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ried into captivity, the sanctity of the churches is violated, and
the open country is laid waste. Armorica (the present Bre-
tagne), into which the settlement of the British soldiers who
had followed Maximus the usurper into Gaul, had infused a
military spirit, assumes and establishes its independence, but
the rest of Gaul becomes a prey.

XIV. The Suevians, the Alans, and the Vandals cross the
Pyrenees into Spain. The Burgundians settle, with the sanc
tion of the Roman government, in the east of Gaul, on both
sides of the Jura range, and on the west bank of the Rhine,
from the Lake of Geneva to the confluence of the Rhine and
the Moselle. The Visigoths, moreover, who had been long rav
aging both the eastern and western empires, are induced, just
before the settlement of the Burgundians (A.D. 412 to 414), to



GALLIA. 79

accept the cession of that part of Gaul which lies to the south
and west of the Loire. Toulouse becomes their capital. Both
Burgundians and Visigoths take the name of Romans, and pro
fess subjection, which is, however, merely nominal, to the em
peror of the west. The lands in the district ceded to them are
divided between the original possessors and the new comers,
who give up their unsettled migratory course of life on receiv
ing a permanent interest in the soil.

XV. Hostilities are before long renewed between the troops
of the empire and these new-settled nations ; but their settle
ment opportunely supplies Gaul with the means of defence
against a fresh invasion.

XVI. In A.D. 451, Attila, king of the Huns, with an im
mense host of barbarians, passes the Rhine at or near the con
fluence of the Neckar, destroys Divodurum or Mediomatrici,
now Metz, and Aduatuca or Tungri, now Tang-res, and lays
siege to Genabum or Aureliani, now Orleans. Ae tius, the
Roman general, supported by the Visigoths and the Burgun
dians, and numbering in his ranks Franks, Saxons, Alans, and
other barbarians, advances against Attila, and obliges him to
raise the siege and retire toward the frontier. At Durocata-
launum or Catalauni, now Chalons-sur-Marne, a battle is
fought, in which victory is doubtful, but which is attended
with a dreadful slaughter of his forces, and induces Attila to
evacuate Gaul.

XVII. During these events the Franks have attracted little
notice : their subdivision into tribes has weakened their power ;
and perhaps their fidelity to the empire restrains them from
pressing it with their attacks. They retain their possessions
on the right bank of the Rhine, but have obtained by conces
sion or conquest some settlements on the left bank, or along the
banks of the Sc/ielde and the Meuse. In the invasion of Attila,
some of their tribes march under the banners of Aetius, while
others attach themselves to the invading host.

XVIII. It is not until the reign of Clovis, who commences
his career as king of the Salyans, one of the Frankish tribes
settled at Tournay, about A.D. 481, that the Franks assume
a commanding position. The empire of the west has now fall
en, and Italy is under the government of the Ostrogoths ; but
a relic of the empire remains in Gaul, and the territory in



80 A N C I E N T G E O G R A P II Y.

which the patricians ^Egidius and his son Syagrius uphold the
name of Rome is between the possessions of the Visigoths and
Burgundians and the settlements of the Franks. This territo
ry is among the early conquests of Clovis (A.D. 486). He then
defeats the people of Tongres, and (in A.D. 496) subdues a
portion of the Allemanns, who have made an inroad into Gaul.
The conquered people recognize Clovis as their king ; his op
portune conversion to Christianity advances his popularity and
his power in Gaul, as well as his profession of the faith in
what was deemed an orthodox form, while all the other princes,
who share among them the once extensive territories of the em
pire, are the supporters of Arianism or some other form of doc
trine that is looked upon as heretical.

