Charles Anthon.

A system of ancient and mediæval geography for the use of schools and colleges online

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I. These may be subdivided into four classes, namely, 1.
Cities between the left or southern arm of the Druentia and the
places along the coast which have just been mentioned ; 2. Cit
ies between the right and left arms of the Druentia ; 3. Cities
between the right arm of the Druentia and the River Isara ;
4. Cities between the Isara and the Rhodanus.

II. The first of these classes will comprehend cities belonging
to the Oxybii, Suetri, Nerusi, and Vediantii ; the second, cit
ies belonging to the Albiosci, Avantici, and Bodiontici ; the
third, cities belonging to the Memini, Vulgientes, Vocontii,
Cavares, Seg-alauni, and Tricorii ; and the fourth, cities be
longing to the Allobroges, Tricastini, and Nantuates.

First Class. 1. Alba Augusta, now Aups. Not to be con
founded with Alba Helviorum, also called Alba Augusta, which



GALLIA. Ill

lay on the other side of the Rhone, in the territory of the Hel-
vii. 2. Antece or Anteis, now Ampuis. 3. Salince, a city of
the Suetri, taking its name from the salt springs in its neigh
borhood, now Castellane, in the Maritime Alps. 4. Vergunni,
the name of a city and people among the Alps, now Vergons.
5. Ectini, another Alpine city and people, now Estene. 6.
Glannativa or Glamnateva, mentioned by the writers of the
Middle Ages, now Glandeves.

Second Class. 1. Griselum, in the angle between the two
arms of the Druentia. There were medicinal springs in this
quarter, and hence the place was also called Aquce Griselicce.
An inscription, in which the words Nymphis Griselids occur,
was found at the baths of Greoulx, and therefore fixes the lo
cality. 2. Ren Apollinares, or simply Reii, to the northeast
of the preceding, now Riez. It was a Roman colony. The
earlier name was Albece or Albicece, and it was the capital of
the Albioeci. 3. Sanittum or Civitas Saniciensium, to the
northeast, now Senez. 4. Dinia or Civitas Dienensium, now
Digne, to the northwest of Sanitium.

Third Class. 1. Apt a Julia, the capital of the Vulgientes,
north of the Druentia, and east of Avenio. It is now Apt. It
was a Roman colony, as the latter part of the name indicates.
2. Cabellio, the capital of the Cavares, to the west of the pre
ceding, and lying on the Druentia ; now Cavaillon, on the Du
rance. 3. Avenio, in the angle between the Rhodanus and
Druentia, now Avignon. Some writers ascribe the origin of
Avenio to a colony from Massilia ; according to another opin
ion, it was the original capital of the Cavares, from whom it
was called Avenio Cavarum. It came into the hands of the
Romans at an early period of their dominion in Gaul, and a
Roman colony appears to have been established here. Upon
the downfall of the Roman empire in the west of Europe, it
was possessed by the Burgundians, and afforded to the king of
that people a secure asylum from the power of Clovis, king of
the Franks, who besieged it in vain. It subsequently became
subject, perhaps for a short time, to the Visigoths, certainly to
the Ostrogoths, Franks, and Saracens. The Saracens took it
twice, but could not retain it. 4. Carpentoracte, to the north
east of Avenio, now Carpentras, on the River Auzon. It be
longed to the Cavares, and became a Roman colony under



112 ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.

Julius Caesar. Valesius makes it identical with Ptolemy s
Forum Neronis Meminorum, but this is rather Forcalquier.
At Carpentoracte may still be seen the remains of a triumphal
arch of Domitius Ahenobarbus, who defeated here the Allobro-
ges and Arverni. 5. Arausio (kpavoiuv], now Orange, north
of Avenio. This was also a city of the Cavares. Mela and
Pliny call it Arausio Secundanorum, from the soldiers of the
second legion, who were settled there as colonists. On coins
the full title is Colonia Arausio Secundanorum Cohortis
XXXIII. Orange contains more Roman antiquities than most
other towns in France, and may vie with the cities of Italy.
The principal of these is a triumphal arch, called, by the in
habitants of the district, the Arch of Marius, but which is prob
ably of the age of Augustus. The Visigoths and Burgundians
got possession of this place on the downfall of the Roman empire,
and from them it passed to the Franks. In the Middle Ages it
was the capital of a principality, which, after passing through
different families, came to that of Nassau. The title of Prince
of Orange is still retained by the royal family of Holland.
6. Vasio, now Vaison, to the northeast of Arausio, called by
Pliny " Colonia et Caput Vocontiorum." It was the native
place of Trogus Pompeius.

