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Tarifa, at a spot called Balonia. Further on was Mellaria,
another place where the salting of fish was carried on, now
Torre de la Penna, where the same business is still pursued.
Sertorius had a naval battle with Cotta off this place.

We now come to the extreme southern point of Spain, and
begin a new enumeration of the places on the remaining portion
of the coast of Baetica, with, 1. Traducta, the modern Tarifa.
This place owed its origin to the Romans, who transported hith
er (whence the name of the settlement) the Inhabitants of Ze-
las, a town in Africa, near Tingis, and, adding some colonists of
their own to the number, gave the place the name of Julia Tra-
ducta, or Joza (this last term being the corresponding Punic
one for Traducta). 2. Portus Albus, or the White Haven, now
Algesiras. The promontory of Calpe follows next, the mod
ern Gibraltar, on the ancient and present names of which we
have already made some remarks. Calpe and Abyla (the lat
ter lying opposite, in Africa) were called by the ancients the
Pillars of Hercules, and the strait between them was termed
Fretum Gaditanum or Herculeum, now the Straits of Gibral
tar. The ancients fabled that Hercules separated with his
hands the mountains of Calpe and Abyla, and that the sea,
rushing in upon the Mediterranean, then a small lake, formed
the present body of waters there ; that the hero, moreover, ei
ther erected columns on these two mountains, or else that the
mountains themselves were regarded as monuments of his prog
ress westward, and beyond which no mortal could pass. The
Straits of Gibraltar are about twelve leagues in extent from
Cape Spartel to Ceuta point, on the African coast, and from
Cape Trafalgar to Europa point, on the coast of Spain. Their
width at the western extremity is about eight leagues, but at
the eastern extremity it does not exceed five.

3. Carteia, to the northwest of Calpe, at the head of a gulf
setting in between Portus Albus and Calpe. The ruins of this
place exist, according to Gosselin, under the name of Rocadillo.
Mariana erroneously seeks to identify Carteia with the modern
Tarifa. The place was of Phoenician origin, but fabled to have
been built by Hercules, and hence called also Heraclea, accord
ing to some. Bochart makes the Phoenician name to have been



HlSPANIA. 47

at first Melcartheia, " City of Hercules" (thus agreeing with
the Greek tradition), shortened afterward to Carteia. This
place was one of great trade, and was by many of the ancients
regarded as the Tartessus of the Phoenician navigators. The

O O

error appears to have arisen from confounding the name of Car-
pessus with Tartessus, Carteia having been also called Carpes-
sus, probably from the Phoenician carphesa, " a shell," because
shells of a very large size were found here, as Strabo informs
us. 4. Suel, northeast of Carteia, another Phoenician settle
ment, now Fuengirola. Bochart derives the name from the
Phoenician sual, " a fox," in allusion, probably, to the large
number of these animals in its vicinity. 5. Maldca, above
Suel, at the mouth of a river called also Malaca. This place
is now Malaga, the principal sea-port in the province of Gran
ada. The modern name of the river is the Guadalmedina, a
mere brook in summer, but a considerable stream in winter.
Malaca was a place of great antiquity, and claims to have boon
founded by the Phoenicians eight or nine centuries before our
era; and the name is sought to be deduced from the Phoenician
malcha^ " royal," to intimate the estimation in which they held
the place. But of this high antiquity there is no evidence,
and Humboldt says that Malaca is a pure Basque word, sig
nifying " the side of a mountain." Malaca was the great sta
ple-place for the sale of all commodities from the interior, as
well as of foreign imports. The Romans made it a rnunicipium
and confederate city.

6. M&noba or Mcenaca, which some make to have been the
same with Malaca, though without good reason. It is now
Velez-Malaga, on the River Velcz. 7. Saxetanum, famed for
its salted fish, is now Motril. Probably the same place with
Sexti Firmum Julium. 8. Abdera, a Phoenician settlement,
now Adra. 9. Murgis, now Almeria ; according to some, the
eastern limit of Bcetica, though this is more correctly to be
fixed at Baria, now Varea, some distance above, on the coast.
The Charidemum Promontorium^ between Murgis and Baria
is now Cape Gata.

