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were told by some who were on board the Nassau at the time that Florence urged
the captain not to surrender, and when he reminded her of the danger from the
cargo of powder and his duty to her father, she exclaimed, with tears in her eyes,
that her father would prefer her being blown up than that the steamer should be
captured."

Maffitt's son, Eugene A., was a midshipman on the Confederate States steamer
Alabama under Semmes, and was in her when she was sunk by the Kearsarge.
He and Semmes plunged into the water as the Alabama sunk, were picked up by
the British Deerhound, and taken to England. On returning to the United States
in 1865 he for a time suffered military imprisonment.

Maffitt was highly intelligent, as evinced by his employment on the coast
survey. In blockade-running he was full of resources, devices, and deceptions to
escape capture. He came of intellectual stock, especially on the paternal side.
His father, Rev. John Newland Maffitt (born at Dublin in 1794; died at Mobile,
Alabama, in 1850), was a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, of wealthy parents,
and a "born preacher"; he traveled in Ireland as a missionary, and occupied the
highest place in popular esteem. Coming to New England, he was an itinerant
Methodist preacher there (1822-1830); he then went to Nashville, Tennessee,
and issued there the first number of the Western Methodist, now the Christian
Advocate. In 1841 he was elected chaplain to the lower house of Congress.

His father's sister Emily had a mind that sparkled with wit and intelligence;
she married into the nobility of England. Her brother William was a physician,
who also came to the United States.

Of Maffitt's sibs, Eliza was celebrated for her intellectuality as well as for her
beauty; living in Texas, she was called the "Belle of the Brazos." Another sister,
Matilda, married a Texas judge and is reputed to have written some of her hus-
band's speeches. A third sister, Henrietta, married General Mirabeau Lamar,
the second president of Texas.

Maffitt expressed himself well in writing. He wrote "Nautilus, or Cruising
under Canvas" (autobiographical); also articles on "Blockade-running," an extract
from one of which is given above. Admiral D. D. Porter remarks on his genial
humor as a messmate.



124 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS.

Maffitt was a great favorite in the United States navy before his resignation,
and later with his associates in blockade-running and raiding. He was good-
looking and was graceful in manners. Grace and beauty characterized his sisters
and his father and father's sister.

FAMILY HISTORY OF JOHN N. MAFFITT.

Fraternity of F: I 1, Dr. William Maffitt, who came to Fayetteville, North Carolina. I 2,
Emily Maffitt, had a "mind that sparkled with wit and intelligence"; she married into the nobility
of England. I 3 (F), John Newland Maffitt (1794-1850), was a graduate of Trinity College,
Dublin, and a "born preacher"; coming to America, he was famous as an itinerant Methodist
preacher and editor. In 1841 he was elected chaplain to the lower house of Congress. I 4 (M),
Ann Carnic.




Fraternity of Propositus: II 1, William H. Maffitt. II 2, Frederick Maffitt. II 3, Caroline
McKeen. II 4, Judge R. D. Johnson. II 5, Matilda Caroline Maffitt. II 6, Henrietta Maffitt.

II 7, General Mirabeau Lamar. II 8, Thomas Budd. II 9, Eliza Maffitt, celebrated for her
intellectuality as well as her beauty. II 10, Dr. Alexander, of Texas. II 11 (first consort),
Mary Florence Murrell, of Alabama. II 12 (Propositus), JOHN NEWLAND MAFFITT. II 13
(third consort), Emma Martin, author of "Life and Services of John Newland Maffitt." II 14
(second consort), Mrs. Caroline Laurens Read.

Children of sibs: III 1, Walter C. Maffitt. Ill 2, Matilda Maffitt. Ill 3, Benjamin
Crew. Ill 4, Samuel Calder. Ill 5, Loretta Lamar. Ill 6, Captain Tucker, of Virginia.

III 7, Caroline Budd. Children of Propositus: III 10, Florence Laurens Maffitt (1842-1883),
was devoid of fear. Ill 11, Eugene A. Maffitt (see text). Ill 12, John Laurens Maffitt. Ill
13, Golden Rhind Maffitt.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

MAFFITT, E. 1906. The Life and Services of John Newland Maffitt. New York: Neale Pub-
lishing Go.



