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JOHN COLERIDGE PATTESON.



GREAT MISSIONARIES



OF



THE CHURCH



BY

THE REV. CHARLES C. CREEGAN, D.D.

AND

MRS. JOSEPHINE A. B. GOODNOW



WITH AN INTRODUCTION BV THE

REV. FRANCIS E. CLARK, D.D.

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED SOCIETY OF CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR



New York : 46 East Fourteenth Street

THOMAS Y. CROWELL & COMPANY

Boston : 100 Purchase Street



Copyright, 1895,
By Thomas Y. Crowell & Company.



TYPOGRAPHY BY C. J. PETERS Si SON,
BOSTON.






TO

Wi)t loung ^roplr of ©ur JBag,

THIS VOLUME

IS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED.






PREFACE.



The admirable Introduction to this vol-
ume, from the pen of my friend, the Rev.
Francis E. Clark, D.D., makes a formal
preface unnecessary. I wish, however, to
acknowledge the kindness of those who
have made this book possible by their
timely aid.

My best thanks are due to the proprie-
tors of that excellent Christian paper. The
Congregatioualist, in whose columns eight
of these sketches have already appeared,
for permission to republish them, together
with fifteen others, in permanent form. As
a fittingr recognition of the invaluable aid I
have received from Mrs. Josephine A. B.
Goodnow of Dubuque, Iowa, her name
has been placed on the title page.



vi PREFACE.

I have also received valuable assistance
in the matter of data, and in other ways,
from Mrs. Mary E. Logan, late missionary
in Micronesia ; Miss Clementine Butler,
Newton Centre, Mass. ; the Rev. James
Mudge, Lowell, Mass., late associate of
Bishop Thoburn in India ; the Rev. Ross
Taylor, New York ; and Mr. James D.
Creegan of Brooklyn.

I wish also to acknowledge many cour-
tesies from the publishers at whose sug-
gestion the book has been prepared, and
who have, through their artistic and me-
chanical work, left nothing to be desired.

The reader will miss the names of some
famous missionaries of this century ; but
the plan of the book will be seen, w^hen it
is observed that we have representatives
from seven denominations and sixteen mis-
sion lands. To include all the missionary
heroes of our time would require several
volumes.



PREFACE. ' Vll

If these sketches help to deepen sym-
pathy for missions, and to increase gifts to
the cause, and if they may be the means of
leading some of our young people to
follow the example of these noble men,
who have given their all to build up
Christ's Kingdom, they will have fully an-
swered the purpose for which they are now
sent forth.

Bible House, New York,
May ID, 1895.



INTRODUCTION.



I CAN scarcely conceive of a more useful
book for young- people to own and study
than this most interestingf volume of mis-
sionary biography.

If it is a vitally necessary thing for
young Christians who would develop the
most intelligent type of religious character
to know the lives of the apostles of old,
and to become familiar with their acts as
recorded by the pen of inspiration, it is
scarcely less important that they should
study the later and no less thrilling acts of
later apostles of the church.

In this volume the acts of the apostles
are continued in graphic and interesting
chapters. Young people everywhere, what-
ever their age or sex (for there is many a
young man and woman with heart fresh

ix



X INTRODUCTION.

and un furrowed, though the brow may be
wrnikled by three-score years and ten),
enjoy stirring adventures, Hvely incidents,
and heroic stories.

No less Interesting to every healthy
mind is a well-written biograghy, a story
which tells of the actual hopes and fears
and joys and acts of a living man. This
volume combines the excellences of the
spirited story of adv^enture, and the graphic
biography of real men and women. What
more happy combination could be found ?
The biography in almost every case is a
story of adventure ; the story of adventure
is a biography — a life history of some
ofreat man or woman.

After having taken a long journey
through many missionary lands, my delib-
erate and often recorded opinion has been
that, if we seek for heroes to-day, we will
find them, for the most part, on missionary
soil. Not that many a humble, inconspicu-
ous life is not lived most heroically at
home. I would not belittle with a sing-le
adjective of faint praise the splendid devo-



IXTRODUCTfON. XI

tion of humble Christians, But if we are
speaking of conspicuous heroism, of hves
which God has marked as eminent exam-
ples to the world, we must look for them
very largely on the frontier of our own
land where our home missionaries have
gone, or in the dark nations of the world
to which our foreign missionaries are carry-
ing the light of gospel truth.

