his zeal was further manifested by his foundation at
Rewley, where he would seem to have enjoyed the co-operation of his step-
mother. To this latter House — consisting of fifteen Religious — he gave,
according to Dugdale, lands in North Oseney by Oxford, with the Manor of
Erdington and miUs at Karsington,* his woods in Nettlebed, and sixty

• Possibly CassingtoQ, or Garsington.



THE HOUSE OF CORNEVVALL. 27

shillings yearly, payable by the Monks of Thame out of the Manor of Stoke
Talmage — all in Oxon. Item, an acre in Bel juxta Roffen, divers houses
in the Parish of St. Thomas Apostle, in the City of London, the advowson
of St. Wendron in Cornwall, and certain lands in Wylandston.

Shortly before his father's death, i.e. 6th October, 1272, Earl Edmund
married Margaret de Clare, daughter of Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester,
by his second wife, Maud, daughter of John de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln.
One of his first acts was to enlarge the Castle of Trematon, which Reginald
de VaUetort had ceded to his father — a circumstance which conduces to the
supposition that Cornwall may have been the chief residence of the illus-
trious pair, but William of Worcester (temp. Edw. IV.) mentions the Castle
of Moresk as having been the residence of Earl Edmund, and that it was
then in a ruined condition ; moreover, he would appear to have dated his
grants from the Castle of Berkhamstead during his twenty-eight years of
Earldom. The Cotton MSS. (Juhus C. VII., fo. 235) narrate another instance
of his pious regard for Holy Church, e.g. " Edwardus (sic.) Comes Cornubiae,
with the assent of Margaret de Clare, his consort, conveys to the Abbot and
Convent of Stoneley in Arden the custody of the lands in Cubington, which
belonged to WilUam de Simily, until the lawful age of Geoffrey, the son of
the said William. Dated at Berkhampstead on the Feast of St. Edward,
anno 7 Edw. I. Seals (i) Cornewall (2) CornewaU and Clare." His bene-
factions to rehgion were indeed ubiquitous, and it seems certain that they
included gifts to Dorchester Abbey, Oxon., while in The Calendar of Wills,
1258-1688 — " quoting Rock's Textile Fabrics " — we find this — " Edmund,
Earl of Cornwall, gives to St. Paul's Cathedral a Cope of a certain diaper
of Antioch colour, covered with trees, and diapered with birds, of which the
heads, breasts, and feet, as weU as the flowers on the trees, were woven in
gold thread." This treasure, in all probability, he had brought from the
Holy Land, i.e., on his return from the 7th Crusade. In 1277 we find a Sir
Richard de Cornewall performing military service for Edmund, Earl of Corn-
wall. Thus : Parly. Writs, vol. i., p. 197, Orig. in Turr. Lond. 5 Edw. I. 1277 —
" The roU of Summons of the army of King Edward, son of King Henry, at
Worcester in the Octaves of S. John Baptist (i July) anno 5 Edw. I. against
LleweUin ap Griffith and his accomplices, the King's rebels, who have com-
mitted homicides, depredations, burnings, and other enormities against the
peace of the King, whereby the Prelates, Abbots, Priors, Earls, Barons, Knights



28 THE HOUSE OF CORNEWALL.

and others, who owe service to the King, proffer and acknowledge the service
under-written before Humphry de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Constable of
England, and Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk and Marshal of England, by whom it
was proclaimed that no one who owed service to the King should conceal his
service under a heavy forfeiture. . . . Suffolk. Edmund Earl of

Cornwall proffers the service of fifteen Knights' fees, which he doth by himself,
and (among fourteen others) Richard de Cornewall."*

According to Lysons, the Manor of Court in Brannel was granted by
King John to his second son — then an infant — later Earl of Cornwall and
King of the Romans, who gave it to Richard de Cornubia, or Cornewall, his
natural son by Joan de Valletort, widow of Sir Alexander Okeston.

In the Cahndarium Rot. Pat., p. 6i, we find this entry : Anno i8
Edw. n. m. 23. " Confirmation granted to Walter de Cornubia, brother of
Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, of £18 rent in the Manor of Branel." Concerning
this Walter more presently. Suffice it that in 1297, i.e., in the lifetime of
Earl Edmund, he was summoned to perform military service beyond seas.

In 1287, during the absence of the King, Earl Edmund acted as Regent
of the Kingdom, in recognition of his status as Prince of the blood royal. In
1280, presumably as a reward for military service. Earl Edmund bestowed upon
Richard, described as his brother, the Manor of Thonock. This deed of gift is con-
firmed in the inquisition, 33 Edw. I. held after the decease of Sir Edmund
de Cornewall, the said Richard's elder son, concerning the same Manor.

