Charles Anthon.

A system of ancient and mediæval geography for the use of schools and colleges online

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IV. The government of Meroe continued hieratic until the period of the sec
ond Ptolemy, when Ergamenes, at that time King of Meroe, tired of being priest
ridden, fell upon the members of the sacerdotal order in their sanctuary, as al
ready stated, and put them all to the sword. The power of Meroe, however,
soon after declined.

V. Meroe" was the first fertile country after crossing the Libyan Desert, and
formed a natural resting-place for the northern caravans. It was likewise the
natural mart for the productions of Inner Africa, which were brought for the
use of the northern portion, and was reckoned the outermost of the countries
which produced gold, while by the navigable rivers surrounding it on all sides,
it had a ready communication with the more southern countries. As easy,
ow r ing to the moderate distance, was its connection with Arabia Felix, and so
long as Yemen remained in possession of the Arabian and Indian trade, Meroe
was the natural market for the Arabian and Indian wares in Africa.

VI. The city of Meroe was situated in the upper part of the island, on the
bank of the Nile, and must have been a large and flourishing place. Its ruins
are a little distance to the north of the modern Shendy, and have been well de
scribed by Caillaud and Hoskins, especially the latter. Mr. Hoskins is in favor
of the commonly received theory respecting the origin of ./Egyptian civilization,
and consequently of assigning a very remote antiquity to Meroe, but the archi
tectural remains of the place would seem by no means to countenance the sup
position. These remains consist of pyramids, temples, and other structures of
sandstone, more or less ruined. The site itself has no particular name, but a
large village nearer Shendy bears the appellation of Meroueer.



746 ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.

PLACES BETWEEN MERGE AND

1. Primis or Premnis Magna, immediately north of the island of MeroS, and
the junction of the two rivers, and probably not far from the modern El Mak-
karif. Wilkinson thinks that the name may perhaps be connected with that
of Papremis, the ./Egyptian Mars. This place was called Magna for distinction
sake from Primis Parva, farther down the Nile. 2. Napata, the capital of Queen
Candace, taken and destroyed by the Roman commander Petronius, prefect of
-Egypt in the time of Augustus. This was done in retaliation for an incursion
of the ^Ethiopians, who had penetrated to Syene, and overwhelmed the garrison
stationed there to protect the ^Egyptian frontier. Pliny makes Napata to have
been eight hundred and seventy Roman miles, or about eight hundred English
miles above Syene, and three hundred and sixty Roman miles from the island
of Meroe. The extensive ruins at Gild el Birkel are supposed to correspond
to it ; but Hoskins is in favor of the modern Dongolah, one hundred miles lower
down the Nile. 3. Phthuris, on the western bank, now probably Faras or Farras,
with ruins.

4. Aboccis, now Aboo Simbel, on the western bank, with very remarkable ruins,
among which are two temples justly regarded as the most interesting remains
met with in Nubia, and, excepting Thebes, throughout the whole valley of the
Nile. The smaller one of these temples appears to have been dedicated to Athor,
the ^Egyptian Venus, by the queen of Remeses II., and the larger to have been
the work of Remeses himself. 5. Primis or Premnis Parva, now Ibrecm, with
.Egyptian and Roman remains. It is probable that the Romans, finding the posi
tion here so well adapted for the defence of their territories, stationed a garrison
in this quarter as an advanced post. 6. Pselcis, called by Strabo Pselchc, and now
Dakkeh. Here Petronius defeated the generals of Candace. 7. Tutzis, in Coptic
Thosh, and in ancient ^Egyptian Pthah-Ei, or "the abode of Pthah," from its be
ing under the special protection of that deity. The resemblance of the Coptic
name Thosh with Ethaush, signifying, in the same dialect, " ^Ethiopia" is ren
dered peculiarly striking from the word " Cush," in the old ^Egyptian language
"^Ethiopia," being retained in the Nubian modern name of this place, " Risk."

The tract of country from the island of Tachompso, opposite to Pselcis, down
to Syene, was called from its extent Dodccaschanus, and under the Roman sway
was reckoned as part of JEgypt, under the appellation of ^Egyptian ^Ethiopia.
The Romans constructed here, on both sides of the Nile, under Dioclesian s
reign, military roads and forts. Tachompso is thought to signify " the Island
of Crocodiles."

