Central Provinces (India). Forest Dept.

Working plan for the forests of the Jubbulpore Forest Division, Northern Circle, Central Provinces for the period 1899-1900 to 1928-29 online

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WORKING PLAN



FOR THE FORESTS OF THE



JUBBULPORE FOREST DIVISION,



NORTHERN CIRCLE, CENTRAL PROVINCES,



FOR THE PKUIOD



1899-1900 to 1928-29.




HIl a babaD

PRINTKD AT THE PIONEER PRESS



1900




WORKING PLAN



FOR THE FORESTS OF THE



JUBBULPORE FOREST DIVISION,

NORTHERN CIRCLE, CENTRAL PROVINCES,



FOR THE PERIOD



1899 1900 to 1928-29.



drfection : Slips Nos 66 to 69 to the Working Plan Report lor thfe
Forests of the Jubbulpore Division.



'Page 4, paragraph 3 1
Against Block No. 31 (Umarpani)

ii 3 2 (Deogawan)

,, Total

Grand Total for district

Page 7, paragraph 34-^-
Against Sihora Range
Total of Column 2
Total of Sihora Column 4
Total of Column 4

Page 24, paragraph 91
Against Block No. 31 (Umarpani)

ii 3 2 (Deogawan)

Total

Grand Total for district



Mo. 66.



For



No. 67.



For



No. 68.



For



No. '69.



Against Block No. 31, Coupe I
,i Total in the last column
i, Block No. 32, Coupe i
,, Total in the last column
Total of Coupe : i

,, of Ihe last column ...
Grand Total under Coupe 'i,
of last column



-For



3



7,786

1,163

60,707

218,049



60,278

215,435
60,707

21 8,049



7,7*6

25/103
61,683



7-786

269

"1,162

5,202

12,922
l,683



acres



acres




f>



acres 're'ad 7,^800
, i, 60,723

i i>



'60,294



'60,723



read 7,806

-ii 'j'<54

i> 25, "9

'61,699



acres read 1,596
ii i, 7,800



i>
ii



12,938
61)699



October 1918.



A. ST. V. BEECHY,

'Offg. Conservator of Forests,

Northern Circle.



Govt. Press, Nagpftr . No. 1535, Consr. of P. 13-11-18 16*.



Extract from the Proceedings of the Officiating Chief Commissioner, Central
Provinces, in the Revenue Department, No. 4641, dated Nagpur, the
November 1900,



READ

Working-plan Report for the- forests of the Jubbulpore Forest Division.

READ ALSO

Letter No. U2-W. P., dated the i5th August 1900, from the Inspector-General of
Forests, to the Government of India.



RESOLUTION.



This Working-plan deals with all the forests in the Jubbulpore Forest Divi-
sion, it having been found necessary to abandon, after a short trial, the usual
procedure of one Working-plan for each Range or block of forests. These forests
constitute the Murwara, Sihora, Jubbulpore, Bargi and Dhanwahi Ranges, and
cover an area of 536 square miles, the general character of which is rugged and
hilly, except for a small tract of country to the east of the Mahanadi, which is
a more or less level plain. The soil varies in character from a loose sand to a
stiff black soil, but with a fairly fertile sandy loam predominating in the low-lying
localities. The climate is on the whole favourable to forest growth, though in the
cold weather night frosts occasionally do considerable damage to young trees in
low-lying localities.

2. The forests may be classed under four main types consisting chiefly of
(i) Sal (Sheora robusta], (2) Teak (Tectona grandis), (3) Mixed forests, and (4)
Bamboo (Dandrocalamus strictus). The sal is here at its western limit and is
confined to the Gondwana sandstone area ; it seldom exceeds 5 feet in girth
and generally begins to decay after reaching a girth of 4 feet; its reproduc-
tion is very poor, due to the fact that but few seedlings survive the cold weather
frosts. The teak is here at its northern limit and is confined to a few scattered
localities where the soil and climate is favourable to its growth. It usually
attains to a girth of about 3^ feet, after which it dies off rapidly. Reproduction
is extremely backward. The mixed forests are by far the most widely distri-
buted, and the reproduction is abundant wherever a sufficient depth of soil is
met with. The bamboo, though classed separately, actually occurs intermixed
in the teak and mixed forests, but in well defined lines. Its reproduction is all
that could be desired.