XIX. The sway of Clovis extends from the banks of the Low
er Rhine, the cradle of his power, to the Loire, the Rhone, and
the Ocean, for Armorica had submitted to him. He now de
termines, under the pretext of uprooting Arianism, a plea cal
culated to secure him numerous supporters beyond his own con
fines, to attack Alaric II., king of the Visigoths, whom he de
feats and slays at Vougle, in Poitou. The Burgundians, hop
ing to share in the spoils of the conquered nation, support Clo
vis, but the Ostrogoths of Italy support the Visigoths, and pre
vent their entire subjection. A large part of their territory, in
cluding Bourdeaux and Toulouse, and extending, perhaps, to
the foot of the Pyrenees, falls into the hands of Clovis ; but the
Visigoths preserve the coast of the Mediterranean, together
with Spain, which they have conquered. The Ostrogoths have
Provence, and their king Theodoric holds the sovereignty of
the Visigoths, also, as guardian of their king, his grandson
Amalric. The assassination of the various Frankish kings by
Clovis renders him undisputed head of the tribes of his own na
tion, and his sovereignty extends over Gaul, with the exception
of the parts retained by the Ostrogoths, Visigoths, and Bur
gundians. Clovis may be considered the real founder of the
French monarchy. He dies A.D. 511.

5. DIVISION OF GAUL BY THE ROMANS.

I. AUGUSTUS, holding an assembly of the states of Gaul, B.C.
27, made a new division of the country, in which he paid more
attention to equality in the extent of provinces than to any
distinction of the several tribes that inhabited them.



GALLIA. 81

II. This arrangement divided Gaul into four provinces :
1. Narbonensis ; 2. Lugdunensis ; 3. Belgica ; 4. Aquitania.

III. The province of Aquitania comprised not only the old
territory of the Aquitani, in the southwest, reaching up to the
Garumna or Garonne, but also all that portion of Celtic Gaul,
or the old territory of the Celtse, comprehended between the
Garumna and the Ligeris or Loire.

IV. The province of Belgica comprised not only the old ter
ritory of the Belgse, but also all that portion of Celtic Gaul
that lay to the east of the Arar or Saone, and the range of
Mons Vogesus or Vosge, and extended to the Rhine.

V. The province of Lugdunensis comprised all that remain
ed of Celtic Gaul, which had thus lost one half of its former
extent. Its capital was Lugdunum, now Lyons, which gave
name to it.

VI. The province of Narbonensis was the same with what
had been before the Roman province, in the south. Its new
name was derived from the city of Narbo, its capital, now Nar-
bonne.

VII. Not long afterward the province of Belgica was dis
membered by two provinces being formed out of the districts
along the Rhine, to which the names of Germania Prima and
Germania Secunda, or the First and Second Germany, were
given; and at a subsequent period the number of provinces
reached, by successive dismemberments of the larger provinces,
its maximum of seventeen.

VIII. These seventeen divisions were as follows : the prov
ince of Narbonensis comprised five ; Aquitania, three ; Lug-
dunensis, four ; and Belgica, five.

IX. The five subdivisions of Narbonensis were called, re
spectively, 1. Narbonensis Prima ; 2. Narbonensis Secunda;
3. Alpes Maritimce ; 4. Viennensis / 5. Alpes Graicc et Pen
nine. The limits of these five provinces were as follows :

Narbonensis Prima comprehended all that portion of the old
Roman province which lay between the Rhone and the Pyre
nees, and answered, therefore, to the modern Languedoc and
Roussillon. Its capital was Narbo, now Narbonne. Langue
doc now corresponds to the departments of the Haute Loire,
Ardcche, Lozere, Gard, Herault, Aude, Tarn, and Haute Ga
ronne ; and Roussillon to the department of the Pyrenees Ori-

F



82 ANCIENTGEOGRAPIIY.

entales. At the beginning of the fifth century, when this part
of Gaul was under the sway of the Visigoths, the province of
Narbonensis Prima changed its name to Septimania, and then
took in, also, the adjacent part of Aquitania Secunda, lying
along the Garonne ; and its capital was now no longer Narbo,
but Tolosa, the modern Toulouse. This name of Septimania,
however, before it became a general term for the whole prov
ince, indicated merely the territory around the city of Biterrse
or Baeterra, now Beziers, where the soldiers of the seventh le
gion ( Septimani) had been settled as a military colony. Sido-
nius Apollinaris, and the chroniclers of the time, make frequent
mention of the province of Septimania.