Margaret de Claref was childless. Divorced, 1294, and condemned
" vitam vivere coelibem," she survived her husband, who died in 1300,

* From the Cotton MSS., Julius C. VII., it appears that there was a Joan De Cornewall. wife of
Sir John Howard, and ancestress of the Dukes of Norfolk, e.g.. " Richardus de Cornubia to WdUam
Rudham, his attorney in Norfolk — Know ye that I have granted to Sir John Howard and Joan
his wife, my sister, that they may inhabit and dwell in the Manors, which I have of the gift of the
said John in the County of Norfolk, so long as it please them." — Undated.

Again, Folios 236-7. " The arms of Howard and Cornewall are in Ferfield, Tendering Hall,
in the Parish of Stoke Newland, and in the Chapel of Stoke Newland," i.e., Nayland.

This Joan could not have been the sister of Sir Richard, inasmuch as he died in 1297 ;
neither could she have been identical with Jo,in, daughter of Sir Geoffrey de Cornewall. since in
the •' Howard Memorials" of Mr. Howard, of Corby Castle, it is stated that Sir WiUiam Howard
was married 2 Edward II., i3oS-(), i.e.. before the birth of the said Joan. Mr. Howard speaks of
the above Joan as eventual heir of her brother, Richard. Mr. Horace Round affirms that the
only Richard De Cornewall of that date, i.e. 1308, was a priest described as King's kinsman and
Clerk of the Market, to whom Edward 11. gave a prebendal stall in York Cathedi-al.

t There is an engraving in Sandford of her coat of ai'ras i.e., Cornewall dimidiated impaling
Clare, also dimidiated, the latter coat 3 chevrons, thus resembling 3 bendlets (owing to its
dimidiation) .



THE HOUSE OF CORNEWALL. 2g

till 1308. In the year following his decease, at the Parliament of Lincoln,
she was allowed by the King a dowry of £500 a year for life, including the
Manor of Kirton in Lindsey, with its hamlets. By chirograph dated Feb.
13, 1294, Earl Edmund had assigned to her for her lifetime lands to the
value of £800 a year, viz. : in Norfolk and Suffolk £382 los. 8d. ; Kirton valued
at £368 15s. gd. ; and other lands, saving to himself the advowsons and sundry
other rights. She was barred the right of aliening these lands, but the Earl
bound himself not to disturb her possession. This deed with Margaret de
Clare's acknowledgement in Norman-French was entered on the Patent Rolls.
After her husband's death she acquired the advowsons, presenting to Heapham,
Pilham, and Springthorpe, all in Lincolnshire.

Earl Edmund was buried in the Abbey of Hayles, his wife erecting a
pyramis or canopied tomb to his memory — this on the south side of the
High Altar, where when her time came she also found a last resting-place.
In the Museum at Hayles are very many fragments of this beautiful tomb,
including, with portions of the two effigies, the anns of Earl Richard. The
tomb itself is said to have borne a strong resemblance in regard of ornamentation
to that of King Edward II. in Gloucester Cathedral. There have been found
among the ruins encaustic tiles bearing the Earl's arms—" A lion rampant with
a bordure besantee," and those of Margaret de Clare, " 3 chevrons." Earl
Richard's tomb, with that of Sanchia of Provence, was on the north side of
the High Altar. Of this there remains not a trace, but tiles have been dis-
covered bearing the Eagle-displayed of Almaine. This wholesale demolition
may be attributed to the fanaticism of Bishop Latimer, a zealot as ready to
preach a sermon when a harmless monk was burnt alive for conscience sake,
as himself to face with defiant intrepidity the fire and stake at Oxford. But
the Traceys must share the blame for having plundered the ruins repeatedly.
Their part in the assassination of S. Thomas of Canterbury brought with it the
curse: "The Traceys have always the wind in their faces;" while their
acquisitiveness— shared with other great Houses — evoked a local distich :

" The Lacys, the Traceys, and the Fettiplaces,
They own all the woods and the chases."

Of Richard, the second son of the great Earl-King by Sanchia of Provence,
little is known. He was bom probably in 1251-2, and has erroneously been
styled " Earl " — a title at that period territorial, whereas he was never accorded



30 THE HOUSE OF CORNEWALL.

the disposition of a province like his sire and brother. According to
the Visitation of Salop, 1623, a Richard de Cornwall married Joan, daughter
of John Fitzalan, Lord of Clun, by Isabel Mortimer his wife*, who are buried in
Haughmond Abbey, and we may assume that there was issue of the marriage,
but of this more anon.