3. In addition to the Great Indian Peninsula, East Indian, Indian Midland
and Bengal-Nagpur Railways and the metalled roads radiating from Jubbulpore to
Mirzapur, Damoh, Seoni, Mandla and Kundam, the district is served by several
other metalled and fair-weather roads, which afford ample facilities for the trans-
port of forest produce. The existence of the Public Works Department Toll-
station on the ferry and fair-weather bridge at Gwarighat, no doubt adds to the
cost of moving forest produce to Jubbulpore along the road from Seoni, but no
general exemption from tolls can be made in favour of forest produce and the
whole question of the revision of rates will be considered separately. Other lines
of transport are the Mahanadi, Nerbudda and Gaur Rivers; but so far the
Nerbudda is the only one down which timber, &c., is rafted. Every effort will
be made fully to develop the facilities for transport afforded by these waterways,
and launching and catching stations will be established at convenient centres.
Something in the way of removing obstructions will also be attempted ; but
no very costly operations are to be undertaken. For the removal of forest produce
temporary fair-weather roads connecting the interior of the forests with one or
other of the main lines of transport, will also be constructed as required.



4. Gwarighat, the only large timber mart in the district, is practically the
port of receipt for Jubbulpore, whence large quantities of harra are exported to
Bombay, the Jubbulpore myrabolams being a special line in the London market.
Firewood, timber and bamboos, besides lac and harra, find a ready sale in the
larger towns, no less than 1,000,000 maunds of firewood being consumed in
Murwara alone. Charcoal was formerly largely used in Jubbulpore and in the
iron-smelting industry ; and should the present endeavours to revive the industry
prove successful, there will be a demand for all the fuel the forests in the
Division can produce.

5. The surrounding population is essentially agricultural and of Aryan
extraction, with Gonds, Kols, Bharias and other aborigines intermixed. Their
requirements are for the most part met from the extensive malguzari forests, and
their demands on the Government forests, except for grazing, are very small.

6. The principal object of the present plan is to improve the forests, which
until 1893 had been badly managed and considerably overcut. The whole area
will be divided into four Working-circles, in which the system of treatment will be
an improvement or selection felling, and in places, a coppice with standard felling,
according to the nature and density of the forest. In the sal areas, the treatment
will ultimately be jardinage. Areas capable of producing large timber, such as
the Machmacha, Khitoli, Sutri and Karela blocks, comprising an area of 32
square miles, will be worked exclusively for such timber.

A rotation of 30 years will generally be followed, though, as provided for in
the plan, a rotation of 15 or 20 years will be adopted according as the grazing
pressure or the nature of the forests dealt with requires. The Inspector-General
of Forests has, however, brought to notice that in the cases of the Lakhapateri and
Jalasur blocks, paragraph 94 of the plan, fixes the rotation at 30 years, while
paragraph 106 gives it as 15 years. This should now be rectified.

7. These forests are used to a considerable extent for grazing. Under the
provisions of the plan, at no time will the area closed to grazing exceed 86,800
acres, or 26 per cent, of the total area: 61,588 head of cattle are estimated to
graze in them ; and with the area open to grazing each year (303,172 acres), this
gives an average for the Division of 4*9 acres per head of stock.

8. Several of the blocks dealt with in this Working-plan have been under
special fire-protection for many years. In addition to these, each coupe as
felled over will be closed to grazing and specially protected. Other areas
that are essentially grazing grounds and incapable of being developed into
timber forests, may well be systematically burnt over each year, especially as
this will minimise the risk of fires spreading from them into other specially
protected areas.