Narbonensis Secunda corresponded to the modern Provence,
with the exception of an eastern portion lying among the Alps,
and excepting, also, the cities along the Rhone, together with
Massilia, now Marseilles. Its capital was Aquae Sextise, now
Aix. Provence now corresponds to the departments of the
Bouches du Rhone, Var, and Basses Alpes.

Alpes Maritimce comprehended the Alps on the eastern side
of Provence, and in the territory of Nice, together with the
easternmost portion of Dauphine. According to the earlier di
vision, the eastern part of this province belonged to Italy. Its
capital was Ebrodunum, now Embrun. The eastern part of
Dauphine now answers to that of the departments of Iserc and
Haules Alpes.

Viennensis comprehended the western part of Savoy, all
Dauphine (except the easternmost portion, which belonged to
the Alpes Maritimse), and the territories of Avenio, now Avi
gnon, Arelate, now Aries, and Massilia, now Marseilles. Its
capital was Vienna, now Vienne. Dauphine now answers to
the departments of the Hautes Alpes, Isere, and Drome.

Alpes Graia et Pennince comprehended the modern Valais,
and the western part of Savoy. Its capital was Civitas Cen-
tronum, now Montiers.

X. The three subdivisions of Aquitania were called, respect
ively, 1. Novem Populana ; 2. Aquitania Prima ; 3. Aquita
nia Secunda. The limits of these three provinces were as
follows :

Novem Populana comprehended what had previously been
Aquitania in the stricter sense of the term, that is, Aquitania



GALLIA. 83

before the enlargement of the province by Augustus, or the
country in the southwest between the Pyrenees and Garonne.
Who the nine tribes or communities were that gave name to
this subdivision is not clearly known. Its capital was Civitas
Ausciorum, now Auch.

Aquitania Prima comprehended the eastern half of that por
tion of Gallia Celtica which Augustus had added to Aquitania
proper. It corresponded, therefore, to what used to be Bern,
Bourbonnois, Auvergne, Rouergue, Querci, and Limousin, or
the present departments of Cher, Indre, Allier, Cantal, Puy
de Dome, Tarn et Garonne, Correze, and Haute Vienne. Its
capital was Civitas Biturigum, now Bourses.

Aquitania Secunda comprehended that part of Guyenne that
lay to the north of the Garonne, and also Angoumois, Poitou,
Saintonge, and part of Bordelois, or a portion of the present
departments of Lot, Tarn et Garonne, and Gironde, together
with those of Vendee, Deux Sevres, Vienne, and Charente In
ferieure. Its capital was Civitas Burdigalensium or Burdi-
gala, now Bourdeaux.

XI. The four subdivisions of Lugdunensis were called, re
spectively, 1. Lugdunensis Prima ; 2. Lugdunensis Secunda ;
3. Lugdunensis Tertia ; 4. Lugdunensis Quarta, or Senonia,
The limits of these four provinces were as follows :

Lugdunensis Prima comprehended the modern Lyonnais,
Bourgogne, Nivernois, and a part of Champagne, or the pres
ent departments of the Rhone, Loire, Yonne, Cote $ Or, Saone
et Loire, Ain, Nievre, and Haute Marne. Its capital was Lug-
dunum, now Lyons.

Lugdunensis Secunda comprehended modern Normandie, or
the present departments of Seine Inferieure, Eure, Calvados,
Manche, and Orne. Its capital was Rotomdgus, now Rouen.

Lugdunensis Tertia comprehended modern Touraine, Le
Maine, L Anjou, and all Bretagne, or the present departments
of Indre et Loire, Sarthe, Mayenne, Loire Inferieure, Morbi-
han, Finisterre, Cotes du Nord, and He et Vilaine. Its capi
tal was Civitas Turonum, now Tours.

Lugdunensis Quarta, or Senonia, which last name is de
rived from that of the Senories, comprehended nearly all Cham
pagne south of the Marne (the ancient Matrona), the south
ern part of the Isle de France, Chartrain, Perche, and Orle-



84 ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.

annais, or a part of the present departments of Marne, Seine
et Marne, and Oise, together with those of Eure et Loire,
Loiret, Loir et Cher, Yonne, &c. Its capital was Civitas Se-
nonum, now Sens.

