Charles Anthon.

A system of ancient and mediæval geography for the use of schools and colleges online

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the Glaucus and Maeander. It was founded by Antiochus Soter, on the site of
an earlier place named Cibotus, and was called by him Apamea, in honor of his
mother Apama, daughter of Artabazus, and espoused to Seleucus Nicator. The
inhabitants of the neighboring Celaenag were removed to this new city, which
soon became a place of importance, from the fertility of the surrounding coun
try, the abundance and beauty of the rivers which flowed around it, and, above
all, its situation on the great road to Cappadocia and the Euphrates, so that,
when Strabo wrote, its traffic yielded only to that of Ephesus, and it was the
largest town of Phrygia. It suffered severely from an earthquake in the reign
of Claudius, but still continued a very flourishing city for a long period subse
quently. Its ruins are at the modern town of Deenare. 4. Cd&n<z, a little to
the southeast, at the sources of the Marsyas, a tributary of the Ma?ander. It
was celebrated in mythology as the scene of the contest between Apollo and the
satyr Marsyas, and the skin of the latter was said to have been hung up in the
cave whence the river flowed. The greater part of the inhabitants of Celasnae
were removed by Antiochus Soter to his new city of Apamea, in consequence of
which the former became a place of small importance. The citadel of Celaenae
was built on a precipitous height, and was of great strength, but surrendered to
Alexander.

5. Colossce, to the southwest, on the left bank of the Maeander, and mentioned
by both Herodotus and Xenophon as a large and flourishing city. Strabo and
Pliny, however, at a later day, call it only a small place. It carried on, how
ever, even in Strabo s time, a very lucrative wool trade. At Colossae there was
formed a Christian church, to which St. Paul, who does not appear to have ever
visited the place himself, wrote an epistle. Colossae suffered severely from an
earthquake in the ninth year of the reign of Nero, from which it never fully re
covered ; and, under the Byzantine emperors, being now in a ruinous state, it
made way for a more modern town named Chona, built only a short distance
from it. This latter place is chiefly known to us from the account of Nicetas,
the Byzantine annalist, who was born here, whence his surname of Choniates.
Some remains of Colossae and Chonse are to be seen near each other, at the
village of Khonas. 6. Hierapolis, to the west, near the River Lycus, and cele
brated for its warm springs. The waters of this place were also remarkable



644 ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.

for their petrifying properties, and were likewise extremely useful in serving
the purposes of the dyer. The ruins of Hierapolis are conspicuous on the site
called Pambouk Kalessi. 7. Laodicea ad Lycum, to the south, and so called from
its proximity to the River Lycus. Pliny says it was originally named Diospolis,
and afterward Rhoas ; and, according to Stephanus, its name was changed to
Laodicea in honor of Laodice, the wife of Antiochus II. There was a Christian
church at Laodicea in the time of the apostles. Strabo says that this place was
celebrated for the sheep which fed in the plains around it, and that their wool
was considered superior to that of Miletus. The ruins of Laodicea, which are
considerable, are seen a little below Denisli, on the site called Eski Hissar, and
sometimes Ladik.

GALATIA.

I. Galdtia originally formed part of Phrygia and Cappadocia,
and derived its name from the Galatce or Gauls, who had mi
grated hither from Europe. It was likewise called Gallo-
Grcecia, from the intermixture of the customs and languages
of the Gauls and Greeks in this province.

II. Galatia was bounded on the north by Paphlagonia and
part of Bithynia^ on the east by Pontus, on the south by Phry
gia and Cappadocia^ and on the west by Phrygia and part of
Bithynia.

III. The first horde of Gauls that appeared in Asia (B.C. 279) formed part
of the army with which Brennus invaded Greece. In consequence of some dis
sensions in his army, a considerable number of his troops, under the command
of Leonorius and Lutarius, left their countrymen and marched into Thrace ;
thence they proceeded to Byzantium, and crossed over into Asia at the invita
tion of Nicomedes, king of Bithynia, who was anxious to secure their assistance
against his brother Zipcstes. With their aid Nicomedes was successful, but his
allies now became his masters, and he as well as the other monarchs of Asia
Minor to the west of Mount Taurus were exposed for many years to the rava
ges of these barbarians, and obliged to purchase safety by the payment of tribute.
Encouraged by the success of their countrymen, fresh hordes passed over into
Asia, and their number became so great, that, as Justin informs us, the whole
country swarmed with them, and no Eastern monarch carried on war without
a mercenary army of Gauls.