9. The plan also provides for the treatment of the bamboo forests in the
Division. As all these forests flowered only 5 or 6 years ago, they cannot be
worked for 6 to 8 years to come. But as the currency of the plan extends over
this period, their exploitation has been provided for. Each Working-circle is
divided into one or more felling series of a workable size, each of which will be
felled over on a two years' rotation.

10. Other important products of these forests are harra and lac. An
enumeration survey of all the harra trees in the Division will be made, and an
estimate of the average yield will be framed on the lines indicated in paragraph 122
of the plan. Lac cultivation and its propagation also has been carefully
considered. Another product of these forests is katha or tannin. A single
Working-circle will be formed for this purpose, embodying all the forests in the
Jubbulpore and Damoh Divisions, and, if necessary, those in the Saugor and
Narsinghpur Divisions also.

n. The plan includes a scheme of forest roads to be constructed as funds
allow at an aggregate cost of Rs. 22,650. Provision is also made for an expendi-
ture of Rs. 52,500 on quarters for subordinates, officers, rest-houses and wells.



12. The revenue expected from the whole Division is estimated at Rs. 70,200,
and the annual expenditure at Rs. 51,400. The Officiating Chief Commissioner
now sanctions the plan, which will have effect from the ist November 1899.



ORDER. Ordered, that a copy of this Resolution be forwarded to the

Conservator of Forests, Northern Circle, Cental Provinces. Government of India in the

Commissioner, jubbuipore Division. Department of Revenue and

Deputy Commissioner, jubbuipore. Agriculture, for information and

Reporter on Economic Products to the Government of India. transmission to the Inspector-

General of Forests, and to the officers noted in the margin.

[True Extract.]
R. H. CRADDOCK,
Chief Secretary to the Chief Commissioner,
1 Central Provinces.



Secre toriat Preii, Ng p ur :- J. E. A* 21-1 i-1900- 7 s.



No. i J2-W.-P., dated Simla, the 1 5th August 1900.

From B. RIBBENTROP, Esq., c. I. E., Inspector-General of Forests to the Govt. of India,
To The Secretary to the Honourable the Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces.

In accordance with Article 88 of the Forest Department Code, I have the honour to
forward, for the orders of the Honourable the Chief Commissioner, a Working-Plan for the
forests of the Jubbulpore Division, received from the Conservator, Northern Circle, under
cover of his letter No. 3150, dated the 1 3th June 1 900, a copy of which is appended. I approve
of the proposals made for working these forests, and beg to recommend the plan for sanc-
tion with effect from the 1st November 1899.

a. A summary description of compartments would have made the report more com-
plete and easier to follow, besides furnishing useful data for future comparison ; but in view
of the provision under paragraph 130 and what is said in paragraph 3 of the Conservator's
forwarding letter the point may be waived.

3. Paragraph 75. I beg to refer you to paragraph 3 of my letter No. I43-W.-P.,
dated the 23rd June 1897, anc * to sav tnat t * ie remar ks therein made regarding the obstacle
to forest trade apply equally as well to the present case.

4. The index map referred to in paragraph 30 does not accompany the plan.

5. It is observed that in paragraph 94 the rotation for the Lakhapateri and Jalasur
Blocks of the Murwara Working-Circle is fixed at 30 years, whilst in paragraph 106 it is
given as 15 years.

No. 3150, dated Jubbulpore, the I3th June 1900.

From A. SMYTHIES, Esq..B. A., Offg. Conservator of Forests, Northern Circle,
Central Provinces.

To The Inspector-General of Forests.