I am olad to record aeain that mission-
ary work in all the various Protestant
denominations, in all parts of the world,
is, in my e)'es, the most promising and
hopeful feature of modern civilization.
For the enlargement of commerce, for the
spread of civilization, for the uplifting of
humanity, for the redemption of the world,
there is no such force as that which is
exerted by the Anglo-Saxon missionaries
of the cross, the ministers of the Lord
Jesus Christ.

If this opinion is true of the average
missionary to-day, at work in the foreign
field, and I believe it is, how doubly true
is it of the great missionaries of the



Xll INTRODUCTION.



church, Patteson and Carey and Neesima
and Wilhams and Taylor and Livingstone.

It only remains to be said that this most
interesting subject is treated by its authors
in a way worthy of their theme. With this
book in his hands, no one can say that mis-
sionary biography is dull, stale, and unin-
teresting. No one will yawn over insipid
pages, or read only from a sense of duty
these charming chapters. If more light
and more knowledge are the great pre-
requisites for larger interests and larger
gifts, then I believe that this volume will
do not a little to kindle to a brighter flame
the interest of Christians in missionary
themes.

Already the fire has begun to blaze in
many a young heart. In a multitude of
young people's conventions no theme to-
day is so interesting as the missionary
theme. No subjects so stir the hearts
and quicken the pulses of a host of young
disciples as those connected with the win-
ning of the world to Christ. This book
will supply the fire of enthusiasm with the



INTRODUCTION. XIU

one fuel that is needed — the fuel of in-
formation.

If this result is accomplished, then the
missionary treasuries will feel the influ-
ence of this book. To some extent the
mountainous debt should be scaled down,
and the treasuries, refilled as this volume
goes from family to family on its blessed
mission of information and inspiration.

FRANCIS E. CLARK.

Boston, April %, 1895.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER



PAGE

Preface v

Introduction ix

I. Bishop John C. Patteson,

The Martyr of Malanesia 3

II. Titus Coan,

Missionary to Hawaii 19

III. William Goodell,

Missionary to Turkey 3^

IV. William Carey,

Missionary to India 45

V. William G. Schauffler,

Missionary to Turkey 59

VI. Griffith John,

Missionary to China 75

VII. Elijah Coleman Bridgman,

Missionary to China 95

VIII. Bishop James Mills Thoburn,

Missionary to India 109

IX. Bishop Samuel Adjai Crowther,

Missionary Bishop of the Niger .... 125

X. John Kenneth Mackenzie, M.D.,

Medical Missionary to China 143

XI. Joseph Hardy Neesima,

Missionary to Japan 159

XV



XVI



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER PAGB

XII. John Williams,

Martyr Missionary of Polynesia .... 179

XIII. Robert W. Logan,

Missionary to Micronesia 199

XIV. William Butler,

Missionary to India and Mexico . . . . 219

XV. Adoniram Judson,

Missionary to Burma 235

XVI. John G. Baton,

Missionary to the New Hebrides .... 253

XVII. Alexander M. Mackay,

Missionary to Uganda 273

XVIII. Bishop William Taylor,

Missionary to India, So. America, Africa . 291

XIX. Robert Moffat,

Missionary to Africa 3^5

XX. William McClure Thomson,

Missionary to Syria 3^5

XXI. Marcus Whitman, M.D.,

Missionary to Oregon 34^

XXII. Bishop James Hannington,

The Martyr of Eastern Africa 369

XXIII. David Livingstone,

Missionary and Explorer in Africa . . . 385



JOHN COLERIDGE PATTESON.

Born April i, 1827, Died Sept. 20, 1871.



GREAT MISSIONARIES



OF



THE CHURCH.



I.

BISHOP PATTESON.

The lives of some men are an atmos-
phere into which we cannot enter with-
out feehng braced and invigorated. Such
was the hfe of John Coleridge Patteson,
possessing as it did the attributes of
real manhood, unswerving allegiance to
right, and a human tenderness. The poor
heathen, for whose sake he gave up all,
were the most unpromising material to
be found in the wide world for conversion
into citizens of the kingdom of heaven.
But the faith of Patteson was constantly
strengthened by witnessing the spiritual

3



4 GREAT MISSIONARIES.

beauty and fidelity of those who in due
time sat at the feet of Christ, clothed
and in their right mind.

John Coleridge Patteson was born on
April I, 1827. His father, John Patteson,
was a lawyer of no mean repute. His
mother was of the Coleridge family, and
her line was distinguished by the philos-
opher, Samuel Taylor Coleridge. To the
future bishop she gave her family name ;
and to those who knew him best, not only
as a boy, but afterwards when he had
reached man's estate, he was known as
" Coley." Consideration for others, kind-
ness and sweetness of nature, were his
leadino- characteristics.