KINGDOM OF AXUME.

I. THE kingdom of Axume lay to the southeast of Meroe, and, as appears from
a Greek inscription which has come down to us, was not only coextensive with
the present kingdom of Tigre and part of Abyssinia, but even extended into
Arabia. It is first noticed by the author of the " Periplus of the Erythraean
Sea," a document written probably about the close of the second century ; but
how long this Axumite kingdom had existed before we are unable to say.

II. The two principal places were Axume and Adide, the latter a port on the
Sinus Arabicus, through which the Axumites maintained a commercial inter
course with Arabia and India. It was probably for some advantage to be se
cured to Greek merchants from /Egypt in the Indian trade that the Byzantine
emperors paid a yearly tax to the Axumite king until the commencement of the
Arab conquest.



AFRICA. 747

PLACES IN AXUME.

1. Axume or Auxame, now Axum, about one hundred and twenty miles south
of the modern Arkeeko, which last is on the immediate shore of the Red Sea.
The present town consists of only six hundred houses, but the earlier city ap
pears to have been large and flourishing, and was the great emporium for ivory,
which was exported through Adule. One of the most remarkable objects at
Axurn, at the present day, is a large obelisk, sixty feet high, made of a single
block of granite. The engravings on it are not hieroglyphics, like those of
. Egypt, nor does it exactly agree with them in shape. Though it is quadri
lateral, one of the sides has a hollow space running up the centre from the
base to the summit, which, instead of terminating in a pyramid, like the regular
obelisks, is crowned with a kind of patera. The obelisks of Axum were origin
ally fifty-five in number, and four of them, it is said, were as large as that now
standing. Besides this last, another, but a small and plain one, also remains
erect, with the fragments of many others lying near it. Among the other an
tiquities of Axum is a stone containing two inscriptions, one in rude Greek
characters, the other supposed to be in ^Ethiopian. The Greek inscription
shows the extent of the Axumite kingdom.

2. Adule or Adulis, on the Sinus Arabicus, the port of Axume, and eight days
journey from it. It is supposed to correspond to the modern Zulla. Cosmas,
a merchant of the sixth century of the Christian sera, has preserved in his
work, entitled " Christian Topography," a copy of a Greek inscription which
he found here. Adule at this period was the port of Axume, where merchants
traded for ivory and slaves, just as they now do at Massowa, on the same coast.
D Anville incorrectly places Adulis at Arkeeko, about 22 farther north than
Zulla.

THE EASTERN COAST OF AFRICA TO THE UNKNOWN

REGIONS.

LEAVING Berenice we come to, 1. Chersonesus, now Port Comot. 2. Moiis
Isius, so called from its temple of Isis, now Ras cl-Dwaer. 3. Bathys Portus,
now Arecca. 4. Dioscorum Portus, now the Bay of Fushaa. 5. Gypsitis Insula,
near the modern harbor of Suacim. G. Gomadceorum Insulce, now Daradata and
Dolcofallar. 7. Monodactylus Mons, now Cape Assoy. 8. Ptolemals, with the
cognomen Theron or Epitheras, near the modern port of Mirza Mornbarric,
which supplies good fresh water. This place was founded by Eumedes, under
Ptolemy Philadelphus, on account of the ship-timber found here, and the abund
ance of elephants in its vicinity. The traders to Arabia, Abyssinia, and the In
dies touched here to take in refreshments and to refit. This place is famous
in the astronomical calculations for the geographies of Eratosthenes, Marinus,
and Ptolemy, founded on the observation that forty-five days before and forty-
five days after the summer solstice the sun was vertical at Ptolemai s.

9. Sebasticum Stoma, near the Bay of Massua. 10. Suche, a small town in
the interior, belonging to a prince of the Arabians. 11. Daphnitis Insula, now
Dollaca. 12. Colobon Promontorium, in the territory of the Colobi, a Troglodyte
race. 13. Saba, a seat of the Sabaean Arabs, famed for its harbor and the hunt
ing of elephants. It was in what is now the province of Gojam in Abyssinia.
14. Tcnesis, in the interior, the country occupied by the ^Egyptian military
caste, who had migrated from J3gypt in the time of Psammitichus. 15. Adule,
now Zulla, already mentioned. 16. Diodori Insula, now Parim, a depot of
Greek traders. 17. Arsinoe, a Greek city and harbor, now the trading place



748 ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.

oalled Assab. 18. Berenice Epi Dircs, a Greek city on the strait termed Dire
or Dcrc, now the strait of Bab el-Mandeb.

