Central Provinces (India). Forest Dept.

Working-plan report of the Ambara Range in the Chhindwara District of the Southern Circle, Central Provinces online

. (page 1 of 3)
Online LibraryCentral Provinces (India). Forest DeptWorking-plan report of the Ambara Range in the Chhindwara District of the Southern Circle, Central Provinces → online text (page 1 of 3)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


sz/' r

8 8

IC5C4 _



UC-NRLF




C E b?7 175




WORKING-PLAN REPORT



OF THE



AMBARA RANGE



IN THE



CHHINDWARA DISTRICT



OF THE



SOUTHERN CIRCLE, CENTRAL PROVINCES.



BY



J. A. McKEE, ESQ.,

-CONSERVATOR OF FORESTS, SOUTHERN CIRCLE,




a |j it r :

PRINTED AT THE SECRETARIAT PRESS.



1901.





Extract from the Proceedings of the Officiating Chief Commissioner, Central
Provinces, in the Re-venue Department, No. 16, dated Nag fur, the
January 1902.



READ

Working Plan Report for the forests of the Ambara Range in the Chhindwara
Forest Division.

READ ALSO

Letter No. J33-W. P., dated the 3rd September 1901, from the Inspector-General
of Forests, and enclosures.



RESOLUTION.



The plan has the approval of the Inspector-General of Forests and calls
for no special remarks. The Officiating Chief Commissioner sanctions its intro-
duction with effect from 1901-02.



ORDER Ordered that a copy of this Resolution be forwarded to the

Conservator of Forests, Southern Circle. Government of India, in the Depart -

Commissioner, Nerbudda Division. ment of Revenue and Agriculture, for

Deputy Commissioner, Chhindwara. information and transmission to the

Reporter on Economic Products to the Government of Inspector-General of Forests, and to

Indu - the officers noted on the margin.



[True Extract.]

H. A. CRUMP,
Chief Secretary to the Chief Commissioner,

Central Provinces.






^^r A,



No. I33-W. P., dated Simla, the 3rd September 1901.
From H. C. HILL, Esq., Inspector-General of Forests to the Government of India,

To The Secretary to the Hon'ble the Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces,
Revenue Department.

With reference to correspondence ending with this office letter No. 184-
W. P., dated the 23rd July 1897, I have the honour of forwarding, for the sanction
of the Honourable the Chief Commissioner, a revised Working Plan for the
forests of the Ambara Range in the Chhindwara District, received from the
Conservator of Forests, Southern Circle, under cover of his letter No. 1931 of the
1 5th instant, a copy of which is appended.

2. A plan for these forests was originally compiled and submitted in 1897 ;
but Mr. McKee, the then Conservator, after personally inspecting the range,
brought to notice so many inaccuracies and defects in the plan, that it was decided
to frame a new one. The report, as now amended, is not well drawn up and
contains several corrections in red ink which were pointed out by this office. A
list of some further errors noticed is attached.



3. I do not, however, think that there is any necessity either to re-print the
report or to prepare a new plan ; but I beg to suggest, with reference to para-
graphs 3 and 4 of the Conservator's forwarding letter, that paragraphs 26 and 32
should be revised so as to render their meaning plain.



t) 1 ) -4 f\



ERRATA.



I Paragraph 36. In the marginal heading " Forecast of condition of crop at the
conclusion of fellings" refers to paragraph 37 to which this remark should be added.

2. Paragraph 45, page 18. The cost of fire-protecting IO2'75 square miles at Rs. 12
per square mile comes to Rs. 1,233 and not Rs. 1,530; the total should be altered accord-
ingly as well as the last three figures against " Net surplus," " Grand total " and " Expendi-
ture under A."



No .1931, dated Nagpur, the ijth August 1901.

From ]. A. McKEE, Esq., Conservator of Forests, Southern Circle, Central Provinces,
To The Inspector-General of Forests to the Government of India.

With reference to your No. 53- W. P., dated 1st May 1901, returning the Working Plan
for the Ambara Range in the Chhindwara District, 1 have the honour to forward the
following explanations regarding the various points noticed by you.