In the Patent Rolls under date April i, 1305 — i.e., five years after the
decease of Earl Edmund, we find a grant to " Edmund de Cornwall, the King's
kinsman, son of Richard de Cornwall, sometime King of ALmain." But later
in the same patent are mentioned " Richard, father of the said Edmund ;
Edmund, sometime Earl of Cornwall ; and Richard de CornewaU," i.e., two
Richards, viz. : the Earl-King and another Richard, so that the previous lines
appear to be an error of the clerk who drew the patent.

A Sir Richard fell at the siege of Berwick, 1296-7. Thus Leland's
Collectanea, vol. i., p. 180 : " Anno Di. 1296. Edwardus Rex occupat villam

♦ The following shows the Fitzalan descent : —

William Fitzalan,=Isabel, d. of Helias De Say.

Lord of Oswestry I She re-married ( i ) Geoffrey de Vere.
^1 (2) WiUiam Botterel.

I
William Fitzalan = . . .
(d. 1210). I



Isabel, =John FiTZALAN=HAwyzE de Blanchminster.
sister and co- |
heir of Hugh |
D'Albini, Earl |
of Arundel. j

John Fitzalan,= Matilda, d. of Theobald Le Botiler, by Rohese De Verdun.
Lord of Arundel,
Captain-General
of the Marches,
1258, a prisoner
at the Battle of
Lewes, (d. 1267)



John Fitzalan,— Isabel, d. of Sir Roger Mortimer, of Wigraore, by Maud, d. and co-heir



Lord of Clun and
of Oswaldestre,
Earl of Arundel
(b. 14 Sept., 1246,
d. 18 Mar., 1272).



of WilUam De Braose, of Brecknock {vide Eyton's Shropshire).



JoAN=RICHARD De C0RNE^VALL.

John Fitzalan inherited the castle and title of Arundel through his

grandmother, sister and coheir of Hugh de Albini, Earl of .Arundel.

But it seems certain that neither he nor his family were known as Earls,

Richard while on his tombstone in Haughmond Abbey he is styled John Fitzalan,

Fitzalan, and in his Inq. p.m. he was not described as Earl, though holding the

(b. 3 Feb., 1267). Castle and Honour of Arundel. The claim to the Earldom was however

I admitted by the Crown in 1443, though opposed by John Mowbray,

yK Duke of Norfolk [vide Cokayne's Complete Peerage],



THE HOUSE OF CORNEVVALL. 3I

de Berwic. Richardus de Cornuhia, frater Edmundi Comitis Cormtbia;,
occisus s pic III a in villa de Berwic."

Again vol. i. p. 473 : " Edward (I.) got Berwic. There were xxv.M. and
seven C. Scottes slayne. At this siege was Syr Richard of Cornewall, a noble
Englishman, slain by a Fleming shoting a Quarel oute of the redde Haul,"
he was therefore almost thirty-four years of age when he died, and probably
husband of Joan Fitzalan.

By Beatrix De Fauquemont the Earl-King had no issue, but by Joan,
daughter of Sir Reginald de Valletort, he had an illegitimate family, consisting
of at least two sons,* Richard and Sir Walter, with apparently Sir Lawrence,
and as is affirmed two daughters, Isabella and Joan. The date of this prolonged
liaison cannot be determined. It was probably early in his career, but the
evidence adduced by authorities is slender, and their statements contradictory.
It seems, for example, uncertain as to whether Joan de Valletort was widow of
Sir Alexander, or Sir Andrew, Okeston when she is said to have been
mistress of Earl Richard, or whether after the Earl tired of her, she married
Sir Alexander, to whom she bore a son and successor. The Valletorts were
Norman. We find numerous references to them in Lysons, Carew, and
Gilbert's histories of Cornwall, while in Notes and Queries, 1875, there was a
prolonged correspondence concerning them, as is usual in such cases, bristling
with inaccuracies, among others that they were styled Counts. They, or
rather one of them, variously named Roger, Reginald, and Ralph, was summoned
as Baron of Hurberton or Harberton. In a printed pedigree of the family
of Edgecumbe (Earl of Mount Edgecumbe) we find a Hugh de Valletort, whose
daughter Eglina married OHver Champeronne, with a reference to Harl. MSS.
5185, quoted in Vivian's " Visitations of Devon." Also among old deeds at

* In a pamphlet by the Earl of St. Germans, entitled " The Origin of the Cornwallis Family,"
proof is advanced of another son, viz., Philip le Comwaleys, als Philip de Sancto Austolo (St.
Austell), e.g., " Papal Register in the Rolls Series — Indult. (dated March 30, 1248) at the petition
of the Archbishop elect of Lyons, to Philip, son of the Earl of Cornwall, Clerk, to hold an additional
benefice with cure of souls." (Papal Regesta. Innocent IV., vol. xxi., fol. 518, d.)