MAHAN. 125

38. ALFRED THAYER MAHAN.

ALFRED THAYER MAHAN was born at West Point, New York, September
27, 1840. He went to boarding-school, then to Columbia College, New York
City, in 1854, and to the Naval Academy in September 1856 (at 15 years of age),
whence he was graduated in 1859, and went on a cruise in the Congress to the South
Atlantic. Commissioned lieutenant in 1861, he saw service in the blockade of the
Southern and Gulf States. For the next twenty years he was in active service at
sea. While in the Asiatic squadron he saw much of China and Japan. He was
appointed president of the newly established Naval War College at Newport,
Rhode Island, and served in that capacity from 1886 to 1889 and in 1892-1893.
In 1890 his "The influence of sea power upon history, 1660-1783," was published.
It has been used as a text-book in all naval colleges of the world. While in com-
mand of the Chicago in European waters, he was given the honorary degrees of
D. C. L. by Oxford and LL. D by Cambridge in recognition of the value of this
work; similar degrees were given him by universities of the United States. He
was a member of the naval board during the war with Spain and was appointed
by President McKinley a delegate to the Hague Peace Conference. He wrote
numerous works on naval matters; a history of his experience in the blockade,
"Influence of Sea Power on the French Revolution and Empire," "Life of Far-
ragut," "Life of Nelson" (the greatest of Nelson biographies), "The Interest of
America in Sea Power," "Lessons of the War with Spain," "Sea Power in its Re-
lation to the War of 1812," and others, including an autobiographical work "From
Sail to Steam," 1907. He died December 1, 1914.

Mahan had the hypokinetic temperament which is so common among the
Irish. This appears clearly in the following self-revelation :

" While I have no difficulty in entering into civil conversation with a stranger
who addresses me, I rarely begin, having, upon the whole, a preference for an intro-
duction. This is not perverseness; but lack of facility. I have, too, an abhorrence
of public speaking, and a desire to slip unobserved into a back seat wherever I
am, which amounts to a mania; but I am bound to admit I get both these disposi-
tions from my father, whose Irish was undiluted by foreign admixture."

This hypokinesis forms the background of his thorough work. He found
pleasure in study and writing; he did not feel pressure to rush his work, and took
time to do it well. His philosophic insight permeates it all. As a writer on
naval history he has never been equaled. He understands the essential features
of the naval battle he has to describe and he knows how to set them forth. He
ranks among the first of the world's biographers. More, perhaps, than any other,
he has pointed out how inherited traits of personality have determined performance.
Since his biographies are rich in incidents showing the reaction of the propositus
to particular situations, they are of the greatest importance for a psychological
analysis of the personality. Of his own reactions as an author he writes: "The
favorable criticism upon the first sea-power book not only surprised me, but had
increased my ambition and my self-confidence." "I now often recall with envy
the happiness of those days, when the work was its own reward, and quite sufficient,
too; almost as good as a baby." "None but a blockhead would write for money,
unless he had to." (Mahan, 1907, p. 311.)

Mahan belongs to a philosophical, scholarly race. His father, Dennis Hart
Mahan, born April 1808, was professor of engineering, civil as well as military,



126 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS.

at West Point, for over 40 years. He was of pure Irish blood. He lived for
a while in Norfolk, Virginia, was graduated at West Point, and earned a distin-
guished reputation there. He was sent to France for higher military education.
He had no strong bias toward arms, but was very fond of drawing and sought the
Military Academy as a means to this end. The following incident illustrates his
though tf ulness : Once he was on a board where an objectionable project was
offered by an influential officer. A young member of the board asked his advice
about opposing it, hesitating on account of the odium that such opposition would
bring to him. Mahan advised the young man against such action and then threw
the force of his great influence against the proposition and defeated it.

FAMILY HISTORY OF ALFRED T. MAHAN.