2. Working Circle No. I includes 3 working-circles of the old plan, and each of these
has been treated as a felling series at the suggestion of Mr. Heade, late Officiating Conser-
vator of this Circle. This was done in order to reduce the number of working-circles, and
to provide produce for purchasers at convenient points over rather a scattered area, and I see
no objection to the proposal,

3. Paragraph 26 is not well worded. The Mandwi Block contains 2 coupes to be felled
in 1902-03 and 1903-04, respectively, and the Piparpani Block, 3 coupes to be felled in
1918-19, 1919-20, and 1920-21, respectively. Hence working-circle II has 5 coupes.
This should have been made clear; but it can be gathered from a perusal of the tabular state-
ment of fellings in paragraph 38.

4. In paragraph 32 it is intended to say, that should there not be a sufficient quantity
of 1 8" poles at the end of 20 years, as the result of coppicing, for the supply of the market,
the balance required can be obtained from the standards which were left at the beginning of
the rotation. There was evidently an idea on the part of the framers of this Working
Plan that a 20 years' rotation might not be sufficiently long to produce enough 18" poles.

5. The first sentence of paragraph 34 may be struck out.

6. With regard to paragraph 36 (c), the Forest Divisional Officer reports that this
was inserted for the guidance of the officials who will have to carry out the fellings, as they
are all untrained men; but the words " 60 per cent. " should be " 60 per acre." Were there
a good demand for the produce, the operation would be coppice with standards ; but, like
other Working Plans in these Provinces, for areas in which the demand for green fuel is very
small, the operation is termed an improvement felling. This, in several instances which have
come under my knowledge, I am convinced it is not.

7. Paragraph 39 may be omitted.

8. The typographical errors in paragraphs 41 and 42 have been corrected.

9. I now re-submit, with the above remarks, two corrected plans, and should you, after
further consideration, not be disposed to forward it to the Local Government, I would
recommend either that the present plan be re-printed, or that Mr. McCrie, who is now
Divisional Officer in charge of Chhindwara, be asked to draw up a new plan.



Secretariat Press, Nagpur : ]. E. A., 6-1-190875.



No. C-34i.

FROM

J. J. HOBDAY, ESQ., B. A.,

FOREST DIVISIONAL OFFICER,

Chhind-wara,

To

THE CONSERVATOR OF FORESTS,

SOUTHERN CIRCLE,

Central Provinces.

Chhind-wara, the i6th October 1900.

SIR,

I have the honour to forward a revised Working-Plan Report of the
Ambara Range based on the alterations suggested by Mr. J . A. McKee, Conservator
of Forests, Southern Circle, Central Provinces, who visited these forests in March
1898.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,
Your most obedient Servant,

J. J. HOBDAY,
Forest Divisional Officer.



Forwarded.



CHHINDWARA: ~\ R. A. B. CHAPMAN,

The \ith October 1900. ) Deputy Commissioner.



WORKING-PLAN REPORT OF THE AMBARA RANGE IN THE
CHHINDWARA DISTRICT, CENTRAL PROVINCES.



Area 184 Square Miles.



INTRODUCTION.

In 1896 a complete Working-Plan Report for the Ambara Range was com-
piled, but it was subsequently found that modifications to such an extent were
necessary for the proper working of the range that anew plan had to be prepared,
based on the proposals submitted in Conservator of Forests, Southern Circle,
Central Provinces, letter No. 4145, dated the ipth March 1899, to tne Inspector-
General of Forests. These modifications are embodied in the present report.

A reference to the accompanying map will show that the Ambara Range
adjoins the Sillewanighat and Uinreth Ranges and occupies the south-west corner
of the district.

The local demand is confined to the eastern portion of the range, particularly
those areas near the Nagpur-Chhindwara road. The plan has been arranged
to meet this demand.

The major part of the data for the plan has been collected by Mr. McKee,
Conservator, and by Mr. Hobday, Forest Divisional Officer, conjointly. For the
remaining portion of the data and for the compilation of the plan Mr. E. A.
Rooke, Forest Ranger, assisted.



PART 1.