In continuation of correspondence resting with your letter No. 73-W. P., dated the
nth May 1900, and in accordance with Article 88 of the Forest Department Code, I have
the honour to submit, herewith (in duplicate), for your remarks and for transmission to the
Chief Commissioner, the Working-Plan for the forests of the Jubbulpore Division.

a. With reference to paragraph 3 of your letter quoted above, I beg to say that, with
the exception of the Bargi Range, which I examined myself, the descriptions of compart-
ments have been so prepared that they would all have to be completely re-written in order
to adapt them for being printed, the compartments being in nearly every case portions of
blocks. I have not the time to re-write them and in consequence of the famine relief oper-
ations, it will be impossible to spare any officer for the work until October next. To have
waited until then before finally submitting the plan to you would have involved locking-up
the type for four months longer. You were, however, pleased to raise no objection to the
omission of the description of compartments in the case of the three plans already sanc-
tioned for the Narsinghpur and Hoshangabad Divisions, and it was for this reason that the
description was left out of the present plan also.

3. If you now consider a plan incomplete without the summary description of com-
partments, I will do my best to have the description for this plan prepared as soon as
possible and submitted to you later on in print. But I beg to invite perusal of paragraph
130 of the plan, from which you will observe that it is proposed to gradually draw up a
description of the forests, than which nothing could be more full and accurate, and I trust
that you will agree to omit from the printed plans the rough descriptions made preliminary
to the framing of the plans, subject to the condition that these preliminary descriptions are
filed in my office for ready reference whenever required.

4. The defect pointed out in paragraph 2 of your letter could not be corrected except
at the risk of dislocating the type of all the pages from 14 onwards. You will, however,
permit me to respectfully submit that in my opinion all the details on pages 15 and 16 and 18
and 19 are extremely important and are necessary to the proper control of exploitation and
export. Relegated to an appendix, they would escape notice or at least would not be referred
to as often as their importance requires. The details on page 20 have been entered there,
as I am hopeful that by giving them prominence, I may help towards the early removal of the
restrictions which the toll stations on the Nerbudda and Hiran rivers place on the export
of produce from the forests of the Bargi Range and from the Damoh District.

5- In compliance with paragraph 5 of your letter, I have printed the notifications in
question as Appendix V, and in compliance with paragraph 6, all extracts from demi-official
letters have been omitted from Appendix III.



Secretariat Press, Nagpur : A H.R., 10-10-190075.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



PAGE.
Introduction ... ... ... iii

PART I.



SUMMARY OF THE FACTS ON WHICH THE PROPOSALS ARE BASED.



CHAPTER I. DESCRIPTION OF THE TRACT DEALT WITH.

PAGE.

ARTICLE 1. Name and Situation ... ... ... ... i

2. Configuration of the Ground ... ... ... if).

3. Underlying Rock and Soil ... ... ... ib.

4. Climate ... ... ... ... ... 2

5. Agricultural Customs and Wants of the Population .., 3



CHAPTER II. COMPOSITION AND CONDITION OF THE FORESTS.

ARTICLE 1. Distribution and Area ... ... ... ... 4

2. State of the Boundaries ... ... ... ... 7

3. Legal position of the Forests ... ... ... ib.

4. Rights ... ... ... ... 8

,, 5. Composition and Condition of the Crop ... ... ib.

6. Injuries to which the Crop is liable ... 9



CHAPTER III. SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT.

ARTICLE 1. Past and Present Systems of Management ... ... 10

2. Special Works of Improvement undertaken ... ... 11

A. Protection from Fire ... ... ... ib.

B. Improvement Fellings ... ... ... ]2

G. Cultural Operations ... ... ... 13

.D. Construction of Roads ... ... ... 14

-# Buildings ... ... ... fa

3. Past Revenue and Expenditure ... ... ib.



CHAPTER IV. UTILIZATION OF THE PRODUCE.

ARTICLE 1. Marketable Products ; Quantities consumed in past years ... 15

,, 2. Lines of Export ... ... ... ... ig

., 3. Markets ... ... ... ... 20

j, 4. Mode of Extraction and its Cost ... ... ... 21

5. Net value of each Class of Produce ... ib.



CHAPTER V. MISCELLANEOUS FACTS.
ARTICLE 1. The Forest Staff ... ... 22

>' * Labour Supply ... ... j



PART II.