While at Eton he was profoundly im-
pressed by a farewell sermon which Bishop
Selwyn preached in October, 1841, at
Windsor, where the bishop had acted as
curate. When callincr on his mother to bid
her farewell, that eminent prelate and mis-
sionary said, with a kind of prophetic an-
ticipation, " Lady Patteson, will you give
me Coley ? " and the boy said he would



BISHOP PATTESON. 5

like some time to go with the bishop.
Meantime his school-hfe was arduous and
successful. At Oxford, where he entered
with deep interest into the religious move-
ments of the day, he obtained, in 1849,
a classical second class, and subsequently
a fellowship.

His examination for his degree was fol-
lowed by a tour in Germany and Italy. In
1853 ^^ '^v^s ordained, and took the curacy
of Alfineton. Here his sweet manner and
musical voice helped to win the hearts of
his people ; but general society he never
liked, small talk he declared he could not
manufacture, and morning callers were the
plague of his life.

On the 19th of August, 1854, he joined
in welcoming the bishop of New Zealand,
who came to visit Encrland after twelve
years of work, during which he had
founded his church, organized its govern-
ment, and planned his system of mission-
ary aggression on the five groups of
islands which he combined under the col-
lective name of Melanesia. As early
as 1848 Bishop Selwyn had visited these



6 GREAT MISSIONARIES.

islands ; and he soon perceived that it was
vain to think of dealing- with them by
planting a resident English clergyman in
each of them. He also believed that no
church could take effectual root without
a native clergy ; and he accordingly de-
termined upon the plan to bring boys
from the islands to New Zealand, to edu-
cate them there in St. fohn's College, and
then send them home to become teachers
of their countrymen.

But what was now necessary was a man
who should be able to " rouofh it" amonof
the islands, and yet take up with spirit
and ability the education and training of
the islanders themselves. In quest of
such help Bishop Selwyn visited England
again, and now followed up the thought
of 1841, by asking .Sir John Patteson,
"Will you give me Coley ? " His words
fell upon a mind in the young man him-
self already charged with the subject ; and
in March, 1855, he left, his villagers de-
ploring his departure, and sailed for New
Zealand.

Here he wrought earnestly in the schools



BISHOP PATTESON. 7

until i860, when, despite his modest re-
luctance, he obeyed the earnest requisition
of Bishop Selwyn, and agreed to undertake
the episcopal office. In this year, i860,
he assumed the direction of the Melane-
sian mission, and founded a mission-house
at Mota. He was consecrated bishop on
February 24 ; and from this time for ten
and a half years remained in sole charge of
the missions of the Church in the islands.
Lady Martin gives the following brief de-
scription of the consecration service : "I
shall never forget the expression of his
face as he knelt in the quaint rocket. It
was meek and calm and holy, as though
all conflict was over, and he was resting
in divine strenofth. It was altogether a
wonderful scene — the three consecrating
bishops, all noble-looking men, the goodly
number of clergy, and Hohna's fine, intelli-
gent, brown face among them, and then
the long line of island boys and of St.
Stephen's native teachers and their wives,
— all living testimonies of mission-work."
Bishop Patteson was now formally in-



8 GREAT MISSIONARIES.

Stalled in the chapel of St. Andrew as head
of the college. Miss Yonge says : " It was
in his private classes that he exercised such
wonderful influence, his musical voice, his
holy face, his gentle manner, all helping
to impress and draw even the dullest."

Putting down his natural fastidiousness,
he gave dignity to the very humblest of
his duties. Some idea of his many-sided-
ness may be had from the following letter :
" I can hardly tell you how much I regret
not knowing somethino- about the treat-
ment of simple surgical cases. If I had
studied the practical, bled, drawn teeth,
mixed medicines, it would have been worth
something. Many trades need not be at-
tempted ; but every missionary ought to
be a carpenter, a mason, something of a
butcher, and a good deal of a cook."

The incessant labors and occasional dan-
gers of his life were relieved by his vivid
interest in his work, and by his enjoyment
of a climate which was to him highly genial.
The spirit of fun, which had had free play
in his boyhood, did not depart from him



Bisrror patteson.



during' his episcopate, and it found fit-
test openings in the innocent festivities
amone the natives. He taucjht them to
play cricket. They showed a marvellous
eagerness for knowledo^e, and labored like
the smallest English children at the mys-
teries of the alphabet. Patteson could not
bring himself to consider the poor, unen-
Hghtened heathen as under special condem-
nation ; rather, he rejoiced in hope of the
glory of God fulfilled in them when the
light of the gospel shall shine in their
hearts. He was a believer in the love of
God.