SUMMARY OF FACTS ON WHICH THE PROPOSALS

ARE BASED,



CHAPTER I,
DESCRIPTION OF THE TRACT DEALT WITH.

1. The forests of the Ambara Range are situated in the Chhindwara District,

partly on the southern slopes and spurs of the Satpura

Name and situation. }.,. J . , . . r .. r . .1 XT

hills and partly on the plain extending into the JNagpur

country. It is bounded on the north by the Umreth Range ; on the east by the
Kanhan valley and various malguzari lands ; on the south by the Nagpur District
and the Berars, and on the west by the Betul District.

The nearest part of the range is within twenty miles of Chhindwara town,
and the nearest forests to Nagpur are about forty miles distant. The river
Kanhan flows through the northern portion of the range in an easterly direction
and crosses the Nagpur-Chhindwara road at Ramakona, from which point it becomes
floatable for timber and bamboos.

2. The height above sea-level varies from about 1,500 to 2,000 feet as the

forests extend from the plain country in the south up the

Configuration of the ground. . . _. . . . n n u ,.!_

ghats to the Chhindwara plateau. Practically all the

forests are on the spurs of the Satpura Range, with the exception of a few isolated
scattered blocks situated on more or less hilly ground in the south of the range.
All aspects are represented, but the general aspects are southerly. The country
is hilly and cut up by numerous ravines and nalas and is in consequence rather
inaccessible

3. The rock formation in the hills belong to the metamorphic and pl^tonic
Underlying rock and soil seHes - Trap prevails. Dykes of quartz are common

and are met everywhere. Limestone and latente are

found in varying quantities. The soil is either a reddish or black loam derived
from the disintegration of trap rocks and in most places intimately mixed with
trap nodules.



The following classes may be noted briefly :

(i) A black, sometimes moist, soil formed from decomposed trap and
vegetable or alluvial matter found throughout the trap formations.

(ii) A sandy loam, having a larger proportion of sand of a free composition.
It is generally found in the Kanhan valley and is especially adapted
for teak.

(iii) A sandy-m^arly soil with a very much larger quantity of sand than in
any other class. It is generally shallow and degraded from
exposure, basing a poor forest. Disintegrated quartz forms a large
feature of this class.

(iv) A clayey-laterite soil, stiff and not very fertile, supporting a stunted
badly grown forest of inferior species.

4. The climate is not quite uniform for all parts of the range. Below the
CHirate ghats it is a trifle more humid than above. The summer

is considerably warmer below the ghats and continues,

both above and below, from ist March to the break of the south-west monsoons,
which usually commence about the 2Oth June and terminate towards the end of
September. The average annual rainfall as obtained from the Central Pro-
vinces Gazette is 53'32 inches for the Sausar tahsil, in which sub-division almost
the whole range is situated. The winter lasts from November to February.

5. There are no special industries to be provided for, and though the areas
Agricultural customs and adjoining the Government reserves are for the most part

wants of the people. we u populated with an agricultural community, the

demand is mainly for

(a) beams, posts, and rafters for building ;

(b) wood for agricultural implements ;

(c) fuel, grass for thatching and pasture ;

(d) bamboos for buildings ;
( e) thorns for fencing ;

(/) fibres for ropes and minor products of flowers and fruit.
There has lately sprung up a commercial demand for teak poles owing to
the gradual exhaustion of the neighbouring private forests, which for many years
past have supplied large quantities of this material. The private forest area
still available within two miles of the perimeter of the Government reserves
contains 74,098 acres (Appendix B): in the south only are these private areas in
a more or less ruined condition.



CHAPTER II.
THE COMPOSITION AND CONDITION OF THE FORESTS.

6. The details are as follows :



Distribution and area.



Serial

num-
bers.


Names of Blocks.


Area
(in acres.)


Equiva-
lent in
square
miles.


Remarks.


1


Lohangi


5,58i


9


>


2


Tooti


4,4'S


7




3


Deogarh


3,77


6




4

S


Paraspani
Urdan Moordeye ... ... ,.,


3,987
1,081


6

2


Deogarh Sub-
Range, area
26,020 acres.


6


Khandsee ... ... .


5,305


8




7


Bhouwardo ... ... ...