II (F F), John Mahan, was born in Ireland and came to New
York whence he removed to Virginia. I 2, Mary deary, born in
Ireland. I 3 (M F), John Okill, of English stock. 14 (M ), Mary
Jay, of Huguenot descent, a vivacious woman.

II 1 (F), Dennis Hart Mahan (1802-1871), led his class upon
being graduated from the United States Military Academv. He
was promoted to the corps of engineers, but remained at the academy
as instructor. In 1832 he was appointed professor of civil and mili-
tary engineering at the academy and, in 1838, dean of the faculty.
He published many civil and military text-books. II 2 (M), Mary
Helena Okill.

Fraternity of Propositus: III 1, Frederick Augustus Mahan (born 1847), was graduated
from the United States Military Academy at West Point with the actual rank of second lieu-
tenant of engineers. He served in various capacities as engineer, rising to the rank of major
in 1894; in 1900 he retired. He aided in editing the last edition of his father's "Civil Engi-
neering." Ill 2, Dennis Hart Mahan (born 1849), was graduated from the United States Naval
Academy in 1869. He served in the Philippine campaign, 1899-1900, on the U. S. S. Brooklyn;
he was at Kingston, Jamaica, during the earthquake rescue, commanding U. S. S. Indiana. Ill
4 (Propositus), ALFRED THAYER MAHAN. Ill 5 (consort), Ellen Lyle Evans.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

ABBOT, H. 1788. Memoir of Dennis Hart Mahan. (In: Biographical Memoirs of Nation.
Acad. of Sciences, 1886. Vol. II, pp. 29-37.)

MAHAN, A. T. 1907. From Sail to Steam. Recollections of a Naval Life. New York: Har-
per & Bros, xvii + 326 pp.




MARKHAM. 127

39. JOHN MARKHAM.

JOHN MARKHAM was born at Dean's Yard, June 13, 1761. He was sent to
Westminster School at the age of 8 years, was appointed a midshipman at 14
(1775), and sailed for Newfoundland. His ship chased privateers, and at 15 he
was made prize-master of a sloop-of-war. In 1779 he took a gallant part in the
capture of Charleston, South Carolina, was promoted to a lieutenancy and put in
charge of the prize frigate Confederacy, and at 20 was given command of a British
naval vessel. During this time he seems to have made no important error of
judgment, but in May 1782 he mistook a ship sailing under a flag of truce for an
enemy and was court-martialed, but later he was restored to his rank. In 1783
Markham commanded a naval vessel in the Mediterranean; later he traveled with
a friend through Europe and to America. After the French war broke out he
obtained command of a ship (1793) and cruised in the French West Indies. In
1797 he took part in the blockade of Brest, but in 1801 resigned his command.
He was then elected a lord of the admiralty and entered Parliament; in 1804 he
was made rear admiral; in 1806 first sea lord. His health began to decline and he
died at Naples in 1827.

John Markham was not prudent or cautious and was a fearless though not a
great fighter. He was honorable, warm-hearted, generous, and never forgot a friend,
and his affection for his relatives was deep and strong. He had great application.

By a consort of good family (whose mother's mother's father was secretary
of war) he had 4 sons, of whom one, Frederick (1818-1855), became a soldier and
saw service in Canada, India, and the Crimea, was extremely fond of hunting big
game, and wrote two books on hunting and travel. He never married. A second
son, like his father's brothers, father's father, and mother's brother, was a clergyman.

John Markham's father (William Markham) was a clergyman, an Arch-
bishop of York. Like his son he had great application, "an attention that nothing
could disturb," also he was affectionate toward his children. He was especially
interested in geography. "Dr. Markham often seemed to show a partiality for
the profession of a soldier. He, no doubt, possessed in an eminent degree those
qualities which would have led to distinction in military life. His judgment was
cool, his courage undaunted, his decision quick, his mind energetic, active and
enterprising, his constitution capable of enduring fatigue and patience not to be
subdued." He was interested in military tactics. Of his sons, besides John, one,
David, was remarkably bright and clever and an excellent Latin scholar. He
entered the army by inclination, was sent to India, was wounded, returned home,
and became major of infantry in 1793, and later, while commanding at Jamaica,
lieutenant colonel. He was killed while leading his men at San Domingo in 1795.
An intellectual and resolute man; at the same time gentle and warm-hearted.