FUTURE MANAGEMENT DISCUSSED AND PRESCRIBED.



CHAPTER I. BASIS OF PROPOSALS.

ARTICLE 1. Working Circles how composed ; Reason for their P'ormation ...
2. Compartments ; Justification of the Sub-division adopted

3. Analysis of the Crop ; Method of Valuation employed



CHAPTER II. METHOD OF TREATMENT.
ARTICLE 1. Objects sought to be attained
2. Method of Treatment adopted

3. The Exploitable Age



ARTICLE



ARTICLE



1.
2.

3.

4.
5.



1.
2.
3.

4.



ARTICLE 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.
APPENDIX I.

II.
III.

IV.



VI.



VII.



VIII.



CHAPTER III. THE FELLINGS.

The General Working Scheme; the Rotation and Possibility ...

Period for which the Fellings have been prescribed

Fellings whether annual or periodical ; Method of their Allot-
ment

Nature of, and Mode of executing, the Fellings ; Forecast of
condition of Crop at their Conclusion

Tabular Statement of the Fellings to be made



CHAPTER IV. SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS.

Cleanings and Thinnings or other Improvement Fellings

Regulation of Grazing

Works of Artificial Reproduction

Improvements common to the whole Area

A. Protection from Fire

B. Roads

C. Buildings and Wells

D. Systematic Organisation of Forest Villages



CHAPTER V. MISCELLANEOUS.
Exploitation of Bamboos ...
Manufacture of Charcoal ...
Utilization of Minor Produce
Development of Water Transport
Control of the Workin g Plan
Revision of the Working Plan
Changes proposed in the Forest Staff
Financial Results of Proposed Working

Extract from Chief Commissioner's Resolution No. 102, dated
the 5th January 1893, fixing Rates of Royalty ...

List of Trees and Shrubs

Extract from Letter No. 221 W. P., dated the 8th December
1896, from the Inspector-General of Forests
Statement showing Grazing Pressure

Chief Commissioner's Notification No. 3554 of 12th June 1890
and No. 2823 of 21st June 1894 ...

Instructions on enumeration of harra trees and an estimate
of the average yield of type trees

Correspondence regarding proposed establishment of a katha
boiling Working Circle...

Opinions of Commissioner and Deputy Commissioner on this
Working Plan



PAGE.
23

ib.

ib.



23
ib.
24



24
28

ib.

ib.
29



36

ib.
ib.
37
ib.
ib.
38
40



40
41
ib.
42
ib.
43
ib.
ib.

45
46

48

49

52
53
55
57



Ill



INTRODUCTION.



A FEW words are necessary to explain the genesis of this Working Plan. In 1 894-95
measures were set on foot to regulate the management of the forests of the Jubbulpore
Forest Division in accordance with working plans. Hangers, termed for the purpose Work-
ing Plan Assistants, were appointed to prepare the plans under the immediate direction of
the Conservator. Plans for some of the forests were drafted and put at once into execution,
but they were not submitted for the sanction of higher authority. In December 1896, it was
found that the plans were too unpractical to be longer followed. They had parcelled out
each forest on the maps (not on the ground) into strips and patches according to an ocular
estimate of the density of the stocking made by walking once or twice through it, and only
those plots were assigned to be worked, which were from three-quarters to fully cropped ; all
areas less densely stocked were not to be touched at all by the axe, but were to be perpetually
grazed over. The result was that the patches of forest to be worked over were, as they appear-
ed on the maps, mere islands surrounded by theoretically unworkable areas and on the ground
it was impossible to separate them, for no one could say where the three-quarter crop ended
and the half-crop began, especially as in nearly all our forests the density of the crop varies
widely from point to point, often a dozen times within a single acre. Some coupes were
sold standing at so much per workable acre, but disputes soon arose as to what portions of
the coupes were workable in accordance with the working plan.