",158


3




8


Barighat


7*3


I






Serial
num-
bers.


Names of Blocks.


Area
(in acres).


Equiva-
lent in
square
miles.


Remarks.


9


Bamla ...


5,389


8




10


Dhanora ... ... ...


8,768


4




ii


Mahulpani


6,388


10




12


Pata-Pipra


9,043


14




13


Moregondi


8,103


3




14
'5


Oeonala ... ...
Bundan ,.. ... ...


4,704
567


7
i


Dhanora S u b-
( Range, area
42,742 acres.


16


Changoba


1,011


3




i?


Sendurjana


3S 2


I




18


Murkawara ...


486


1




19


Jamlapani ... ... ...


SOS


I




20


Deghori ... ... ...


3,424


5




21


Gopalpur ... .., ...


8,499


3


1


22


Gajundoh ... ... ...


2,701


4




23


Sutki Putki


8,902


>4




23 (*)
24


Borepani village ... ...
Jobumlera ... ... ..


480
11,270


i

18


Murram S u fa-
Range, area
37, 132 acres.


25


Kondaree


1,883


3




26


Dhorasenur ... ... ..


416


l




27


Punchal-khapa ...


2,976


4


.


28


Umra ... ... ..


S,84S


9


-.


29


Sawajpani


1,241


a




3^


Dhoda Boregaon


198






3i


Kondur ... ... ..


C34


i




32
33


Waddah
Karwar ... ... ..


1,017
224


2


Pandurna Sub-
Range, area
n, 963 acres.


34


Chichghat unclassed forest


646


I




35


Mandwi ...


582


1




36


Mohi ... ...


634


I




37


Piparpani
Total of Range


941


I


J


117,856


l8 4



7. The boundaries are either natural or artificial. In the latter case cut
, . lines ^o to 40 feet wide are defined on the ground, and

State of boundaries. 111- , n i j j

at all salient points there are serially numbered wooden

posts surrounded by a cairn of boulders. The present state of the boundaries is
fairly good, but the posts have to be renewed occasionally, thus incurring an



annual expenditure over some part of the total length. The length of the artifi-
cial lines to be maintained is 374 miles with 2,816 boundary marks. As the
areas proposed for excision are not included in the plan, no boundary alteration
will be necessary hereafter.

8. The forests of the Ambara Range were gazetted reserved forest in Chief
Commissioner's notification No. 917 (c), dated the 24th
February 1879. The unclassed forests noted in paragraph

6 has been notified as a proposed reserve under Section 4 of the Forest Act in
Central Provinces Gazette Notification No. 2587, dated Nagpur, the igth July
1898.

9. During the last settlement no rights were found
to exist in or over any of these forests, nor have any been
acquired since.

Composition and condition io. The forests of the range are irregular and

of the crop. composed of a mixed tree growth of the usual species

found throughout the Central Provinces.

/** Teak is sometimes conspicuous, particularly in the villogoc of the Satpura hills.

Salai, however, is the predominant species. The forests as a whole are decidedly
of inferior quality, having suffered more than usual from the destructive influences
of beva and dhaya cultivation in past years. Over considerable areas they
have deteriorated almost beyond redemption and are now only fit for grazing.
The tree growth is stunted and inferior in species. The common type is an open
forest with the tree growth in groups consisting chiefly of coppice poles of recent
origin. Reproduction from seed, owing to the want of closure to cattle and
protection from fires, is poor.

The following types may be briefly indicated i

(1) The teak types differ according to its situation. In the Lohangi
felling series, where the teak is found growing in the valley of
the Kanhan River, its general character is better than elsewhere,
being more lofty and of larger girth, and in this situation also it is
mixed with other species, such as khair, saj and lendia. Further
south, in felling series Murram and Bhuli, the teak is generally found
growing with salai and dhaura for its companions, but principally
the former. In some parts of these areas, especially in Bhuli, the
teak is very plentiful, covering the crests and slopes of nearly all
the hills and spreading into valleys where these latter have escaped
the plough. The species is here growing on trap, and except in
regard to straight growth is not of such good character as that
growing on the crystalline soils. In the west of the range, although
teak is found nearly everywhere, it is as a rule very scattered and of
stunted character owing to the proximity to the surface of the
sheet rock, and in the scattered blocks on the extreme south of the
range it is of the same character although more plentiful. The
same remark is also applicable to the teak growing in the extreme
north of the range on the laterite formation, where it is generally
found mixed with tinsa.