The coast of ^Ethiopia, from the straits to the eastern headland, or Aromata
Promontorium, was much better known after the time of Ptolemy Philadelphia
than it is now to Europeans. It was called Cinnamomophdros or Aromatophoros
Rcgio, from its abounding in spices and perfumes. Here we find, 1. Pythange-
lus, a harbor, famous for the elephant-hunts in its vicinity. 2. Avalltcs Em
porium, a celebrated mart, now Zcyla. The Sinus Avalites is now the Bay of
Zeyla. 3. Pitholaus Promontorium, the country adjacent to which was particu
larly famed for myrrh and incense. 4. Mundi (Movvdov) Emporium, another
mart, now Mete. 5. Cole Emporium, probably the modern watering-place Chaji.
6. Elcphas Mons, now Mount Felles or Baba Felek. 7. Aromata Promontorium,
now Cape Guardafui. Off this headland lay Dioscoridis Insula, now Socotora,
famed for its aloes.

In the first century of our era, the navigators to India discovered, south of
the Aromata Promontorium, a rocky coast, inclosing a well-cultivated country
in the interior, inhabited by negroes under the rule of Arabians from Yemen,
who carried on trade there. This extensive coast is called in the Periplus
Azania, a term comprehending not only the modern Ajan, but also the coast of
Zanguebar, as far as Quiloa, provided this place be the Rhapta of the Periplus.
Ptolemy gives this same tract of country the name of Barbaria, in which appel
lation we see lurking the term Berber, the name of the great aboriginal white
race of northern Africa. Ptolemy s Sinus Barbaricus, therefore, will answer to
The modern Gulf of Zangucbar. The author of the Periplus, however, makes
the coast of Barbaria lie to the north, and extend from the straits of Dire to
Aromata Promontorium, which is much more likely to be correct.

On the coast of Azania we notice, 1. Zingis Promontorium, commanded by
the three-topped mountain Phalangis, now Cape DcJgada. To the south came
the Noti Keras, or Southern Horn, a name first given to the Aromata Promon
torium, but afterward, with the advance of geographical knowledge, extended
farther south. 2. Parmim et Magnum Littus, extending from Cape Baras to the
promontory above Brava. 3. Then followed the seven Journeys, or dpopoi, or
seven harbors and marts, about a day s journey apart : that of Serapis, near the
mouth of the River Dos Fugos, and under the line ; the station of Nici or Niconis
Dromos, northw r ard of the modern island of Pate, &c. 4. We next find the
Paralaai islands, or the modern islands of Lamo, &c., on what was called the
"New Canal" (Kaivq ^e-youhrj Atopvf). 5. Two days sail farther on brings
us to Rhapta, the most distant trading-place of the Greeks, and the capital of
Azania. The Rhaptum Promontorium is commonly supposed to be Cape For
mosa. The articles of trade were Indian lances, knives, glass-ware, wine, corn,
exchanged for ivory, rhinoceros horns, &c. Rhapta, therefore, was the farthest
point to which Grecian commerce extended ; yet the opinion still existed that
the ocean to the south swept round to the west, and, stretching round ./Ethiopia
and Libya, joined the Atlantic. There is no doubt that the Arabian possessions
must have extended still farther south, perhaps to Madagascar ; but they con
cealed their knowledge from the Greeks. Nevertheless, Ptolemy had hear of
a Promontorium Prasum, 7 farther south, of the Mare Asperum, and of 2Ethio-
pian Anthropophagi, which were about Cape Gado on the Mozambique Chan
nel. He had likewise heard of the island of Menuthias, probably the present
Pcruba, on the coast of Zanguebar.



AFRICA. 749

9. LIBYA. INTERIOR.

Tins country, in the time of Ptolemy, was considered to be
bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, on the north J>y
Mauritania, Numidia, Africa Propria, the Regio Syrtica,
Cyrendica, and Marmarica, on the east by J&gypt and Ethio
pia, and on the south by a Terra Incognita.