IV. The first check they received was from Attalus I., king of Pergamus, who
defeated them in a great battle (B.C. 239), and compelled them to settle per
manently in that part of Asia which was afterward called Galatia. Though
Attalus, however, reduced their power, they still continued independent, and
gave Antiochus great assistance in his contest with the Romans. Having thus
incurred the enmity of the Roman republic, the consul Manlius was sent against
them B.C. 189, and completely defeated them, so that from this time they were
in reality subject to Rome, though allowed to retain their own native princes.

V. According to Strabo, Galatia was inhabited by three tribes of Gauls, the
Trocmi, the Tectosages, and the Tolistoboii. Each tribe was subdivided into
four parts, and each part was governed by a tetrarch, who appointed a judge
and an inspector of the army. The power of these twelve tetrarchs was limited
by a senate of three hundred, who assembled at a place called Dryncemctum, and



ASIA. 645

who took cognizance of all capital cases. All other offences were left to the
jurisdiction of the tetrarchs and judges.

VI. Subsequently, however, during the times of the first Mithradatic war,
there were only three tetrarchs, to whom the Romans, out of policy, paid the
courtesy of princely dignity. Soon after, the three tetrarchs dwindled into two
chiefs, and finally into one. This last change was made by the Romans in favor
of Deiotarus, who had rendered their arms essential service against Mithradates.
He became sole master of Galatia, and received a part of the kingdom of Pon-
tus with the royal title. On his death, part of his principality was annexed to
Paphlagonia and Pontus under Polemo, and part to the dominions of Amyntas,
chief of Lycaonia. On the demise of the latter, the whole of Galatia became a
Roman province.

VII. In the time of Theodosius the Great, Galatia was divided into two prov
inces, Galatia Prima and Galatia Secunda. Ancyra was the capital of the for
mer, Pessinus of the latter. Though intermixed with Greeks, the Galatians
retained throughout their original tongue, since we are assured by St. Jerome
that in his day they spoke the same language as the Treviri of Gaul. Galatia
was, generally speaking, a fruitful and well-peopled country.

PLACES IN GALATIA.

THE Tolistoloii occupied the southwestern part of the country. Among them
we find, 1. Pessinus, their chief city, on the confines of Bithynia, and near the
left bank of the River Sangarius. This place was one of great trade, and was
also celebrated in antiquity for the worship of the goddess Rhea or Cybele. The
statue of the goddess, which was nothing more than a great stone, was con
veyed to Rome, near the close of the second Punic war, in obedience to the di
rection of the Sibylline Oracles. Above the town rose Mount Dindymus, whence
the goddess was surnamed Dindymene. The worship of Cybele was still ob
served in Pessinus after its occupation by the Gauls. The Phrygian name of
the goddess was Agdistis, an appellation given also to Mount Dindymus. The
remains of Pessinus are to be seen at Balahissar. 2. Germa, to the southwest,
called by Ptolemy a Roman colony, and supposed from its coins to have been
established in the time of Vespasian and his sons. It took, at a later period, the
name of Myriangeli. The modern Yerma evidently represents it. 3. Armo-
rium, to the east, a place of great importance under the Byzantine emperors.
It was taken and sacked by the Saracens. The site is still called Amoria.

The Tectosages were settled to the northeast of the Tolistoloii. Among them
we may mention, 1. Ancyra^ their capital, and the largest and most celebrated
city in the whole province. Tradition made it to have been founded by Midas,
who was said to have named the place from an anchor (aynvpa) which he found
on the site, and which was exhibited, as Pausanias relates, in the temple of
Jupiter. This city was greatly improved and embellished by Augustus ; and
under Nero it was styled the metropolis of Galatia. Its situation was extremely
well adapted for inland trade, and it became a kind of staple place for the com
modities of the east. Here was found, in modern times, the famous inscription,
called Marmor Ancyranum, on a temple erected to Augustus, giving a history
of his several acts and public merits. Ancyra is now called by the Turks An-
gouri, and by Europeans Angora, and is the place whence the celebrated shawls
and hosiery made of goat s hair were originally brought. Near this place Baja-
zet was conquered and made prisoner by Tamerlane. 2. Corbeus, to the south
east, the residence of Sacondarius, son-in-law of Deiotarus, and father of Cas-



646 ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.

tor, who accused the former before Caesar of plotting against his life. It an
swers to the modern Corbega.