XII. The five subdivisions of Belgica were called, respective
ly, 1. Belgica Prima ; 2. Belgica Secunda; 3. Germania Pri
ma, or Superior ; 4. Germania Secunda, or Inferior ; 5. Max
ima Sequanorum. The limits of these five provinces were as
follows :

Belgica Prima comprehended the modern duchy of Treves,
a part of Luxembourg, and Lorraine. At the present day Lor
raine answers to the departments of the Meuse, Moselle,,
Meurthe, and Vosges. Its capital was Civitas Treviroram,
now Treves.

Belgica Secunda comprehended the northern part of Cham-
pagne, the northern half of the Isle de France, Picardie, Ar-
tois, French Hainault, and the territory of Tournay, or the
present departments of Ardennes, Seine et Oise, north of the
Seine, Oise, Somme, Pas de Calais, &c. Its capital was
Civitas Remorum, now Rheims.

Germania Prima comprehended all the country along the
left bank of the Rhine, from the range of Mount Vocetius,
an eastern arm of Jura, on the northern confines of the Helvetii,
down to the confluence of the Obringa with the Rhine, near
the modern Bingen. The French departments of the Haut
Rhin and Bas Rhin correspond to a part of this, the remainder
lying at present out of France. Its capital was Civitas Ma-
gontiacensium or Magontiacum, now Mainz or Mayence.

Germania Secunda comprehended all the country along the
left bank of the Rhine, from the mouth of the Obringa to the
Vahalis in length, and from the Rhine to the territory of the
Nervii in breadth. It answered, therefore, to a part of the
Netherlands, and to a portion, also, of the Prussian possessions
west of the Rhine. Its capital was Colonia Agrippina or
Agrippinensis, now Cologne. The land of the Batavi, at this
period, did not any longer belong to Gaul, but was possessed
by the Franks and Frisii.

Maxima Sequanorum comprehended all the country which
Augustus had taken from Gallia Celtica on the east side of the
Arar or Saone, and had added to Belgica. It answered, therefore,



GALLIA. 85

to Franche Comte, the western half of Switzerland, and south
ern Alsace, or to the present departments of Haute Sa6?ie,
Doubs, Jura, &c. Its capital was Civitas Vesontiensium or
Besontmm, now Besangon.

OBS. 1. This arrangement of provinces is taken from the Nolitia Promncia-
rum Gallice, which, in all probability, dates from the time of Dioclesian and Con-
stantine. The division, however, must have existed at a much earlier period,
since we find allusions long before this to the existence of numerous provinces
in Gaul.

2. Of the seventeen provinces enumerated above, the two Germanys, the two
Belgicas, and Viennensis, had consular governors ; the others had praesides at
their head. (Notit. dig. Imp., c. 48.)

6. MOUNTAINS.

THE principal mountain chains of Gallia are six in number,
namely :

1. Monies Pyrenm. 4. Mom Jura.

2. Alpes. 5. Mom Vogesus.

3. Mom Cebenna. 6. Mons (et Silva) Arduenna.

I. The Monies Pyrencei have already been described in the
account given of ancient Hispania. The whole range, as be
fore remarked, is about two hundred and ninety-four miles in
length.

II. Alpes, called by the Greek writers ai "AArrei^, and by us
the Alps, is the name of a large mountain system separating
Gallia, Helvetia, and Germania from Italia. The appellation
is supposed to come from a Celtic word Alb or Alp, signify
ing " lofty," in allusion to the superior elevation of the chain.
The Alps extend from the Sinus Flanaticus, or Gulf of Car-
new, a.t the top of the Gulf of Venice, and the sources of the
River Colapis, now the Kulpe, to Vada Sabatia, now Savona,
on the Gulf of Genoa. The whole extent, which is in a cres
cent form, is nearly six hundred British miles. It is very dif
ficult to obtain any precise measure of the breadth of the chain.
If we take the direct distance from Bellmzona, on the Italian
side, to Altorf, on the Swiss side, which certainly does not
comprehend the whole breadth of the Alpine mass, we find this
to be about fifty miles of direct distance. From Aosta to Fri-
bourg, across the Valley of the Rhone, the direct distance is
about seventy miles ; but this measurement comprehends the
breadth of the main chain, and the offset which runs from St.
Gothard to the Jura, with the intervening valley. East of the