2. Cities in the Interior.

1. Cities between the Anas and Batis.
1. ILlpa or Ilipula, northeast of Onoba, on the River Urius,



48 ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.

or Tinto. It is now Niebla. 2. Italica, east of Ilipa, on the
Baetis. A municipium founded by Scipio, in order to settle
therein his veteran soldiers. It was the birth-place of the em
perors Trajan and Hadrian. The ruins still exist at Sevilla la
Vieja. 3, Itipa, or Ilipula, called, for distinction sake from the
one just mentioned, Ilipula Magna, on the Bsetis, northeast of
Italica, and just below the junction of the Singilis. Here Scipio
obtained a victory over the Lusitani. It is now Pennaflor.
4. Corduba, higher up on the Bsetis, now Cordova. It was the
capital of Bsetica, and a place of great trade, the river being
navigable for boats up to this point. According to Strabo, the
first Roman colony sent into Spain was established here by
Marcellus, A.U.C. 600. The place itself, however, was of
Phoenician origin, having been founded under the name of Kar-
tabah. Both the Senecas and also the poet Lucan were born
here. It was also the seat of a Conventus, to which the great
er part of the Turduli, on the north and south of the river, be
longed. Finally, the place had the honor of receiving a patri
cian colony, a later Marcellus having transferred hither a num
ber of poor but noble Romans, and having divided among them
the property of the richer Pompeians. Hence the place was
also called Colonia Patricia Cordubensis.

5. Mirobriga, north of Corduba, on the other side of Mons
Marianus, and in the district of Bseturia, a mountainous coun
try, abounding in strong positions. Mirobriga is now Capilla.
6. Sisdpo Veins, to the southeast of the preceding ; and Sis-
apo Nova, to the northeast. Both these places were remark
able for their rich silver and cinnabar mines. They are now
Almadan and Guadalcanal. In the Itinerarium Antonini,
the latter is called Sisalone, an evident corruption of its true
name. 7. Illiturgis, or Iliturgi, to the northeast of Corduba,
now Andujar del Vejo. This was a large and important place
during the first and second Punic wars. It was destroyed by
the younger Africanus, but rebuilt, 197 B.C., under the name
of Forum Julium. 8. Castulo, also to the northeast of Cordu
ba, now Caslona, on the Gaudalimar, a municipium, with the
Jus Latii, large of size, and situate in a very romantic country,
near the silver mines of the Saltus Castulonensis. It was also
called Castulo Parnassia, from the resemblance which the
double-peaked mountain on which it lay, and the spring in its



HlSPANIA. 49

vicinity, bore to Mount Parnassus and the Castalian spring in
Greece, and hence Silius Italicus makes the inhabitants to
have been of Phocian origin ; a poetic fable, of course. Some
geographers, who assign narrower limits to Baetica on the east,
make the boundary line pass a little distance to the west of
Castulo, and consequently assign Castulo to the province of
Tarraconensis. 9. Tugia, or, according to Ptolemy, Tuia, to
the southeast of Castulo. Its ruins still exist near Toya. In
the vicinity of this place was the Saltus Tugiensis, now Si
erra de Cazorla, where the Bsetis rose.

2. Cities between the Btetis and the Coast.

(a) Between the Baelis and the Singilis, from West to East.