The Trocmi were settled in the eastern part of Galatia, toward Pontus and
Cappadocia. Their territory formed the best and most productive of any that
had fallen to the Galatian tribes. The only place worth mentioning among
them is Tavium or Tavia, their capital. It was a city of considerable traffic,
and was celebrated for a bronze statue of Jupiter, of colossal size, placed in a
sacred grove having the right of an asylum. The position of Tavium is an im
portant point in the geography of Asia Minor, from the number of routes which
branched off from it. The site of this place answers, not, as is commonly sup
posed, to the modern Tchorum, but rather, as Hamilton thinks, to Boghaz Keui.

PISIDIA.

I. Pisidia was bounded on the west and north by Phrygia,
on the east by Isauria, on the south by Pamphylia. It was a
mountainous country, forming part of the chain of Taurus, in
which the Pisidians maintained their independence, not only
under the Persian empire, but also under the Syrian kings, and
even the Roman sway. The Romans were never able to sub
due them, though they obtained possession of some of their
towns, as, for instance, of Antiochia, where a Roman colony
possessing the Jus Italicum was founded. In the time of Stra-
bo, the Pisidians were governed by petty chiefs, and principally
supported themselves by plundering their neighbors.

II. We know very little of the physical geography of Pisidiaj
or the situation of its towns. The most singular features in
this country are, according to Fellows, the mountains of volcan
ic dust, which he saw at ten miles distance, looking as if they
were smoking ; this appearance being caused by the sand, which ,
with very little wind, is blown into clouds, and carried into the
air and along the valleys. The whole of this sand or dust is
tufa, the dust of the pumice stone, a volcanic production.

PLACES IN PISIDIA.

1. Termessus, a fortress at the entrance of the denies leading from Pisidia into
Pamphylia, and from its commanding situation a place of great importance.
2. Cretopolis, to the north, close to the passes leading into Pamphylia. The
remains are probably those near Buttakli. 3. Sozopolis, to the northwest, re
garded by Mannert, incorrectly, as the same place with Cretopolis. It is men
tioned by the Byzantine historians, and, according to Nicetas, was taken from
the Turks by John Comnenus, but retaken by them. Its site appears to be that
called at the present day Souzu. 4. Sagalassus, to the north, spoken of by Ar-
rian, and afterward by Livy, as a large and populous city. Livy describes the
adjacent territory as exceedingly fertile. The site is near the modern village
of Aglasoun. 5. Cremna, to the northeast, an important fortress, and deemed
impregnable until taken by the tetrarch Amyntas. It was regarded afterward



ASIA. 647

by the Romans as a post of such military consequence that they established a
colony there. It is generally supposed that this town is represented by the
modern fort of Kebrinaz, occupying a commanding situation near Lake Egreder,
the ancient Agrioteri Lacus. 6. Antiochia Pisidia;, to the north, at the extremity
of the province, a city of considerable importance, and interesting from its con
nection with the labors of St. Paul in Asia Minor. It was founded by a colony
from Magnesia on the Mseander, under the auspices probably of Antiochus, from
whom it derived its name. The Romans sent a colony hither, and made it the
capital of a proconsular government. It was visited by St. Paul and Barnabas,
and was afterward the metropolitan see of Pisidia. Arundell supposes the re
mains of this city to be at Yalobatch, with which Hamilton agrees. 7. Tyriaum,
to the east, mentioned by Xenophon in his Anabasis as the place where the
younger Cyrus stopped three days and reviewed his troops. Hamilton identi
fies it with the modern Ilghun.

CAPPADOCIA.

I. Cappadocia, including Lycaonia and Isauria, was bound
ed on the north by Pontus, Galatia, and Phrygia Paroreios,
on the south by the range of Mount Taurus, dividing it from
Cilicia and Pamphylia, on the west by Pisidia and Phrygia,
and on the east by the Euphrates, separating it from Armenia
Minor.

II. Cappadocia was surrounded on three sides by great ranges
of mountains, besides being intersected by others of as great
elevation as any in the peninsula. Hence its mineral produc
tions were various and abundant, and a source of wealth to the
country. It had, however, but little wood, almost the only
timber district being in the neighborhood of Mount Argseus.
The tribute which Cappadocia paid to the Persian monarch
consisted chiefly of horses, mules, and sheep, the high table
lands of this country forming admirable pasture land.