7. Nffiomagus, called, also, Augusta, now Nion, northwest
of Vasio. 8. Mons Seleucus or Saleucus, to the east, the name
of a mountain and city where Magnentius met with his sec
ond defeat from Constantius. Many remains of antiquity are
still found here. The name of the spot, as given by Ukert, is
La batie Mont Saleon. 9. Dea Vocontiorum, now Die, to
the northwest. A Roman colony was settled here, with the
title of Colonia Dea Augusta Vocontiorum. 10. Valentia, to
the northwest, now Valence. It was situate on the Rhodanus,
a short distance below the junction of the Isara with that stream.
It was the capital of the Segalauni or Segovellauni, and is
mentioned by Ptolemy as a colony. In the time of the later
western emperors it was a place of considerable strength, and
afforded a refuge to Constantine, who had assumed the purple
in Britain, and was fruitlessly besieged here by Sarus the Goth,
whom Stilicho had sent against him. Jovinus, another usurp
er, sought refuge here, but the town was taken by the Visigoths,
who, under their king Ataulphus, had taken part against him.



GALLIA. 113

It was afterward subject to the Burgundians, and passed from
them to the Franks. In the Middle Ages it formed part of
the kingdom of Aries, and was the capital of Valentinois, a
district of Dauphine.

On the eastern side of the River Tricus or Tracus, now the
DraCj which flowed into the Isara just below Gratianopolis,
now Grenoble, dwelt the Tricorii. Among their cities, contin
uing our enumeration of those composing the third class, we
may mention, 1. Gratianopolis. In the " Theodosian Table,"
and in the " Notitia Imperii," it is designated by the name of
Cularo. Inscriptions, which have been dug up, speak of the
fortifications and the edifices within the town, which were
erected by the emperors Dioclesian and Maximian, from whose
assumed designations of Jovius and Herculius two of the gates
were named Port a Jovia and Port a Herculea. In the fourth
century the name Gratianopolis was given to the town, in
compliment to the Emperor Gratianus ; and this name grad
ually superseded the old one, Cularo, and was the origin of the
modern one, Grenoble. In Cicero s time, Cularo was a frontier
town of the Allobroges, to which tribe the Tricorii appear origin
ally to have belonged. 2. license Castrum, to the southeast of
the preceding, the site of which, according to Durandi, is to be
sought in the vicinity of either Oze (called in the Middle Ages
Ossis) or in that of Huez. 3. Catorissium, to the northeast,
now, according to Reichard, Petit Chat. 4. Caturigce, called,
also, Caturigomagus or Catorimagus, to the southeast of the
preceding, near the Druentia. It was the capital of the Catu-
riges, and is now Charges. 5. Eburodunum or Ebrodunum,
now Embrun, to the northeast of the preceding, on a mount
ain, the roots of which were washed by the Druentia. In the
" Notitia Civit. Prov. Max. Sequan." it is called Castrum
Ebredunense. This place obtained various privileges from the
Roman emperors.

Fourth Class. 1. Vienna, now Vienne, on the Rhodanus,
and the capital of the Allobroges. This place was already in
existence in the time of Caesar, who makes mention of it in
his commentaries. Ptolemy writes the name Ovievva, which
is also the orthography of Strabo, while in the Peutinger Ta
ble it is written Vigenna ; this last, however, is very probably
a mistake. It was a Roman colony, and the rival of its neigh-

H



114 ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.