TRIBES OF LIBYA INTERIOR.

I. Gatiili, a powerful tribe to the south of Mauritania and Numidia, whose
country answered to the southernmost part of Morocco, the region of Biledul-
gerid, and the more western portion of the Sahara, with its Oases. The princi
pal branches of the race were, 1. The Autololcs, lying to the south of the Atlas
range, along the western coast. They had a city named Autolola, which
Reichard supposes to be the same with the modern Agulon or Aquilon. 2. The
Pharusii, immediately to the east of the former. These at one time destroyed
several of the Carthaginian settlements on the coast of Mauritania, and in the
course of traffic came as far even as Cirta in Numidia. They must not, how
ever, be confounded with the Phraurusii of Ptolemy, who lived much farther
inland, and appear to have occupied an Oasis in the vicinity of the Hcsperii
JEthiopcs. 3. The Dara, whose name still remains in that of the modern Darah.
4. The Mclanogatuli, in the more southern regions, a mixed race of Gatuli and
NigritcB.

II. The Garamantcs, to the east of the Gcetuli, a powerful nation, occupying
not only the Oasis of Phazania, or the modern Fezzan, but also a wide tract of
country to the south, answering to the modern Tuarick and Tibboo regions, to
gether with a part of Soudan and Bornou, as far east as Darfur. They carried
on an active traffic with the Carthaginians, especially in slaves. Their chief
city was Garama, now Gherma or Yerma, in Fezzan. Ptolemy mentions an
other city of theirs named Gira, on the River Gir, and which Mannert supposes
to be the modern Kaschna.

III. The Nigritce, to the south of the Gsstuli, on the banks of the Nigir, and
in a part of what is now Soudan. Their capital was called Niglra, which Man
nert makes the Gana of Edrisi and of later times. Another of their cities,
named by Ptolemy Peside, would seem to have stood near the modern Timluctoo.

IV. The Daradce, on the coast, around the mouth of the River Daradus or
Senegal, and answering, therefore, to the modern Foulahs.

V. The Hesperii JEthiopes, or Western ./Ethiopians, farther to the south, along
the western coast, and extending also into the interior of the country. Their
territory corresponded, therefore, to the modern Sierra Leone, the Ivory Coast,
Gold Coast, Ashantcc, Dahomey, &c. The whole of Central Africa, under the
equator, Ptolemy calls by the general name of Agisymba ( A-yiavfiGa ). It formed
a country entirely unknown, and was peopled by the ancient poets with various
monsters.

ISLANDS OFF THE WESTERN COAST OF AFRICA.

I. Ccrne, an island on the western coast of Africa, mentioned in the Periplus.

or Voyage of the Carthaginian Hanno. Here he established a colony, and it

always formed, after this, the depot of the Carthaginians on the Atlantic coast

of Africa. Hanno, in his account of the voyage, says that it was the same dis-



750 ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.

tance from the Columns of Hercules that Carthage was. D Anville, Rennell,
and many others make it the modern Arguin. Gossellin, however, is in favor
of the modern Fedala. Heeren, Mannert, and Gail place it farther north, in the
present gulf of Agadir or Santa Cruz.

II. Insula Fortunata, now the Canary Islands. They derived their ancient
name from the accounts given of their remarkable beauty, and of the abundance
of all things desirable which they were said to contain. Their climate was one
continued spring, their soil was covered with eternal verdure, and bloomed with
the richest flowers, while the productions of earth were poured forth spontane
ously and in the utmost profusion. Some modern writers suppose that the
Fortunate Islands of the ancients refer to Madeira; but the Canaries have de
cidedly the better claim, if we follow the description of Pliny, which is taken
from Juba, the Mauritanian prince. Juba calls one Nivaria, or " Snow Island,
which is probably Teneriffe : another island he calls Canaria, from the number
of dogs of a large size that were found there : Juba had two of these dogs. The
Canary Islands, being situated within the general limits of the trade-wind, enjoy
a fine climate, and are very healthy.

III. Insula Purpurarice, to the north of the preceding, and so called from King
Juba s having established in them a manufactory of purple. They are supposed
to answer to Madeira and the adjacent islands.