Early in 1870 Bishop Patteson was struck
down by a severe and dangerous attack
of internal inflammation, and it was evi-
dent that his unremitted exertion was car-
rying him with great rapidity into an early
old aee. With darkened countenance, and
frame prematurely bowed, he went to Auck-
land for advice. His ailment was declared
chronic, but not necessarily fatal. He be-
gan to be aware that there must be a
change in the amount and character of his
work. He says : —



lO GREAT MISSIONARIES.

" I think I shall have to forego some
of the more risky and adventurous part
of the work in the islands. I don't mean
that I shall not take the voyages, and stop
about on the islands as before ; but I must
do it all more carefully, and avoid much
that of old I never thouo-ht about."

He mended very slowly ; but he de-
termined to return to Melanesia. He
completed his circuit of the islands in
October, and, arriving at Norfolk Island,
resumed his old mapping of the day for
teaching, study, and devotion, never for-
getting correspondence in its turn. He
worked " from before 5 a.m. till soon after
9 P.M., when I go off to bed quite tired.
I am very seldom alone. I may do a great
deal of work yet, rather in a quieter way
than of old."

His mind continued to act, however, with
unabated interest upon all portions of his
work, and also upon Hebrew philologically
viewed, upon the events of the year at
Rome and on the French frontier, and
upon theology. On April 27, 1871, he set



BISHOP PATTESON. II

(Hit for his closing- voyage. At Mota, the
missionary headquarters, he recognized a
great progress. Christianity had so far be-
come a power and habit of hfe, that he felt
warranted, notwithstanding all his strictness
about the aciministration of baptism, in
giving that sacrament to young children.
After quite a visit at Fiji, he leaves there,
having baptized 289 persons, and visits
other groups of islands. His experience is
generally pleasant, but it is checkered by
rumors of crime and retaliation for crime
in connection with the labor traffic. Re-
turninof to Mota, he makes record of a
concourse of people flocking to be taught.
" I sleep on a table ; people under and
around me."

Such was the nightly preparation of the
invalid for his long, laborious, uncomplain-
ing days. On August 6 we have several
thoughtful pages on difficulties of theol-
ogy: " How thankful I am that I am far
away from the noise and worry of this
sceptical yet earnest age."

Sailing on the 20th, he sends to Bishop



12 GREAT MISSIONARIES.

Abraham an interesting summary of the
state of things at Mota. The bishops, his
brethren in New Zealand, jointly urged
him to pfo to Eno^land ; but he declined.
The slave traffic still casts a dark shadow
across his path. " I hear that a vessel
has gone to Santa Cruz ; and I must be
very cautious there, for there has been
some disturbance almost to a certainty."
On September i6 he finds himself off the
Santa Cruz group : "I pray God that if it
be his will, and if it be the appointed time,
he may enable us in his own way to be-
gin some little work among these very wild
but energetic islanders. I am fully alive
to the probability that some outrage has
been committed here by one or more ves-
sels. I am quite aware that we may be
exposed to considerable risk on this ac-
count, but I don't think there is very much
cause for fear ; first, because at these reef
islands they know me very well, though
they don't understand as yet our object in
coming to them, and they may very easily
connect us white people with the other



BISHOP PATTESON. I 3

white people who have ill-treated them.
Still, I think if any violence has been used
to the natives to the north face of the large
island, Santa Cruz, I shall hear of it, and
so be forewarned."

Accordingly, to Nukapu he went. Four
canoes were seen hovering about the coral
reef which surrounded the island. The
vessel had to feel her way ; so, lest the
men in the canoes should be perplexed, he
ordered the boat to be lowered, and when
asked to go into one of the native boats,
he did it to disarm suspicion, and was car-
ried off toward the shore. The boat from
the schooner could not get over the reef.
The bishop was seen to land on the shore,
and was then seen alive no more. After a
while Mr. Atkin was struck with an arrow-
head from the islanders in the canoe ; but,
in spite of suffering and weakness, he
crossed the reef to seek the bishop. A
canoe drifted toward them ; the body of a
man was seen as if crouching in it. They
came up with it, and lifted the bundle
wrapped in matting into the -boat ; two



14 GREAT MISSIONARIES.

words passed, "The body." Then it was
hfted up and laid across the skyHght. The
placid smile was still on the face ; there
was a palm-leaf fastened over the breast,
and when the mat was opened there were
five wounds.