bor Lugdunum, or Lyons. In the civil war at the close of
Nero s reign, it embraced the party of Galba, from whom it re
ceived many honors. Tradition fixes Vienna as the place of
Pilate s banishment after he had been displaced from his gov
ernment of Judaea, and a Roman structure, still standing, is
popularly called his tomb. The people of this place appear to
have been great admirers of the epigrams of Martial, which has
been taken as an indication that literature was cultivated among
them. Martial gives to Vienna the epithet " vitifera" (vine-
bearing), and the vineyards on the Rhone, immediately oppo
site, still produce the Cote Rotie, one of the finest of the French
red wines, while the hills around Vienne, on both sides of the
river, are covered with vineyards, which produce abundance of
good red wine. 2. Geneva, now Geneve, as the name is writ
ten in French, or Genf, according to the German orthography,
while in English we still call it Geneva. It was situate at
the southwestern extremity of the Lacus Lemanus, or Lake of
Geneva, where the Rhodanus issued from it, and on the south
ern bank of the stream. The place is mentioned by Csesar,
who speaks of it as the farthest city of the Allobroges in this
quarter, and close to the confines of the Helvetii, with whose
territory it was connected by a bridge across the Rhodanus.
Modern Geneva occupies both banks of the stream, though the
larger portion of the city is still on the southern side. It is
somewhat surprising that, down to the time of the "Itinera
ries" and the " Theodosian Table," no one of the geographical
writers subsequent to the time of Caesar makes any mention of
the place. By the writers of the Middle Ages it is often allud
ed to, but under the name of Genana, Jenna, &c. 3. Tarna-
ja, called, also, Acaunum, now St. Maurice, on the Rhone.
4. Octodurus, now Marti g-ny or Martinach. 5. Centronum
Civitas, called, in the Notitia, Darantasia, the capital of the
Centrones, on the Isara, now Montiers, on the Isere.

Islands belonging to Gallia Narbonensis, and lying 1 in the
Sinus Gallicus.

I. Blascon (77 BAaawv), now Brescon, belonging to the Vol-
CSB Areoomici, and not far from Agatha, and the mouth of the
Arauris, or Herault.

II. Metina, lying anciently, according to Pliny, in the mouth



GALLIA. 115

of the Rhone, " in Rhodani ostio." As, however, he gives the
river three mouths, and as the island is not any further men
tioned, its position can not be determined with certainty. Man-
nert is in favor of identifying it with the small island of Jama-
tan, which, along with two others, lies in front of the eastern
mouth of the Rhone.

III. StoBchades (ai Sro^afcf vrjaoi), now Isles tfHieres, be
longing to the territory of the Salyes, and lying in a southeast
direction from Telo Martius, or Toulon. The Greek name has
reference to their being ranged on the same line, or in a row
(from <7TOi%o, " a row"). They received this appellation from
the Massilians, who colonized some of them. Strabo and Ptol
emy make the number to have been five, three large and two
small, but give the names of only three, Prate, now Parque-
rolles ; Mese or Pomponiana, now Portcros ; and Hypcea, now
du Levant or Titan. The two smaller ones Mannert thinks
are the modern Ribandas and Bageaux. Mela comprehends
under the name of Stoechades all the islands along the coast
of Gaul from Liguria to Massilia. Ammianus Marcellinus
places them near Nicaea and Antipolis. Dioscorides calls these
islands Sr^ddfef, and Apollonius Rhodius, Aiyvarideg, from their
being inhabited by Ligyans, who, as before remarked, are the
same with the Salyes. Tacitus styles them Massiliensium
insulce.

IV. Planasia, called, also, Lerina, now St. Honorat, near
Antipolis.

V. Leron (r\ A?ypwv), now St. Marguerite, also near Antipo
lis. All the islands in this quarter, including the Stoechades,
&c., were held by the Massilians, who fortified them against
the incursions of pirates. On the island of Leron they erected
a temple to the hero Leron, after whom the island was named.

2. AQUITANIA.
(A.) NAMES.

I. THE name Aquitania, as we have already seen, was ori
ginally applied to the southwestern corner of Gaul, from the
Garumna to the Pyrenees, but was afterward, in the time of
Augustus, extended to that portion of Celtic Gaul compre
hended between the Garumna and Ligeris.

II. According to Pliny, the earlier name of Aquitania proper



116 ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.

was Armorica, a Celtic appellation, denoting a region border
ing on the sea, and derived from the Celtic words ar mor, " on
the sea."