Two other brothers became clergymen. One, William, after a few years in
the civil service in India, settled down in Yorkshire as a country gentleman and
indulged his taste for literature, especially the classics. He early became crippled
by gout. From William and his wife Elizabeth Bowles are descended David,
a clergyman, canon of Windsor, and the father of Sir Clements Markham, the
explorer and author; and John, a captain in the Royal Navy and father of
Admiral Sir Albert Hastings Markham, the explorer and author. Brother Osborn
was a barrister. The fraternity showed a high degree of talent, with diverse tastes
and constitutions.



128



HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS.



FAMILY HISTOKT OF SIB JOHN MARKHAM.

1 1 (F F F), Daniel Markham, a colonel in the army, who settled in Ireland. I 2 (F F M),
Elizabeth Fennel, a granddaughter in the maternal line of Oliver Cromwell. I 3 (consort's
M F F), Baron Talbot, lord chancellor. I 4 (consort's M F M), Cecil Matthews, a Welsh
heiress. I 5 (consort's M M F), Adam de Cardonnell, secretary of war.

II 1 (F F), William Markham (1686-1771), a major in the army after many years of service.
II 2 (F M), Elizabeth Markham, a fourth cousin once removed. II 3 (M F), John Goddard
(1690-1766), settled in Rotterdam as a merchant. II 4 (M M), Elizabeth Smith. II 5 (consort's
M F), William Earl Talbot. II 6 (consort's M M), Mary de Cardonell.




Fraternity of F: III 1, Elizabeth Markham. Ill 2, George Markham, entered the navy at
an early age, but left in disgust after many years because he did not get the desired promotion.

III 3, Enoch Markham, was a volunteer for American service; later he became major command-
ant of the Royal Musketeers and then a colonel in the army. Ill 4 (F), William Markham
(1719-1807), a scholar, who became head of Winchester School and Archbishop of York. Ill 5
(M), Sarah Goddard (1738-1814). Ill 6, John Goddard. Ill 7 (consort's F), Hon. George
Rice, M. P. Ill 8 (consort's M), Lady Cecil Talbot.

Fraternity of Propositus: IV 1, George Markham (1763-1822), dean of York. IV 2, Eliza-
beth Sutton. IV 3, Alicia Markham, born 1771. IV 4, Rev. H. F. Mills. IV 5, David Mark-
ham (1766-1795), was killed at San Domingo while gallantly leading his men. IV 6, Robert
Markham (1768-1837), became canon residentiary of York in 1802. IV 7, Frances, daughter
of Sir Gervase Clifton. IV 8, Osborne Markham (born 1769), a barrister-at-law. IV 9, Martha
Jervis (see Admiral John Jervis). IV 10, Henrietta Markham, born 1764. IV 11, Evan Law.

IV 13, Sir W. Milner, high sheriff, a first cousin on the maternal side of Charles Sturt, the
renowned Australian explorer. IV 14, Selina Clements. IV 15, Elizabeth Markham, born 1765.
IV 16, W. Barnett. IV 17, Cecilia Markham (born 1783). IV 18, Rev. R. P. Goodenough.
IV 19, Frederica Markham, born 1774. IV 20, William, Earl of Mansfield. IV 21, William
Markham (1760-1815), a county gentleman with a taste for literature. IV 22, Elizabeth Bowles.
IV 23 (Propositus), SIR JOHN MARKHAM. IV 24 (consort), Hon. Maria Rice, born 1773. Fra-
ternity of consort: IV 25, Henrietta Rice, born 1758. IV 26, Magens-Darrien Magens, a banker.
IV 27, George Rice, Lord Dynevor (1765-1852). IV 28, Edward Rice (1776-1862), Dean of
Gloucester.