1. Nebrissa, situate, according to Strabo, on one of the la-
gunes of the Bsetis, near its mouth. Called, also, Nebrissa Ve-
neria, and now Lebrija. 2. Hispcdis, on the Baetis, 500 sta
dia from the sea, and reached by large vessels. It was, next
to Corduba and Gades, the most distinguished city of Turde-
tania : it was also a Roman colony, and the seat of a Conven-
tus, and was likewise a place of great trade. Some modern
writers, as, for example, Bochart and Mannert, make it to have
been the ancient Tartessus, the Tarshish of Scripture. It is
now Seville. 3. Basilippo, a little to the northeast of the pre
ceding, now El Biso. 4. Astigi, called, also, Augusta Flrma, on
the River Singilis, the seat of a Conventus, and one of the most-
important cities of the province. It is now Ecija. 5. Sing*-
li, or SingiliS) on the river of the same name, the remains of
which are found at Castillon. 6. Munda, to the southwest,
not far from Malaca, famed for the overthrow of the Cartha
ginians in the second Punic war, and also for the victory gain
ed here by Caesar, after a desperate battle, over the son of Pom-
pey. It is now Honda. 7. Arunda, to the northwest, now
Ronda, where inscriptions are found. 8. Urso, or Urson, the
last refuge of the partisans of Pompey. It had the cognomen
of Genua Urbanorum, and is now Osuna.

(b) Between the Singilis and the B&tis.from West to East.

1. Carbula, on the Bsetis, at the junction of the Singilis,
near the present Guadalcazar. 2. Ulia, to the southeast, a
municipium ; called, also, Julia, and probably the same with the

D



50 ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.

Fidentia of Hirtius. The remains are now found at Monte
Ulia. 3. Illtb&ris, or Illiberi Liberini, to the southeast, now
Granada. Hardouin and D Anville, however, make Granada
to have been of Moorish origin, and find traces of the name
of Illiberi in the neighboring mountains of Sierra tf Elvira.
4. Acci, to the east, called also Colonia Accitana Julia Gemel-
la. It had the Jus Italicum, and its site was in the vicinity of
Guadix el Viejo. 5. Bastia, called, also, Mentesa Bastia, to
the northeast, the chief city of the Bastitani in this quarter.
The ruins are found near La Guardia. 6. Urgaon, or Urcao,
with the cognomen of Alba, to the northwest. It was a mu-
nicipium, and is now Arjona, as inscriptions show.

3. TARRACONENSIS.
(A.) BOUNDARIES, &c.

I. THE province of Tarraconensis derived its name, as al
ready remarked, from the city of Tarraco, now Tarragona, its
capital ; and it was by far the largest of the three provinces
into which Hispania was divided by the Romans.

II. Tarraconensis, as we have already shown, comprehended
all the north of Spain, together with the south as far as a line
drawn from Baria, now Varea, below Carthago Nova, and con
tinued upward, in an oblique direction, to a point on the Du-
rius, in the vicinity of Complutica.

III. The climate and character of this large region was, of
course, different in different quarters. That part which lay
along the Mediterranean was very warm and fruitful. The
northern parts, however, were unproductive, and had a raw
and cold climate. A large portion of the surface in this
quarter was covered with mountains and forests, while the
plains were in general poorly watered, and suffered also from
the cold. The winters here were very severe, and the snow
fell to a great depth.

(B.) TRIBES.
1. Tribes of the Western and Northern Coasts, from West to East.

I. Callaici (KoA,Aatot), called also, by the Latin writers, Cal-
Iceci, and, at a later period, Gallceci. These formed one of the
most widely extended of the Spanish tribes. They occupied
the whole western coast, from the Durius upward, except the



H I S P A N I A. 51

northwestern corner, where the Artabri, a Celtic race, had fix
ed their seats, and possessed also the northern coast, as far as
the River Melsus, the western limit of the Astures. In the in
terior of the country they followed the course of the Durius as
far as the eastern boundary in this quarter of modern Portugal.
They occupied, therefore, what are now the Portuguese prov
inces of Entre Duero e Minho and Tras os Monies, almost all
Gallicia, a portion of Asturias, and the westernmost part of
Leon.

This large tribe was divided by the Romans into two main
branches, named respectively after their capital cities, the Cal-
la ici Bracares or Bracarii, and the Calldici Lucenses. The
former of these were on the west side, between the Durius and
Minius ; the latter, partly on the west, between the Minius
and the Ulla, but principally along the northern coast. Ac
cording to Pliny, the Bracares numbered among them 175,000
freemen, and the Lucenses about 166,000.