86 ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY,

Orisons the range increases considerably in breadth,* from the
Wurm See to a point a little north of Verona is a direct dis
tance of one hundred and fifty miles. As the Alps belong more
naturally to the geography of Italy, a more particular account
of them will be given in the description of that country.

III. Mom Gehenna, commencing in the country of the Volcse
Tectosages, in the south of Gaul. This chain ran in a north
eastern direction along the borders of Narbonensis, communi
cated by a side chain with the mountains of the Arverni to the
northwest, and, continuing still its northeastern direction, final
ly connected itself with the range of Jura among the Sequani
and Helvetii. A northern arm also connected it with Mount
Vogesus. The modern name is the Cevennes. These mount
ains are spoken of by both Greek and Latin writers. The
more ordinary form of the name is Cevenna ; Pliny, however,
uses Gebenna ; and some editors of Csesar give the preference
to Cevenna. The root of the name is supposed to exist in the
Cymric cefn, " a mountain ridge." Strabo calls the range TO
Keppevov 6po^, while Ptolemy uses the plural form rd Keppeva
opfj. Csesar crossed these mountains in his contest with the
Arverni and their confederates, tinder Vercingetorix. The
presumed difficulty of the passage had encouraged the Arverni ?
who deemed themselves covered from attack by these mount
ains as by a wall. The passage was made early in the year,
and Csesar had to open a road through snow six feet deep. The
fastnesses of these mountains afforded refuge to the Huguenots
in the religious wars of France.

IV. Mons Jnra, extending from the Rhodanus, or Rhone, to
Augusta Rauracorum, now August, on the Rhine, separated
Helvetia from the territory of the Sequani. The range retains
its ancient name, which is said to come from the Celtic Jou~
rag-, " the domain of God, or Jupiter."

V. Mons Vogesus, or, according to some MSS. of Csesar,
Vosegus, now Vosges (in German Vogesen or Wasg&n), a
chain of mountains commencing in the territory of the Lin-
gones, and separating the Leuci from the Sequani, and the
Mediomatrioi from the Rauraci, Triboci, and Nemetes. They
belong to Belgic Gaul, and for a great part of their course run
nearly parallel with the Upper Rhine. Caesar places in these
mountains the sources of the Mosa, or Meuse.



GALL i A. 87

VI. Mons (et Silva) Arduenna, a mountainous, or, rather,
hilly and woody region in Gallia Belgica, reaching, according
to Csesar, from the Rhine and the territories of the Treveri to
those of the Nervii. The heights in this tract were anciently
covered with an immense forest, though Strabo says that the
trees were not very lofty. The modern name for the chain is
the Ardennes, though the region is more commonly called the
Forest of Ardennes. The forest is much reduced in extent at
the present day, but still it renders the department which bears
its name one of the best wooded in France. The name is said
to come from the Celtic Arden, " a forest." If such be the
meaning of the term, it will account for the fact that the Ro
man goddess of forests, Diana, appears sometimes with the ep
ithet Arduenna ; and Montfaucon shows that a superstitious
belief in this goddess existed in the Ardennes till the thirteenth
century.

7. PROMONTORIES.

THE principal promontories of Gallia were ten in number,
namely, five along the western and northwestern coast, and
five along the southern coast, as follows :

1. On the Western and Northwestern Coast.

I. Curianum Promontorium, on the coast of Aquitania, in
a western direction from Burdigala, and near the town of Boii,
the modern Buck. It is now Cape Feret, in Guienne, or the
department of the Gironde, below which the Bay of Arcachon
runs into the land.

II. Santomim Promontorium, at the mouth of the Garum-
na, and just below the island of Uliarus, or Oleron. It is now
Pointe d Arvert. Gosselin, however, is in favor of Pointe de
V Aiguillon.