2. Another fatal objection to the working plans was that, as only patches here and
there were worked over in each coupe, it was impossible to keep grazing out of them except
by closing against cattle the entire coupe, i.e., also the areas which it was prescribed should
never be so closed. Thus in practice entire coupes were closed after exploitation. But this
was not all. Every one of the felling series extended over an enormous area (the coupes
being consequently very large) and as the coupes followed each other in unbroken successive
order on the ground, whole groups of villages found themselves of a sudden left without any
grazing grounds situated within practicable distance.

3. These drawbacks being represented to the Inspector-General of Forests, he gave his
authority to set aside the working plans in question and to substitute for them new ones
drawn up on an entirely different basis (see in Appendix).

4. The first plan taken in hand under these orders was that for the Bargi Range. The
new plan was submitted in draft to the Inspector-General of Forests and after approval was
printed off and was sent up by that officer to the Chief Commissioner. Experience, however,
soon showed that with the classes of forests we have to deal with in these Provinces, it would
be waste of time and labour, for the present at least, to have separate working plans for the
several forests and even ranges of a Division, for save as respects the constitution of the
felling series and coupes, one working plan would be bound to be a mere repetition of the rest.
Accordingly, with the support of the Inspector-General of Forests, the Chief Commissioner's
sanction was obtained to withdraw the Bargi Working Plan, which was still under considera-
tion, and to prepare a single one for the entire Division.

5. Accordingly, during the rains of 1897, with the help of Mr. R. S. Hole, Assistant
Conservator of Forests, who was placed on special duty for the purpose, a working plan was
drawn up for all forests of the Jubbulpore Division. As these forests had never had a
proper chance and we were only just emerging from the severe famine of 1896-97, it was im-
possible to tell whether the felling series and arrangement of coupes adopted were suited to
the normal circumstances of the district. It was hence considered advisable to keep back
the plan, but to put it forthwith into execution, so that its weak points might at once become
manifest under the test of experience. In the rains of ] 898 the plan was revised in the
light of the _experience gained, but it was again deemed safe to wait another year before
submitting it. The open season of 1898-99 revealed a few defects which could not be
detected after a single year's experience. These defects were removed during the spring and
rains of 1899. The whole plan was rewritten with the co-operation of Mr. R. C. Thompson,
Extra-Assistant Conservator, who was placed on special duty for the purpose. The figures
and data have been worked out by Messrs. Hole, Witt and Thompson ; for what pertains to
the prescriptions I alone am responsible. In connection therewith I have to acknowledge
valuable assistance and advice received from Mr. Hole, who is now the officer in charge of the
Division.

6. The plan, as it stands, has been in operation from the commencement of the open
season 1899-1900 and sanction is therefore solicited for starting it from 1st November 1899.

7. The opinions of the Commissioner and Deputy Commissioner on this working plan
are printed as Appendix VIII.

E. E. FERNANDEZ,

Offg. Conservator of Forests,
Northern Circle, Central Provinces.



PART I.



SUMMARY OF FACTS ON WHICH THE PROPOSALS ARE BASED.



CHAPTER I. DESCRIPTION OF THE TRACT DEALT WITH.
ARTICLE I. Name and Situation.

THIS report deals with all the forests of the Jubbulpore Forest Division, which con-
sists of the Government forests not only of the Jubbulpore Civil district, but also of that
part of the Maudla district which lies to the north-west of the Balai Naddi and is known as
the Dhanwahi Range.

ARTICLE 2. Configuration of the Ground.

2. Omitting the limited tract lying to the east of the Mahanaddi, which is open country,


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Online LibraryCentral Provinces (India). Forest DeptWorking plan for the forests of the Jubbulpore Forest Division, Northern Circle, Central Provinces for the period 1899-1900 to 1928-29 → online text (page 1 of 10)