II. Celtce. These were situate in the northwestern corner
of the territory of the Callai ci. They were generally called by
the common name of Artabri, but there were, in fact, four
small tribes, the Prcesamarci, Nerii, Tamarici, and Art&bri,
or Artotrebce. They were a branch of the Celtse on the Anas,
and their wandering hither has already been alluded to (p.
16, * ix.).

III. Astures ( Aarovpoi and "Affrvpe^), between the Callai ci on
the west, the Cantabri on the north, the Vaccsei on the south,
and the Celtiberi on the east. The dividing point between
their territory and that of the Callai ci Lucenses, on the coast,
was formed by the mouth of the small river Melsus, now the
Narcea, which stream fell into the sea a little to the west of
the Arcs Sestiancz. Their country, therefore, comprehended
the greater part of modern Asturias, together with a consid
erable portion of the kingdom of Leon. According to Pliny,
the Astures numbered twenty-two communities or tribes, and
240,000 free persons. In language and habits they showed a
common origin with the Callai ci and Lusitani.

IV. Cantabri, to the east of the Astures, to the west of the
Autrigones, and to the north of the Vaccsei and some Celtibe-
rian tribes. They occupied what corresponds now to the west
ern portion of La Montana, and the northern ha]f of Palencia



52 ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.

and Toro. They were the most ferocious and warlike people of
Spain, and long resisted the Roman power. Their final reduc
tion was effected by Agrippa, in the reign of Augustus, after
they had withstood the arms of Rome for more than two hun
dred years. The Oceanus Cantabricus, which derived its name
from them, as it washed their coasts, is now the Bay of Biscay.

V. Caristi, or, as Pliny calls them, Carieti, to the east of
the Cantabri. Their territory was very limited in extent.
Pliny joins to them the Vennenses, and gives the two combin
ed only five cities. Their territory corresponded to a part of
modern Biscay.

VI. Varduli, still farther to the east, and extending inland
from the coast to the Iberus. They occupied what is now the
eastern half of Biscay, and Alava, and the westernmost part
of Navarra.

VII. Vascones, southeast of the Varduli, in the modern Na
varra. Mela makes no separate mention of them, but includes
the Vascones and Varduli under the name of the latter.

2. Tribes in the Interior, from West to East.

I. Vdcccei (OvaKKaloi), to the east of the Callaici, and south
east of the Astures. Their eastern limit was the River Piso-
raca, now Pisuerga, near which stood Palantia, now Palen-
cia, their greatest and most important city. Toward the south
they reached beyond the Durius, as far as the Carpetani.
Their territory answered, therefore, to the greater part of Val-
ladolid, Leon, Palencia, and Toro. This tribe was a very
numerous one, and were the mildest and most cultivated of the
Iberian communities. They paid great attention to agricul
ture. Ptolemy assigns them twenty cities, and Pliny names
eighteen.

II. Carpetani, one of the most important of the Iberian
tribes, and occupying the very centre of the Peninsula. Their
territory comprehended what is now the southern part of Val-
ladolid, the old Castilian provinces of Avila and Segovia, the
largest portion of Guadalaxara, and a part of the province of
Toledo. Their land was productive, and the inhabitants, like
the Vaccaei, were a numerous and active race. According to
some of the ancient writers, they were able to bring into the
field against Hannibal more than 100,000 men.



HlSPANIA. 53

III. Oretani, to the east of Lusitania and Baetica, especially
the latter ; to the north of Bsetica and the country of the Basti-
tani ; to the south of the Carpetani, and to the west of the
Celtiberi. They occupied, therefore, what is now the eastern
part of Granada, La Mancha, and the western part of Murcia.
Strabo makes them extend to the lower coast, in which there
is, after all, nothing contradictory, since they were mingled
more or less with the neighboring Bastitani, from whom, in
fact, they differed merely in name. It appears better, how
ever, to follow the arrangement of Ptolemy and Pliny.