Before concluding, we may make a brief mention of the celebrated island of
Atlantis, which is said to have existed at a very early period in the Atlantic
Ocean, and to have been eventually sunk beneath its waves. Plato is the first
writer that gives an account of it, and he obtained his information, as he informs
us, from the priests of ^Egypt. The statement which he furnishes is as follows :
In the Atlantic Ocean, over against the Columns of Hercules, lay an island, larger
than Asia and Africa taken together, and in its vicinity were other islands, froin
which there was a passage to a large continent lying beyond. The Mediterra
nean, compared with the ocean in which these islands were situated, resembled
a mere harbor with a narrow entrance. Nine thousand years before the time
of Plato, this island of Atlantis was both thickly settled and very powerful. Its
sway extended over Africa as far as JEgypt, and over Europe as far as the
Tyrrhenian Sea. The farther progress of its conquests, however, was checked
by the Athenians, who, partly with the aid of the other Greeks, partly by them
selves, succeeded in defeating these powerful invaders, the natives of Atlantis.
After this, a violent earthquake, which lasted for the space of a day and a night,
and was accompanied by inundations of the sea, caused the islands to sink, and
for a long period subsequent to this, the sea in this quarter was impassable, by
reason of the slime and shoals. (Plat., Timaus, p. 24, scqq., ed. Bip., vol. ix., p.
296, seqq.Id., Critias, p. 108, scqq., ed. Bip., vol. x., p. 39, seq.). Various theo
ries have been founded on this narrative, one of which seeks to identify the At
lantis of Plato with America. But the whole subject is too fanciful to afford 3
basis for any serious reasoning.



GENERAL INDEX.



4. ]
Aba3


741
430
47
347
207
353
374
579

174
746
190
190
636
319
680
175

719
288
411
155
173
683
627
739
710
658
462
737
506
50
667
279
346
605
704


]


age
191
65
110
687
704
200
680
629
630
398
407
716
190
194
143
139
747
198
705
486

353

560

454

560

489
396

288
298

591
569
653

570
433

724
679
679

446
348
458
458
511

431
434
400
630

"V78




? 4^8




Adeba


jEthalia


297


\bdera


Ad Ilorrea


^Ethiopes Hesperii . .


749


" (Hispana)




..Ethiopia


742


\bella




^Etna (Mons)


388


\bellaba






398






^E toli a .


513


" (Marsicum) . . .
Abiae


Adramyttenus Sinus . 604,
Adramyttium


./Exone


. 554


Africa


708






" Propria


714








533


\boccis






234




Ad Sabrinam


Agasus Portus


357




Ad Taum


Agatha


104






Agathyrna


.. 398






Agbatana


694




Adule


Agendicum


134


Abravannus Sinus






. . 121


JEa


Aginnum


120






Agisymba .


749




^Ebura


Agrgei


508


Absyrtides Insulas . . . 288,




Agrianes (fluvius)


. 424






464


-\bus




Agri Centum


395


" Mons

\bydos




Aayrium


399


3


Aias


730







Alabanda . . .


... 618


\byla 46





Alabastrites Mons . .


729


Acamas Promontorium . .
Acanthus (Macedonica) . .


jEgaeum Mare 9,


Alabastron
Alabus


738
389


JEgaleus


-iEgates Insulse
JEgesta


Aleenus


176


Alsesus


390


\cci






536


\ce


jEgidis


Alalia


402




JE^ilon


Alani Scythse


235






Al atrium


328




" (urb)




235






Alaunus
Alba


174
57




567
556
390
474
477
383
414
359
414
715
244
368
389








" (fluvius)


~ 31


Achates


^Egirus


" (Mons)


218






Alba Au msta


105


Acheron




" Fucentia


110


" (Bruttius)
" (Epiroticus)
\cherontia






" Helviorum . . .


.. 105


^Esyptus

JElana


" Pompeia
Albana


273
.. .. 706




\cholla




Albani


410






Albania ....


706


Aciris




Albania Pylae


. 608, 706


Vcis




Albanopolis


410


Acragas


390
63
538


jEnea

jEneum Promontorium . v


Albanus Lacus
Albiga . . .


. 266,324
123


\craephia .