(ii) The saj-lendia type is made up principally of saj, mahua, lendia,
dhaura, tendu, tinsa, aonla and jamrassi. This type is usually found
in low moist valleys or on fairly level areas in which the soil is
generally fair to good and well drained.

(iii) The tinsa type includes, besides tinsa, lendia, achar and palas. It is
found principally above the ghats on soil consisting of a rather
stiff well-drained laterite clay. The best growth is found on the
lower slopes and in the valleys where these latter have not been
cultivated, while the tops of the hills are lightly wooded, principally
with salai.



Bamboos are fairly abundant and of good quality in the north-east and north-
west of the range.

ii. Of the various species that are met with in the range a few of the more
important are given below :



Teak (Tectona grandis.)
Bija (Pterocarpus yfarsupium.) /W
Saj (Terminalia tomentosa.)
Bahera (Terminalia bellerica.)
Anjan (Terminalia f/rjuna.) /?
Harra (Terminalia fhebula.)(?
Dhaura (Anogeissus latifolia.)
Tinsa (Ougeinia dalbergioides.)
Mahua (Bassia latifolia.)
Lendia (Lagerstrcemia parviflora.)
Trndu (Diospyros yfelanoxylon.)/}?
Rohan (Soymida febrifugal]
Achar (Buchanania latifolia.)
Khair (Acacia /atechn.)
Salai (Boswellia serrata.)



*

y
'.



Halda (Adina cordifolia.)

Shisham (Dalbergia sari.)

Bihra (Chloroxylon swietenia.)

Sewan (G&elina arboreal)

Gulu or kubru (Sterculia urens.)

Dhamin (Grewia *b*folia.) .

Gubdi or gejra (Cochlospcrmum /ossyfium.) (y

Aonla (Phyllanthus/mblica.) r _ /

Jamrassi (El&odendron Roxburghii^

Palas (Butea frondosa.)

Moyen (Odina yfiodier.} Vr

Dhobin (Dalbergia paniculata.)

Ber (Zisypkustiujuba.) i/

Bas (Dendrocalamus strictus.)



12. Of these the two worst at present are fire and grazing, but dhaya
injuries to which the crop is cultivation in past years has probably been _ the most

liab!e - important cause of the present inferior condition of the

forests.

Climbers are of infrequent occurrence and do little damage in consequence.

CHAPTER III.
SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT.

13. Until very lately the forests in this range were under no sort of orga-
Past and present system of nised management ; unregulated fellings were permitted.

management. The demand for poles has not been heavy, and dry and

dead material has supplied all the demand for fuel.

Latterly a few localized fellings have been opened on the east of the range,
but owing to the very bad seasons (except the season 1896-97) and the almost
total stoppage of timber sales, the experiment cannot be said to have had a fair
chance. Beyond this small move towards locating the fellings no sylvicultural
improvements were attempted. There have been no special works of improvement,
but further improvements are provided for in this plan.

Grass and minor products have been and are sold on license or under lease,
whichever is more favourable.



14. Beyond a little climber-cutting by the regular establishment and recent
Special works of improve- protection from fire, no special works of improvement

have been undertaken.



ment undertaken.



Past revenue and expendi-
ture.



15. The following tables show the revenue ana
expenditure for the past three years :

Receipts.



Budget sub-heads.


1896-97.


1897-98.


1898-99.


Total.


Average.




Rs.


Rs.


Rs.


Rs.


Rj .


R-I fa)
R-II (a)
R-II (6)
R-II (c)
R-II (d)
R-II (*)

Rrll (h)

R.III







736
1,054
6,771
8'S


62
i 912

53

326

5,378

i,337
'33


328

1,365
803
279

5.293
1,669
214


390
3,277
2056
',659
17.442
3821
347


3
i 092
685
553
5814
i 274
116


R-V (c) .