V 3, George Markham (1796-1834), a lieutenant in the navy. V 4, Edward Markham
(1801-1865), in the East India civil service. V 5, Robert Markham, a captain in the army,
who was killed in a duel in 1832. V 6, Henry Markham (died 1844), canon of York. V 8,
Georgina Markham. V 9, George, tenth Earl of Haddington. V 10, Martha Markham. V 11,
Rev. William H. Pearson. V 12, Catherine Milner. V 13, David Markham (born 1800), canon
of Windsor. V 14, John Markham (born 1797), a captain of the Royal Navy. IV 15, Marianne



MARKHAM MARRY AT. 129

Wood. V 16, Warren Markham (1801-1836), a captain in the army. V 17, Charles Markham
(1803-1843), a lieutenant colonel in the army. V 19, Colonel William Markham (1796-1852).
V 20, Lucy Holbech. Children of Propositus: V 21, William Rice Markham (1803-1877), vicar
of Moreland. V 22, Jane Clayton. V 23, John Markham (1801-1837), educated at Westminster.

V 24, Frederick Markham (1818-1855), a major general, sportsman, and traveler. V 25, Maria
Frances Markham (1806-1836).

VI 1, George Baillie Hamilton, eleventh Earl of Haddington, high sheriff, and an army cap-
tain. VI 2, Major Robert Baillie Hamilton (1828-1891). VI 4, Henry Baillie-Hamilton (1832-
1895), a commander, Royal Navy. VI 5, Arthur Baillie Hamilton (born 1838), vicar of Badley.

VI 7, David Markham (1828-1850), died at sea. VI 8, Clements Markham (1830-1916), "as a boy
always evinced a decided penchant for the sea." He became renowned as a geographer, explorer,
and author of books of travel. VI 12, Sir Albert Hastings Markham, (born 1841), entered the
Royal Navy in 1856 and rose to the rank of rear admiral. He is well known as an explorer and
writer. VI 13, Alfred Markham, of the Royal Navy. VI 15, Sir Edwin Markham (born 1833),
a colonel commandant, Royal Artillery, served in Crimea and India. VI 16, William Markham,
born 1830. VI 17, Captain Francis Markham, born 1837. Children of children of Propositus:
VI 18, Maria Markham, born 1842.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

MARKHAM, SIR C. 1883. A Naval Career of the Old War. Being a Narrative of the Life of
Admiral John Markham. London: S. Low, Marston, Scarle & Rivington. viii +
289 pp.

MARKHAM, D. 1854. A History of the Markham Family. London: J. B. Nicols & Sons,
xi + 96 pp.

40. FREDERICK MARRYAT.

FREDERICK MARRYAT (1792-1848) was born at Westminster, July 10, 1792.
He was precocious, learned and forgot easily, and was frequently flogged for
inattention. He often ran away from school once to avoid wearing his brother's
cast-off garments and he always ran toward the sea. At last, at 14 years of
age, his father arranged for him to enter the navy in 1806, where he first saw service
on the Imperieuse, under Lord Cochrane, in the Mediterranean. During the next
two and a half years Marryat was in fifty engagements. His captain mentioned
him for his bravery. Between 1809 and 1815 he served in North American waters
and in the West Indies under various commanders. In 1812 he was made lieu-
tenant and in 1815 commander; he directly afterward married. In 1824 he was
at Rangoon, in command of the naval forces there. In 1825 he commanded an
expedition up the Bassein river. Returning to England, he was awarded the order
of Companion of the Bath and, though often invited to the court of the King,
was not in great favor because of his publication against impressment of seamen.

Now began a new life for Marryat, one of great literary productiveness,
particularly in the field of novels based on sea-life. He purchased 1,000 acres
in Norfolk, but as he could not endure its monotony he went back to London for
fifteen years. There he edited a magazine in addition to writing books. In
1837 he went to America and traveled extensively. When the French under Papi-
neau revolted in Canada, 1837-1838, he hastened to offer his services. He finally
returned to his estate and tried farming again in 1843 ; but his experiments in this
avocation were costly and consumed the large income derived from his books;
evidently he had the desire to see things doing when he was on land also. He
died in 1848, much depressed by the death of his son Frederick, whose ship sank
in 1847.