Albioeci


102


Acritas Promontorium...
Acroathon

Acroceraunii Monies
4crothoon


483
446
413
446
461
461
508
402
244
611
190
662
259




Albion .


162




Albis


. 221


^Enyra


Albitim Insfaunum .


272


jEolife Insulaj


" Intemelium
Albius Mons


272
243 407




/Eolis


Acte


^Epea


Albucella ....


58






308

.353
351
174

453


Albula


260


" Promontorium . . .
Acumincum


jEquus Tuticus


Alburnus Mons


374


jEculanum


Albus Portus


46




JEsernia


Alcathous


542




jEsica (fluvius) ...


Alemanni




Adata




Alemannus


221


Addua . . .


;EstmUS . . .


Alerea...


.. 122



752



GENERAL INDEX.





Page
402 Amphaxitis


Page Fa.,,


Alesia


133 Amphiale






128 " Promontorium .
733 Amphilochi


553 Antivestaeum Promontori-
508 urn . . 17]


Alexandrea (^Egyptia) . . .
(Ariana)
(ad Issum) . . .
(Oxiantt)
(Parthia)
(Troas)
(Ultima)
\lexandreopolis


695 Amphimalla .


601 Antona 17C


612 Amphipagus


421 Antros 89


700 Amphipolis


427 Antuuacum 14;s
519 Anxanurn 354


696 Amphissa


629 Amphrysus . ...


499 Anxur 3 JO


700 Ampsagas


713 Aornus 699


696 Amsancti Lacus .


267 Aorsi 704




702 Amyclaj (Italce)


332 Apamea (Syria) 661


Algidum


325 " (Lacedaemonian).


585 " (Chaldeea) 687


Algidus Mons


50 " Cibotus 64 ]


Aliphera


594 Anactorium


508 << llhagiana 697


Alinza


695 Anagnia


327 Apainene 66 J


Allia


261 Anagombri Montes


722 Apavarcticene 697


Allieni Forum


284 Anamani




Allit ae


351 Anaphlystus




Allobroges


101 Anapus (Acarnanius)
464 " (Siculus)


475 Aphaca 665




389 Aphetae 499


Almo


261 Anariacae


695 Aphrodisias 618


Almope


464 Anas


28 Aphrodisium Promontori-
682 um 88


Alone (Britannica)


202 Anatho


" (Hispana)
Alope


63 Anaurus


502 Aphroditopolis 737, 738
611 Aphytis 45^


520 Anazarba


Alopece


556 Ancalites


179 Apia .. 46C


Alopeconnesus


433 Anchiale


611 Apidanus 48"


Alorus


453 Anchialua.


440 Apis 723


Alos


499 Anchoe


538 j Apocremnus Promontori-
303 | um 623


Alpeni


520 | Ancona


Alpes . 85


251 Anr-vra




" BastarnicaB 12 Anr.vrnn Pnlis


737 Apollinis Pomontorium . . 711
122 Apollinopolis Magna 740
125 Apollonia (Illyrica) 410
188 " (Thracia) 440


" Carnicae




" CottifB ...




" GraiaB




" Graias et Penninaa .
" Lepontiae


82 Anderitum


123 " (Macedonica) . . 462
125 " (Assyria) 68


251 Andes


" Maritimge .


251 " (urbs)


281 " (Cyrenaica) ... 720
134 Apolloniatis 687


" " (Provincia)
" Noricse


82 Andomatunum




637 Apollonis 60


" PenninaB


251 Andriace


615 Aprusa 299


" RaetiCcfi
Alpheus


251 Andropolis

476 : Andros .


734 Apsiathii 42(i


598 ! Apsus 410


Alsa


287 Andusia


105 Apta Julia 111


Althaea .


59 Anemo


283 Apulia 354


Altinum


286 Anemurium


611 Apulum 234

605 Apus 234


Aluta


234 " Promontorium
594 Aneli


Alyssus


225 Aqua3 Cteretanse . . 294


Amalchium Mare




230 " CalidtB 123


Amalelut>u


G78 Angulus


311 " Convenarum 120
477 " Flavian 55






410 Anio


261 " Mattiacre 228


Amardi


6^5 Ani^torgis



Online LibraryCharles AnthonA system of ancient and mediæval geography for the use of schools and colleges → online text (page 86 of 89)