III. The Cappadocians appear to have been a branch of the
Syrian race at least the Persians considered them as such,
from the resemblance of their language, customs, and religion ;
and they called them by an appellation which the Greeks ex
pressed by that of AevKoavpoi (Leucosyri], or "White Syrians,"
because they found that they possessed a fairer complexion than
their swarthy brethren of the south. The Greeks, on the other
hand, called them KamrddoKeg (Cappadoces) or Cappadocians,
from the River Cappadox, as is thought, now the Kissilhissar,
a branch of the Halys.

IV. The condition of Cappadocia before the period of the
Persian rule is uncertain. Even after the Persian conquest
the government was left in the hands of the native princes.



G48 ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.

The Romans, when they became masters of it, incorporated
with their province of Cappadocia the adjacent district of Ar
menia Minor.

V. The Cappadocians were noted for their vicious and un
principled character, and they were one of the three bad Kap
pas, or names beginning with the letter K (the Roman C), the
Cretans and Cilicians being the other two. The whole nation,
too, might be said to be addicted to servitude ; for when they
were offered a free constitution by the Romans, they declined
the favor, and preferred receiving a master from the hands of
their allies.

We will first enumerate the most important places in Cap
padocia Proper, and then give a separate account of Lycaonia
and Isauria.

PLACES IN CAPPADOCIA PROPER.

IN the prefecture of Morimene, in the northwestern section of the country,
we have, 1. Parnassus, on a mountain of the same name, a place of some con
sequence, and at a later period a bishop s see. The mountain is now called
Pascha Dagh. 2. Venasa, to the southeast, celebrated for its temple of Jupiter,
to which no less than 3000 slaves were attached, and the high priest over which
was next in rank to the one at Comana. 3. Nyssa, to the southeast, on the
Halys, celebrated in connection with the name of Gregory, brother of Basil, and
surnamed Nyssenus, from his long residence here as bishop of its church. Its
site is now marked by the village of Nirse. 4. Mocissus, to the northwest, a
town of some size and note in the reign of Justinian, who built it on the site of
an ancient fortress. It was also called, from this circumstance, Justinianopolis.

The next Cappadocian prefecture bore the name of Cilicia, and was situate
to the southeast of the former. The origin of the name is not known. In this
district we have, 1. Mazaca, its chief city, and the capital likewise of the whole
province, better known at a later period by the name of C&sarea, with the topo
graphical adjunct ad Argaum, to denote its position at the foot of Mount Ar-
gaus. It was a city of great antiquity, and its foundation was even ascribed
to Mesech, son of Japhet. The situation was extremely unfavorable, water be
ing scarce, and the surrounding country a dry, sandy plain. Still, however, the
kings of Cappadocia fixed their residence at Mazaca, in consequence of its cen
tral situation in the midst of other and more fertile districts. Mazaca assumed,
in fact, the appearance of a large camp rather than of a regular city, being open
and unfortified. The royal property, consisting chiefly of slaves, was kept in
different fortresses throughout the country. In the reign of Tiberius, when
Cappadocia became a Roman province, Mazaca changed its name to Cassarea,
and appears to have gradually increased in size and consequence under suc
cessive emperors, being now a regular and fortified city. St. Basil was born
and educated here, and presided over its church for many years. The modern
name of the place is Kaisarich. Mount Argaeus, in the vicinity of this city, is
now called Arjish Dagh, and belongs to the range of Antitaurus. Hamilton esti
mates the height at about 13,000 feet above the sea. It is the loftiest peak in
the peninsula, and affords abundant indications of h & vino- once been a volcano.



ASIA. 649

The country around has also a volcanic character. Strabo s statement, that
both the Euxine and Mediterranean are visible from the summit of Argaeus, is
untrue, and confuted by the bare inspection of a map. 2. Dacora, a village near
Caesarea, the birth-place of Eunomius, the Arian heretic, and whither he was
banished by Theodosius.

Another Cappadocian prefecture deserving of mention was that of Mclitene,
along the right bank of the Euphrates. Its soil was fertile, and yielded fruits
of every kind, in this differing from the rest of Cappadocia. The chief produce
was oil, and a wine called Monarites, which equalled the best of Grecian growth.
The only place deserving of mention here is Melitene, originally a camp or mili
tary station, but converted into a town by order of Trajan, and which became
eventually one of the most important places in Cappadocia. Justinian again
enlarged its circuit, and adorned it with several buildings. It still retains traces
of its former name under that of Malatia, but is in ruins.