This is an almost certain indication that
his death was vengeance for five of the
natives. " Blood for blood " is a sacred
law almost of nature wherever Christianity
has not prevailed, and a whole tribe is held
responsible for one. Five men in Fiji are
known to have been stolen from Nukapu ;
and probably their families believed them
to have been killed, and believed them-
selves to be performing a sacred duty when
they dipped their weapons in the blood of
the bishop, whom they did not know well
enough to understand him to be their pro-
tector.

The next morning the body of John
Coleridee Patteson was committed to the
waters of the Pacific, Joseph Atkin, read-
ing the burial service, even though then
recognizing his own sign of doom in a



BISHOP PATTESON. I 5

body stiffened from a poisonous arrow
which caused his death.

No summary can do justice to the char-
acter and career of Bishop Patteson. In
him were singularly combined the spirit of
chivalry, the glorious ornament of a by-
gone time ; the spirit of charity, rare in
every age ; and the spirit of reverence. It
is hardly possible to read the significant
but modest record of his sacrifices, his la-
bors, his perils, and his cares, without being
vividly reminded of St. Paul, the prince and
model of all missionary laborers, without
feeling that the apostolic pattern is not even
now without its imitators, and that the copy
in this case recalls the original. The three
hicrhest titles that can be criven to man are
those of martyr, hero, saint ; and which
of the three is there that in substance it
would be irrational to attach to the name
of John Coleridge Patteson ?



II.

TITUS CO AN, Missionary to Hawaii.

Born Feb. i, iSoi ; Died Dec. i, 1S82.




TITUS COAN.



II.

TITUS coan:

A BELT of island coast-line extending
from north to south a hundred miles, and
from one to three miles wide, dotted with
groves and seamed by deep mountain
chasms and scoriaceous lava-fields, varied
by plains and hills of pasture-land, upon
which feed herds of wild cattle — a land
inhabited by 15,000 natives, grouped in
villages of two or more hundred people,
vicious, shameless, yet tractable, slaves to
their chiefs, and herdino- tog-ether like ani-
mals — to this parish, occupying the east-
ern third of the island of Hawaii, was sent
in 1835 the young missionary, Titus Coan.

In the town of Killingworth, Conn., he
was born of old New England stock, Feb.
I, 1 80 1. His boyhood was passed upon
his father's farm, and he attended the

19



20 GREAT MISSIONARIES.

villaee schools. Later he went to a miU-
tary school ; after this was employed as a
teacher in Western New York ; and in
183 1, through the influence of his cousin,
the Rev. Asahel Nettleton, he entered the
theological seminary at Auburn. While
Mr. Coan was in the seminary he gave
much time to revival effort, and success
attended his labors. He was licensed to
preach April 17, 1833. On Aug. 16,
1833, he was sent to Patagonia by the
American Board, accompanied by the Rev.
Mr. Arms ; and for four months they niade
an earnest but unsuccessful attempt to
communicate to the ferocious nomads
something of their message. The sav-
ages threatened them with death ; and it
was only by stratagem that they made
their escape, and boarded a chance ves-
sel, and returned to New London, Conn.,
in May, 1834.

Mr. Coan had been unable to receive
any communication from his family or
from his fiancee, Miss Fidelia Church,
during his absence ; and the uncertainty



TITUS CO AN. 21

of his fate had been the source of the
deepest anxiety to them. After this trial
came the joy of reunion, which was cele-
brated by the marriage of Mr. Coan and
Miss Church on Nov. 3, 1834.

On December 5 they embarked at Bos-
ton for Honolulu. At diat time the Ha-
waiian Islands seemed at the very ends of
the earth, and the trip was a six months'
voyage around Cape Horn. Neither Mr.
Coan nor his bride then had any idea
of returning to their native land. They
arrived at Honolulu, June 6, 1835, and
were welcomed by the missionaries then
assembled at their annual meeting. The
field in which Mr. Coan was to labor was
Hilo — now a thriving town, then in al-
most absolute retirement ; and for many
years after his arrival there were no roads,
no bridges, and no horses in Hilo, and
Mr. Coan was oblicred to make his tours
on foot. Mr. and Mrs. Coan were de-
lighted that their future home was to be
upon the beautiful bay of Hilo, called after
the visit of Admiral Byron, Byron's Bay,



22 GREAT MISSIONARIES.

and adorned with the cocoa-pahn, whose


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