IV. Celtiberi, the most numerous and wide-spread race in
all Spain. They were, as we have already remarked, a mixed
people, being composed of Celtse and Iberians. Taken in their
widest extent, the Celtiberi comprehended six tribes, namely,
the Berones or Verones, Arevaci, Pelendones, Lusones, Belli,
and Ditthi or Titthi. The former three lay to the north, while
the last three dwelt toward the south, along the range of Idu-
beda, as far as that of Orospeda, and they alone were some
times, in a narrower sense, named Celtiberi. The Celtiberi
were distinguished from the neighboring Iberians by a differ
ence of language, a much ruder mode of life, by the great num
ber of mountain strong-holds scattered over their country, by
the fashion of their arms (for example, the large Celtic shield,
while the Iberi had merely a small round one), and their whole
mode of carrying on war. They relied more on open valor and
less on stratagem than the Iberian tribes, and their wedge-like
form of battle proved often formidable to the Romans them
selves. Serving for hire, they were often employed as Roman
auxiliaries, a means of increasing both their wealth and power,
so that, soon after the second Punic war, they exercised a pre
ponderating influence among the other Spanish communities.
All their neighbors lived in some degree of dependence upon
them, and this is the reason why, in many passages of ancient
writers, the Vaccaei and Oretani are also numbered among the
Celtiberi. They did not pay much attention to agriculture.
Their country answered to what is now the greatest part of
New Castile, a portion of Old Castile, and some part of Ar-
ragon.

V. Jacetani, between the Vascones and Ilergetes. Their
territory extended from near Caesar- Augusta, now Saragossa,



54 ANCIENTGEOGRAPHY.

in a northeastern direction as far as the Pyrenees, so that they
occupied a part of the northeastern quarter of Arragon.

VI. Ilergetes, to the southeast, below the Cerretani, and oc
cupying what now corresponds to a large portion of Arra gon,
on the left bank of the Ebro. Some of the ancient writers
reckoned as part of them the smaller communities of the Bar-
gusii, Bergistani, Vescitani, Suessitani, and Surdaones.

VII. Cerretani, north and northeast of the Ilergetes, and
stretching far into the valleys of the Pyrenees ; occupying,
therefore, what is now the northernmost part of Catalonia.
They were a pure Iberian race, and were divided into the Ju-
liani and Augustani.

VIII. Lacetani, below the Cerretani, and occupying a part
of modern Catalonia.

3. Tribes along the Southern Coast from West to East.

I. Contestant, next above the Bastetani, in what is now the
eastern part of Murcia, and the western part of Valencia.

II. Edetani, between the Celtiberi and Ilercaones, and reach
ing up to the Iberus. They dwelt, therefore, in what is now
the eastern and northern part of Valencia, and the southern
part of Arragon, below the right bank of the Ebro. Their
chief cities were Valencia, Saguntum, and Csesar- Augusta.

III. Ilercaones, between the Edetani and the coast, and ex
tending as far as the Iberus. Their territory is now the north
eastern part of Valencia, and a small portion of southeastern
Arragon.

IV. Cosetani, between the Iberus and Rubricatus, and below
the Ilergetes and Lacetani. They dwelt in what is now the
southern part of Catalonia.

V. Laletani, above the Rubricatus, and having the Ause-
tani to the north. They dwelt in what is now nearly the cen
tral part of Catalonia.

VI. Ausetani, north of the Laletani, also in part of Catalo
nia, particularly that around Vich and Gerona.

VII. Indigetes, northeast of the Ausetani. They dwelt in
what is now the northeastern part of Catalonia, and also in
the Pyrenees, on the borders of Gallia.



H I S P A N I A. 55

(C.) CITIES OF TARRACONENSIS.

1. Cities belonging 1 to the Tribes along the Western and

Northern Coasts.
Cities of the Calldid Bracarii.