OBS. Ukert thinks that Pliny is here in error, the term Armorica properly de
noting the tract of country along the Atlantic, between the mouth of the Ligeris
and that of the Sequana. Mannert, on the other hand, defends the correctness
of Pliny s remark. According to Mannert, the Gauls gave the name of Armor
ica to all the country on the coast of Gaul, as a general appellation ; and as the
Romans before Caesar s time knew no other coast of Gaul but that of Aquita-
nia, he supposes that they considered the term Arrnorica to apply in a special
sense to this whole country, and he even thinks that the name Aquitania is
nothing more than a Latin form of the word Armorica.

(B.) EARLY AND SUBSEQUENT HISTORY OF AQUITANIA.

I. THE original inhabitants of Aquitania proper are supposed
to have been of Iberian origin, and distinct from the Celtic
race. The names of places among the tribes of Aquitanian
origin, therefore, are in the Iberian form, and not a single one
of such places had a Celtic appellation.

II. Still, however, we must not suppose that, even in Aqui
tania proper, there were not some tribes of Celtic origin, as the
names of their towns denote. These were, however, compara
tively very few in number, and the most important one appears
to have been that of the Bituriges Vibisci.

III. Caesar did not go into Aquitania, but his lieutenant, the
younger Crassus, made an incursion into it. The country,
however, was not finally subjugated until the year 28 B.C.,
when Augustus sent Marcus Valerius Messala to conquer it.
The poet Tibullus accompanied Messala in this expedition,
which he has commemorated in his poems.

IV. Under the reign of Honorius, the Visigoths, after rava
ging Italy, passed into Gaul, and took possession of Aquitania,
which they kept until Clovis, king of the Franks, defeated
them in a great battle near Poictiers, A.D. 507, and killed their
king, Alaric II. Aquitania then became part of the monarchy
of the Franks, but under the weak successors of Clovis it was
detached from it again, and given as an appanage to Charibert,
a younger son of Clotarius II.

V. At a later period, Aquitania underwent another change
in its southern limits. The Vascones, a Spanish people, find
ing themselves hard pressed by the Visigoths, crossed the Pyr-



GALLIA. 117

enees, and settled in the southern part of Aquitania, which
from them took the name of Vasconia or Gascony, which it has
retained ever since, while the more northern parts of the same
province continued to be called Aquitaine, and afterward, by
corruption, Guienne.

(C.) TRIBES OF AQUITANIA.

THE tribes of Aquitania, in the extended sense of the name,
may be divided into two great classes, namely, 1. Tribes be
tween the Pyrenees and Garumna, and, 2. Tribes between the
Garumna and the Ligeris.

1. Tribes between the Pyrenees and Garumna.
(a) Larger Communities.

I. Tarbelli (Tap6eAAoi), on the Atlantic coast, extending from
the Pyrenees to the territory of the Bituriges Vibisci, who dwelt
around the mouth of the Garumna. They occupied what would
now correspond to the departments of the Basses Pyrenees and
Landes.

II. Auscii (K.VOKIQI), between the Aturis and the Garumna.
Their country would correspond now to portions of the present
departments of Hautes Pyrenees^ Gers, &c. Mela calls them
the most renowned of the Aquitani, " Aquitanorum clarissimi
sunt Auscii ;" and Strabo calls their country a beautiful one ;
Kakrj 6e Kal rj rtiv Avoniuv.

III. Bituriges Vibisci (Birovpiyes ol OwdtcKot), called by Stra
bo IOOKOI, and by Pliny " Bituriges Liberi, cognomine Ubisci"
a large and powerful people of Celtic origin, on both sides of
the Garumna, near its mouth. They dwelt, therefore, in what
would be now the country around Bourdeaux, in the depart
ment of Gironde. The Boii, whom Ausonius first mentions
in this quarter, dwelt still nearer the mouth of the river, and
the Vasates and Nitiobrlges occupied small tracts of country
along the left banks of the Rhodanus. These three last men
tioned tribes were also Celtic ones.

(b) Smaller Communities.