III. Pictonum Promontorium, to the north of the island of
Uliarus. According to D Anville, it is the modern Pointe de
r Alguillon, at the mouth of the Sevre Niortoise. Gosselin,
however, makes it Pointe de Boisvinet.

IV. Gobceum Promontorium, in the territory of the Osismii,
and near Brivates Portus, or Brest. It is now Cape St. Make
in Brctagne, department of Finisterre.

V. Itium Promontorium, near the Portus Itius, on the Fre-



88 ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.

turn Gallicum. It is now Cape Grisnez, between Boulogne
and Calais.

2. On the Southern Coast.

I. Aphrodisium Promontorium, called, also, Pyrenceum Prom-
ontorium, and PyrencE Promontorium, the termination of the
Pyrenees, on the Mediterranean coast. It is now Cape Creux.
Strabo calls it TO 1% UvprjVTjg "Attpov. It derived the name
Aphrodisium from the circumstance of there being upon it a
temple of Venus Pyreruza, or A0pod/ r?7 Hvpyvaia. This prom
ontory has already been mentioned in the account of ancient
Hispania (p. 25).

II. Setium Promontorium, to the northeast of Agatha, the
modern Agde. It is now Cape Cette. Strabo speaks of an isl
and near this promontory named Blascon, which is evidently
the modern Brescon.

III. Mesua Collis, described by Mela as almost entirely sur
rounded by the sea, and only connected with the continent by
a narrow causeway or neck of land. It has been confounded
by some with the Setium Promontorium, but must be looked
for farther east, where the modern Mese, though now inland,
recalls apparently the ancient name.

IV. Zao Promontorium^ described by Pliny as lying to
the east of Massilia. According to Ukert, it is now Bee
tie Sormion. Others, however, are in favor of Cape de la
Croisette.

V. Citharistes Promontorium, placed by Avienus to the
west of Massilia, but by Ptolemy between Taurentum and
Olbia. It is now probably Cape de VAigle.

8. CHIEF RIVERS.

THE chief rivers of Gallia are eight in number, and may be
divided into three classes, namely, 1. Those falling into the
Sinus Aquitanicus, or the large bay between the mouth of the
Garumna and the confines of Spain, and which is now regard
ed as part of the Bay of Biscay, though once accustomed to
be called the Gulf of Gascony, and the Bay of France.
2. Those falling into the Oceanus Britannicus, Fretum Gal-
licum, and Oceanicus Germanicus. 3. Those falling into the
Sinus Gallicus.



GALLIA. 89

1. Rivers falling into the Sinus Aquitanicus.

I. Aturis (6 "A-Tovpig), called by Lucan Alums, and by Ti-
bullus Atur, and now the Adour, rose in the Pyrenees, in the
territory of the Bigerrones, flowed through the territory of the
Tarbelli, and fell into the sea at Lapurdum, now Bayonne.
The length of this river is about one hundred and ninety-four
miles. The root of the name has been sought by some in the
Cymric dur, " water."

II. Garumna (6 Tapovvds), called, also, Garunna, now the
Garonne, rose in the Pyrenees, in the territory of the Con-
vena, flowed through the country of the Volcce Tectosages,
Tolosates, Nitiobrlges, Vasates, Civisci, and Bitunges, passed
by Burdigala, or Bourdeaux, and fell into the sea at Noviore-
gum, below the Santonum Promontorium, and now Royan.
Opposite Novioregum lay the island of Antros, now probably
Corduan. There was a popular belief that this island rose
and fell with the tide, being merely suspended, as it were,
upon the waters. Mela describes the Garumna as shallow,
and not well fitted for navigation, except when its waters
were increased by the winter rains, or the melting of the snow
in the spring. Near its mouth, however, it acquired considera
ble volume from the sea-water and the tides. The Garonne
is now navigable to Toulouse, the ancient Tolosa, whence the
Canal of Languedoc is cut to the Mediterranean. Its length
is about three hundred and sixty miles. Among the tributa
ries of the Garumna the three following may be named as the



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