In 1301 licence was granted to this Philip to convey a messuage and 30 acres in Menkudel for
the maintenance of three Chaplains of the Chapel of St. Michael in St. -Austell. He became Archdeacon
of Winchester, 1294, and held the Prebend of Rintone in Lichfield Cathedral in 1303. In 1280
Archbishop Peckham deputed him to complete the Visitation of the Diocese of Exeter (Register
Peckham, fol. 256). In 1285 the Patent Rolls contain a safe conduct for Philip de Sancto Austolo,
Clerk, going to the Court of Rome. Similar letters were granted him in 1294, and also in r296, when
he was going abroad with Bishop Pontissara (Rot. Pat.. 24 Edw. I., m. r5 d.) He seems to have
held in plurality the benefices of West Meon, Hants, and St. Just, Cornwall, and mention is made of
his Nephews Walter and John, both in Holy Orders. He died in 1304, and is stated, on the high
authority of Prebendary Hingeston-Randolph, to have been a son of Earl Richard by Joan de
Valletort. That would point to the Earl's liaison having occurred prior to his marriage with Isabel
de Clare, indeed, while yet under age.



32 THE HOUSE OF CORNEWALL.

Mount Edgecumbe mention is made of Ralph Valletort of Maker, 1345 ; James
(X367 — 70) of Vautordispark in Sutton ; Richard of Maker, 1426 ; and John,
1433, of Milbrook. It is also stated in the above pedigree that a Ralph de
Valletort is said to have married Joan, daughter of Edmund Earl of Corn-
wall. This, as will appear, seems impossible, the more so because it is further
alleged, that their daughter Joan married Richard Champernonne. We note
however that a Ralph — query de Stonehouse ? — received a grant of land from
Roger de Valletort, and his son Thomas, in 1226, from Reginald and John
de Valletort. The following gives an outline of the Valletort descent :

Reginald de Valletort (temp. William II.), witness to a Charter of
the Monks of Plympton.

Ralph (temp. Hen. II.)

Roger, seized of Trematon Castle, held under the Earldom of Corn-
wall. He gave 100 marks for Hvery of the honour of that
Castle, 33 Hen. II., and answered for 42 Knights' fees for
the honour of Mortein (d. 5 John).

Reginald = Joan, daughter and co-heiress of Thomas Bassett, of
Hedendon. d. s.p. 30 Hen. III.

Ralph, brother of Reginald, d. 43 Hen. III.

Reginald, son of Ralph, in the ward of the Queen, d. s.p. 54
Hen. III.

Roger, brother of Ralph and Reginald, d. 18 Edward I., having
sold or surrendered nearly all his lands to Richard Earl
of Cornwall, to the detriment of his heirs, Henry de Pomeroy
and Peter Corbet,* whence a lawsuit compromised by the
mediation of the Black Prince.

This account does not supply us with Sir Reginald de Valletort, Baron
of Harberton, who married the heiress of Walter de Dunstanville by Ursula,
daughter of Reginald Fitz Henry, whose daughter Joan, widow of Sir A. Okeston
became mistress of Earl Richard. He is stated to have been Sheriff
of Cornwall, 5 Henry III. and Governor of Totnes Castle ; further, to have
held 59 Knights' fees mth the Manors of SOverton and Bideford in Devon.
We have moreover no record of the death of Joan de Valletort, and the legend
of her connection with Earl Richard does not appear to have come to the
* For Peter Corbett vide iufra — Chapter III.



THE HOUSE OF CORNEWALL. 33

surface until some three centuries after the event. Having regard to the
scanty records of the intervening period we might fairly expect discrepancies,
and they certainly abound.

We now come to the alleged issue of Earl Richard by Joan de VaUetort.
In the Harl. MSS., No. 154, fo. 75, we find the following :

" Richard, 2 son of K. John, King of the Romans, died at his Castle of