Of these the most worthy of mention were the following:
1. Convene, on both sides of the Garumna, at the foot of the
Pyrenees. They were a mixed race of deserters and robbers,



118 ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.

and were finally settled by Pompey in the town of Lugdunum
Convenarum, now St. Bertrand. 2. Bigerrones, between the
Tarbelli and Convense. 3. Elusdtes, to the northwest of the
Auscii. Their chief city was Elusa, now Eauze, on the Ge-
lize, in the department of Gers. 4. Cocossdtes, called by Pliny
Cocossates Sexsigndni, dwelling in what is now the neighbor
hood of Chalosse, between Dax and Mont de Marsan. 5. Ono-
brisates, dwelling in the vicinity of the modern Nebousan.
6. Tarusdtes, around what is now Tursan, in the department
of Landes. 7. Vasdtes, called by Csesar Vacates, and the same,
probably, with the Basabocades of Pliny. Their territory lay
on the left bank of the Garumna, and corresponded to what
used to be Bazadois.

2. Tribes between the Garumna and Ligeris.

(a) Larger Communities.

I. Pictones (ULKTOVE^), called by Ammianus Marcellinus Pic-
tavi, dwelling immediately south of the Ligeris, in the lower
part of its course. Their territory answered to what is now
the department of La Vendee, and the southern and western
parts of the department of Loire inferieure, the department of
Deux Sevres, and the southern part of the department of May-
enne et Loire. In other words, their territory corresponded to
what was formerly Poitou.

II. Bituriges Cubi (BiTvpiyec; oi Kovdoi), dwelling to the
northeast of the preceding, in what is now the departments of
Vienne, Indre, and Cher.

III. Santones (Sdvrovot), to the north of the Garumna, near
its mouth, now the departments of Charente inferieure and
Charente superieure.

IV. Lemovices (AepodiKeg), to the east of the Pictones and
Santones, in what is now the department of Haute Vienne,
formerly Limosin.

V. Arverni ( Apovepvoi), to the southeast of the preceding.
They occupied what is now the department of Coneze, and
also those of Haute Vienne, Creuze, and Puy de Dome.

VI. Petrocorii (HerpoKopioi), to the southwest of the Lemo
vices, in what used to be called Perigord, but is now the de
partment of Dordogne.



GALLIA. 119

VII. Cadurci (Kadovpitoi), to the southeast of the preceding,
in what is now the department of Lot.

VIII. Ruteni ( POVTTJVOL), to the southeast of the preceding,
in what was formerly Rouergne, but what answers now to
portions of the departments of Lot, Tarn, and Aveiron.

(b) Smaller Communities.

The most important of these were, 1. Nitiobriges^ on both
sides of the Garumna, but especially on the northern side.
Their territory answered to what is now the eastern portion of
the department of Lot et Garonne, and the southwestern portion
of the department of Lot. 2. Gabali or Gabales (Ta6aXel$), to
the east of the Ruteni. They were a mountaineer race, and
principally occupied in working silver mines. Their country
answered to portions of the departments of Aveiron, Lozere, and
Cantal. 3. Velavi (Ove^aiot), called by Csesar Vellauni, to
the northeast of the Gabali, and at one time under the domin
ion of the Arvemi, as we are informed by Caesar and Strabo.
They dwelt among the Cevennes (Mons Cebenna), in the mod
ern Velay.

(D.) CITIES OF AQUITANIA.

THESE may be divided in the same manner as the tribes,
namely, 1. Cities between the Pyrenees and the Garumna,
and, 2. Cities between the Garumna and the Ligeris.

1. Cities between the Pyrenees and Garumna.

Among the Tar belli we find, 1. Lapurdum, now Bayonne,
in the Tractus Lapurdensis, now Labour. 2. Carascc, to the
southeast of the preceding, called by Csesar Garites, now Ga-
ris. 3. Beneharnum, to the northeast of the preceding, now
Lascar. 4. Aquce Tarbellicce or Augusta, on the coast, north
west of Lapurdum, now Dax. 5. Sibusates, to the northeast
of Lapurdum, now Sobusse. 6. Atura, called, also, Vicus Ju-
lii and Aturres, situate on the Aturis or Adour. It is now
Aire. 7. Boii or Boates, in the territory of the Boii, now Tete
de Buck. The resin furnished by the pines in this district ob
tained for the Boii the appellation of " Piceos Bows."