1. Bracara Augusta, capital of the Callai ci Bracarii, and
the seat of a Conventus, now Braga ; destroyed by Theodoric,
king of the Visigoths. 2. Gale, called at a later period Portus
Gale, to the south, at the mouth of the Durius, now Oporto.
From Portus Gale came by corruption the modern name Por
tugal. 3. Aquce Flavian, northeast of Bracara Augusta, now
Chaves, on the Tamego. 4. Roboretum, to the east, the site
of which is marked by Mount Rover edo. 5. Veniatia, to the
east of the preceding, now Vinhaes. 6. Forum Limicorum,
northwest of Bracara. Its site is indicated by ruins on Mount
Viso, near the town of Ginzo. 7. Tyde or Tudce, to the
north, on the Minius, now Tuy. Pliny makes it belong to
the Conventus of Bracara, although north of the Minius, and
although the Bracarii extended merely up to, and not beyond
that river.

Cities of the Calldid Lucenses.

1. Lucus Augusti, capital of the Callai ci Lucenses, and the
seat of a Conventus, now Lugo. It stood near the head wa
ters of the Minius. 2. Brigantium, to the northwest, on the
coast, with a lofty pharos, now Corunna. 3. Ardobrica, near
the preceding, now Ferrol. The Brigantinus vel Magnus
Portus, in this quarter, seems to be the same with the Bay of
Corunna and Ferrol. 4. Iria Flavia, to the southwest, now
El Padron. 5. Glandomirum or Grandimirum, to the north
west, at the mouth of the Tamaris (called by Ptolemy the
Tamara), now Muros, at the mouth of the Tambre. 6. Two
cities occupied by Grecian settlers are also mentioned as ex
isting in the territory of the Lucenses, namely, "EAATpec; and
A^Ao^oi. They are supposed to have been situated near
Aquce Cilence or Cilenorum, north of Tyde.

Cities of the Astures.

1. Asturica, called, also, Augusta, the chief city of the Astu
res, and the seat of a Conventus. It is now Astorga. Pliny



56 ANCIENTGEOGRAPHY.

calls it " urbs magnifica." It was destroyed by the Visigoths,
2. Forum Gigurrorum, to the west of the preceding, the chief
town of the Gigurri, and now Cigarossa. Harduin, following
a false reading in Ptolemy, gives the name of the place as Fo
rum Egurrorum, and the error appears also on the maps of
D Anville and others. 3. Palantia, to the southeast of Astu-
rica, on the River Astura, and not to be confounded with Pal-
lantia, the city of the Vaccsei. Its ruins are near the modern
Villamoros, 4. Bergidium Flavium, to the northwest of As-
turica, now La Vega, on the Coa, in western Leon. 5. In-
teramnium Flavium, to the southeast of Bergidium, now Pon-
ferrada, on the River Sil. 6. Nemetobriga, to the southwest,
near the junction of the Sil with the Minho, now Mendaya.
7. Legio Septima Gemma, to the northeast of Asturica, now
Leon. The place was originally called Brigsecium, and was
the chief city of the Brigsecini. From the time of Augustus,
however, two legions were posted here, in order to keep the
northern tribes in subjection. These two legions appear in
process of time to have been united into one, whence the name
Legio Septima gemina. The place, for brevity s sake, was
called Legio, whence the modern appellation. 8. Lance, or
Lancia, to the southeast of Legio. It was the strongest place
of the still free Astures, until the Romans burned down the
walls and destroyed the city. The greater part of the towns
in these regions had wooden ramparts. 9. Lucus Asturum,
called, also, Ovetum, to the north, toward the coast, now
Oviedo. 10. Noega, on the coast, to the northeast of the pre
ceding, near an estuary which formed the boundary between
the Astures and Cantabri. It lay in what is now the territory
of Gijon. 11. Zoelce, not far from the ocean, famed for its flax.

Cities of the Cantabri.

1. Juliobriga, near the sources of the Iberus, now Retortillo.
2. Uxembarca, to the northeast, now Osma. 3. Vellica, or
Eelgica, to the west of the preceding, near the modern Villel-
ba. 4. Concana, to the west, now Santillana, or Onis.

5. Vereasueca, on the coast, now Puerto de S. Martin.

6. Blendium, to the east of the preceding, now Santander.

7. Portus Victories, now Santonna. 8. Strabo remarks that



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