*


...


37
i 420


24

554


61

1,974


20
658


Totals ..


9,376


It, 122


10,529


31,027


10,342



Expenditure.



Budget sub-heads.


1896-97.


1897-98.


1898-99-


Total.


Average.




Rs.


Rs.


Rs.


Rs.


Rs.


A-I(a)


...


18


173


191


64


A-H


1,533


1,021


1,075


3,629


1,210


A-VII (a)


44


36




80


87


A-VII (4)


t'S


...


160


275


93


A-VII (0


...


...


...


.,


...


A-VlII(a)


222


163


69


453


S.


A-VIIK/)


SIS


328


289


1,13?


377


A -V"><*;


4


4


96


104


34


B-I (0


1,668


8,398


'.997


6,063


2,021


B-lKO


119


157


130


406


>35


B.HK4 -,


...


...


...


...




Totals ...


4,220


4,124


3:9?9


12,333


4:IH



CHAPTER IV,
UTILIZATION OF PRODUCE.

1 6. The following table shows the quantities of produce sold and the

Marketable products : quants, number of animals that grazed during the past three

ties consumed in past years. years. For minor produce such as lac, mahua, achar,

&c., no data \ available, as the right to collect these ftpsold by auction for one

or two years at a time : &



Description of produce.


1896-97.


1897-98.


1898-99.


Total.


Average.


Timber ... C.1t.


42,671


10,016


9,398


62,085


20,695


Fuel ... ... Tons


906


768


62O


2,294


7<5S


Grass ,.. ... Tons


,743


262


7


2,023


674


Bamboos ... No.


128,373


39,698


35,707


203,77 8


67,926


Buffaloes ,.,


2,95'


2,643


2,619


8,213


2,738


Cows and bullock; .,.


36,768


31,830


39,872


101,470


33,833


Goats ... ...


2,774


2,121


2,184


7,079


2,360


Sheep


838


2,984


2,285


6,107


2,036



7

The general falling-off under all heads during 1897-1899 accounted for
, by the abnormal seasons the country has passed through. It is hoped that here-
^-|HaTKeilernand^outturn may be as they were in 1896-97.

17. The metalled road from Nagpur to Chhindwara
Lines of export. passes a]l along the east o f the range. The following

lines of export are also used :
A. Cart-roads.

(1) From Deogarh via Paraspani, Meyt and Ambara to Pandurna.

(2) From Ambara -via Bhajipani and Murram to Saosar.

(3) From Meyt via Borepani to Murram.

(4) From Jobii via Ghogri to Ramakona.

(5) From Kowria via Chimunkhapa, Kamptee, Deogarh, and Lohangi to

Mokhair.

(6) From Ambara via Bhimkhera and Punchal Khapa to Mohgaon.

(7) From Bhimkhera via Boyari and Umra to Mohgaon.

(8) From Betul via Teegaon and Pandurna to Nagpur.

B. Karas-tracks.

(9) From BaJghat via Chind/o, and Jobni to Ramakona. /&-

(10) From Lonadevi via Narainghat. Dhanora and Ambara to Pandurna.
(u) From Dukerjela via Sajnadho and Harranberdi to Sausar. (pa^x**^
(12) From Lawaghogri via Paraspani to the Kanhan River.

The Kanhan River, which runs through the north of the range, is occasionally
used in the rains for floating down timber^ to Kamptee.



1 8. The consumption of the forest produce is almost entirely local, but
Market Mohkhair, Sausar, Mohgaon, Kelod, Peepla, Teegaon,

Pandurna and Lodikhera, are to a small extent important
centres.

Mode of extraction and its 19- Produce is removed by purchasers under their

own arrangements in carts, karas loads and head-loads.

Floating down the Kanhan is only resorted to during the rains by Kamptee
merchants. Nothing has hitherto been exported departmentally.

The cost of felling and stacking of poles, including dressing of the stools,


1 3

Online LibraryCentral Provinces (India). Forest DeptWorking-plan report of the Ambara Range in the Chhindwara District of the Southern Circle, Central Provinces → online text (page 1 of 3)