Among the Bituriges Vibisci we find, 1. Bur di gala (Bovp-
SiyaXa), now Bourdeaux, on the Garumna. It was an import-



120 ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.

ant place in the time of Strabo, who mentions it as the chief
trading place of the Bituriges. He describes the town as situ
ate Xnwodahd-T q ~ivi, which D Anville interprets as meaning a
place up to which the sea (or tide) flows. The importance of
Burdigala is shown by the circumstance of its being made the
capital of Aquitania Secunda. Ausonius, a Latin poet of the
fourth century, himself a native of this place, has left a de
scription of it in his poem Clarce Urbes, or Ordo Nobilium
Urbium, and describes it as " renowned for wine, and streams,
and the manners and talents of its inhabitants." Under the
Romans, Burdigala was not the scene of any important his
torical event, except the assumption of the purple by Tacitus,
in the reign of Gallienus, in the third century. It derives its
reputation rather from the zeal with which literature was here
cultivated. 2. Noviomagus, to the northwest of Burdigala ?
now Castillon, according to Mannert ; but, according to Rei-
chard, Castelnau de Medoc. 3. Serio, to the southeast of Bur
digala, now Rions. 4. Varadetum, to the northeast of Burdi
gala, now Caraye.

Among the Vasates we find Vasatce, now Bazas, the chief
city of this tribe ; among the Elusates, the city ofElusa, called
by Mela Elusaberris, now Eauze, the capital of this commu
nity ; among the Auscii, the city of Climberris^ or Augusta
Ausciorum, now Audi, their capital ; among the Bigerrones,
their chief city Turba, called in the Notitia Civitas Turbo,
cum castro Bigorra, now Tarbes ; and Aquce Onesiorum, with
its baths, now Barreges ; among the Convenes, the city of
Lugdunum Convenarum, now St. Bertrand, already mention
ed ; Crodunum, now Gourdan, on the upper Garumna ; Aquce
Convenarum, now Bagneres; and Aginnum, now Agen, on the
right bank of the Garumna.

2. Cities between the Garumna and Ligeris.

Among the Pictones we find, 1. Limonum, called, also, Pic-
tavi, and now Poitiers. It was probably the capital of the
tribe. In the Peutinger Table it is called Lemuno. Upon the
downfall of the western empire this city repeatedly suffered.
It was pillaged, A.D. 410, by the Vandals, and subsequently
came into the hands of the Visigoths, who extended their do
minion over all the countries south and west of the Loire. In



GALLIA. 121

the subsequent invasion of the Visigothic kingdom by Clovis,
the vicinity of Poitiers was distinguished by the first of the
three great contests that have rendered it the most remarka
ble battle-field of France. Alaric, king of the Visigoths, was
defeated and killed by Clovis at Vougle, the same with Vouille,
a village on the River Auzance, a few miles west of Poitiers.
In A.D. 732, the Saracens were defeated here by Charles Mar-
tel, and western Europe was thereby saved from the Moham
medan yoke ; and at a later period the memorable battle was
fought here between the English and French. 2. Agesinates,
the capital of a tribe of the same name, dwelling on the very
coast. It is now Lusignan. 3. Rauranum, to the southwest
of Limonum, now Raum. 4. Ratiatum, in the northwestern
corner, at the mouth of the Ligeris, now Machecou. The pa-
gus Ratiensis is Le pays de Retz.

Among the Santones we have, 1. Mediolanum, afterward
Santones, now Saint es. It was the capital of the tribe.

2. Santonum Portus, now Tonnay-Charente, near Rochefort.

3. Sesuvii, now Soubise. 4. Iculisma, now Angouleme.
5. Tamnum, now Mortagne. 6. Novioregum, to the north
west of the preceding, now Roy an.

Among the Petrocorii we find, 1. Vesunna, afterward Pe-
trocorit, now Perigueux. A tower, part of the remains of the
ancient city, is still called Visonne, an evident modification of



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