Marryat loved adventure and was without fear. As a young man he played
pranks, and in this respect his son Frederick resembled him. It is said that he



130 HEREDITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL OFFICERS.

rescued 27 men who had fallen overboard; he early received the medal of the
Humane Society for this. His son Frederick went overboard to rescue men in
the same way. On one occasion when, off New York harbor, the ship was on her
beams end, Maryatt alone had the courage to cut away her main yards. He was
restless. Probably there was a nomadic tendency on the mother's side, as her
father was a Hessian who had emigrated to Boston, England.

Marryat had the impulse to write and the ability to write well. Novels,
books of travel, poems even, flowed from his pen. Several of his brothers and
sisters were authors, partly of travels. His father wrote political pamphlets.
The father's father was a physician, author of "Therapeutics, or the art of healing, "
and "The Philosophy of Masons"; also verse. Moreover, a cousin, Sir Edward
Belcher, wrote two books of travel and a book on surveying. Marryat's son
Frank had begun to write books of travel before his untimely death.

Marryat was a visualist and very skillful in sketching and caricaturing. Dur-
ing the Burmese war he made a series of sketches representing scenery, people,
and engagements of the war. His son Frank, who died young of yellow fever,
had his father's ability to draw. Marryat's eldest brother collected china and
wrote a book on the subject; a sister wrote a "History of Lace." Doubtless this
family appeal of the beauty of form was one of the things that made ships fasci-
nating. He was also something of an inventor. He worked out a signal code
for merchant vessels and invented a cipher for secret correspondence. He was
very resourceful in bridge-building while at Rangoon.

FAMILY HISTORY OF FREDERICK MARRYAT.

II (F F), Thomas Marryat, a physician and an author. 13 (M F), Frederick von Geyer,
a Hessian settler in Boston; a loyalist.

II 1 (Fj, Joseph Marryat, member of Par-
liament; author of political pamphlets. II 2
(M), Charlotte von Geyer. II 3 (consort's F), Sir

Stephen Shairp, counsel general at the court of ir4_Js

Russia. EarKj

Fraternity of the Propositus: III 1, Joseph
Marryat, a collector of china; author of "Pottery



Marryat, a collector ot cnma; author ot Pottery Ji I a fa 4 1&
and Porcelain." Ill 2, Horace Marryat, author of n U U CHD N?

"One Year in Sweden." Ill 3, Marryat, wrote

"Nature and Art" and "History of Lace." Ill 4, Ji J| Js'jL**

Bury Pattison. Ill 7 (Propositus), FREDERICK ^ ul H O~L- 1

MARRYAT. Ill 8 (consort), Catherine Shairp, had
talent and literary taste.

Children of the Propositus: IV 1, Frederick Marryat, a lieutenant in the navy who was
lost in the wreck of the Avenger, in 1847. IV 2, Frank Marryat, died a midshipman in the navy.
IV 3, Emily, Augusta, and four other sisters. IV 4, Florence Marryat, novelist and author
of "Life and Letters of Captain Marryat." IV 5, Ross Church.

9 BIBLIOGRAPHY.

MAHRYAT, F. 1872. Life and Letters of Captain Marryat. New York: D. Appleton & Co.




McCLINTOCK. 131

41. SIR FRANCIS LEOPOLD MCCLINTOCK.

FRANCIS LEOPOLD MCCLINTOCK was born at Dundalk, Ireland, July 8,
1819. He entered the Royal Navy at the age of 12 years. At 24 he passed his
lieutenant's examination and joined the Gorgan steamship, which was driven ashore
at Montevideo but salvaged. In 1848 he joined the search for Sir John Franklin,
and on his third voyage, in 1854, commanded the Intrepid. He developed the
system of sled traveling. After the admiralty had abandoned the rescue work,
Lady Franklin fitted out the Fox in 1857 and put it in command of McClintock,
who in 1859 discovered skeletons, other remains, and a manuscript record of the
expedition. He also added 800 miles of new coast to our knowledge of the Arctic
region. On his return he was knighted. He sounded the North Atlantic for the



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