The prefecture of Tyanttis lay to the south of that of Cilicia, and bordered on
the defiles of Taurus and the passes leading into Cilicia. It took its name from
Tydna, the principal town, and a place of considerable repute and great an
tiquity. Strabo reports that this city was built on what was called the cause
way of Semiramis, and was well fortified. It is supposed to be the same with
the place called Dana by Xenophon, in his Anabasis. Its proximity to the Cili-
cian pass must have rendered it a place of considerable traffic. Tyana is also
noted for having been the birth-place of the famous impostor Apollonius. Its
ruins are at Ketch-hissar. After Tyana we may mention, 1. Cybistra, to the
northeast, frequently mentioned in the epistles of Cicero, during his command
in Cilicia, and where at one time he established his head-quarters. Leake
places it at Kara-hissar ; D Anville, less correctly, at Bustere, but this last is an
error for Costere. 2. Castabala, to the northeast, remarkable for a temple sa
cred to Diana Perasia, the priestesses of which could tread with naked feet,
unharmed, on burning cinders. The statue was said to have been the identical
one brought by Orestes from Tauris, whence the name of Perasia, "from be
yond the sea," was thought to be derived. More probably, however, Perasia is
merely corrupted from Persia, and the goddess here worshipped was the Per
sian Anaitis. The site corresponds probably to the modern Nigde. 3. Nora or
Neroassus, a fortress to the northwest of Tyana, where Eumenes sustained a
long and difficult siege against Antigonus. The remains are now called Nour.
4. Faustinopolis, to the southeast of Tyana, and distant twelve miles from that
city. It was named from the Empress Faustina, the consort of Marcus Aurelius,
who died here on her return from Syria. Her husband erected the town and a
temple in it to her memory. The site of the place was previously occupied by
a village named Halala. 5. Podandus, to the southeast, a village often men
tioned by Byzantine writers in connection with the defiles of Taurus in its
vicinity. St. Basil describes it as the most miserable place on earth. It re
tains the name of Podend.

The prefecture remaining to be noticed is that of Cataonia, consisting chiefly
of deep and extensive plains, surrounded on all sides by chains of mountains.
We may mention in it, 1. Comdna, the principal city, and celebrated, like its
namesake in Pontus, for the worship of Bellona. The population consisted, in
a great degree, of soothsayers, priests, and slaves, belonging to the sacred in
stitution : the latter amounted, in Strabo s time, to more than 6000 of both
sexes. These belonged exclusively to the high priest, who stood next in rank
to the King of Cappadocia, and was generally chosen from the royal family.
The territory annexed to the temple was very considerable, and furnished a



650 ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.

large income for the pontiff. The Bellona of Comana was probably no other
than the Anaitis of the Persians and Armenians, and perhaps the Agdistis and
Cybele of the Phrygians. Comana received a Roman colony under Antoninus
Pius, and perhaps another under Caracalla. It is now represented by the
Turkish town of Al-Bostan, on the Seihoun, the ancient Sarus. 2. Cucusus, to
the southeast, a lonely spot, to which St. Chrysostom was banished in the reign
of Arcadius. Mountain passes led from it into Commagene and Syria. The
site is still called Cocsou, near the sources of the Gihoun, the ancient Pyramus.

LYCAONIA.

I. Lycaonia is first mentioned by Xenophon, in his Anabasis, who describes
it as extending eastward from Iconium to the beginning of Cappadocia, a dis
tance of thirty parasangs, about one hundred and ten English miles. It was
united during the Persian monarchy to the satrapy of Cappadocia, which seems
the most natural arrangement. Lycaonia is described by Strabo as high table
land, deficient in water, which the inhabitants could only procure by digging deep
wells, but well adapted for sheep.

II. The most remarkable physical feature in Lycaonia is that presented by
the salt lake in the north, on the confines of Galatia, called by the ancients Tatta
Palus, and now Lake Tuzla or Duslag. It is about forty-five English miles
long, and about eighteen in its extreme width. Its waters, according to the
ancients, were so impregnated with brine, that if any substance was dipped
into the lake, it was presently incrusted with a thick coat of salt ; and even
birds, when flying near the surface, had their wings moistened with the saline
particles, so as to become incapable of rising into the air, and were easily caught.
This lake still furnishes all the surrounding country with salt. The specific
gravity of the water is said to be greater than that of the Dead Sea.

III. The northern part of Lycaonia was united, at what time is uncertain,
to Galatia , but the southern part was governed, in the time of Cicero, by an
independent prince of the name of Antipater, who resided in Derbe. Antipater,
however, being afterward conquered by Amyntas, king of Galatia, the whole of
Lycaonia fell under the power of the Galatians. At the death of Amyntas, B.C.



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