Charles Darwin.

Journal of researches into the natural history and geology of the countries visited during the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle round the world, under the command of Capt. Fitz Roy online

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Chapman





LIBRARY

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

SANTA BARBARA

PRESENTED BY

GARRETT HARDIN



SIR JOHN LUB BOCK'S HUNDRED BOOKS
2



DARWIN'S JOURNAL




CHARLES DARWIN.



SIX JOHN LUBBOCK'S HUNDRED BOOKS
2

JOURNAL OF RESEARCHES

INTO THE

NATURAL HISTORY AND GEOLOGY



COUNTRIES VISITED DURING THE, VOYAGE OF H.M.S
"BEAGLE" ROUND THE



tforaraanfr of Cajjt. |it$ OJT,



BY

CHARLES DARWIN, M.A., F.R.S.

// CORRECTED AND ENLARGED EDITION OF 1845.)



LONDON

GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS, LIMITED

BROADWAY, LUDGATE HILL

GLASGOW, MANCHESTER, AND NEW YORK

1891



SIR JOHN LUBBOCK'S HUNDRED BOOKS.



ORDER OF PUBLICATION.

HERODOTUS. Literally Translated from the
Text of BAEHK, by HENRY CAKY, M.A.
3 s. 6d.

DARWIN'S VOYAGE OF A NATURALIST
IN H.M.S. " BEAGLE." 25.

THE MEDITATIONS OF MARCUS AU-
RELIUS. Translated from the Greek by
JEREMY COLLIER, is. 6d.

THE TEACHING OF EPICTETUS. Trans-
lated from the Greek, with Introduction and
Notes, by T. W. ROLLESTO.N. is. 6d.

BACON'S ESSAYS. With an Introduction by
HE.NKY MORLEY, LL.D. is. 6d.



GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS, LIMITED.



INTRODUCTION

BY

THE RIGHT HON. SIR JOHN LUBBOCK, BART., M.P.,

F.R.S., D.C.L., LL.D.,
CHAIRMAN OF THE LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL.



IN the year 1886 I gave an address on " Books and Reading"
at the Working Men's College, which in the following year was
printed as one of the chapters in my " Pleasures of Life."

In it I mentioned about one hundred names, and the list has
been frequently referred to since as my list of " the hundred best
books." That, however, is not quite a correct statement. If I
were really to make a list of what are in my judgment the hundred
greatest books, it would contain several Newton's " Principia,"
for instance which I did not include, and it would exclude several
the " Koran," for instance which I inserted in deference to the
judgment of others. Again, I excluded living authors, from some
of whom Ruskin and Tennyson, Huxley and Tyndall, for in-
stance, to mention no others I have myself derived the keenest
enjoyment ; and especially I expressly stated that I did not select
the books on my own authority, but as being those most frequently
mentioned with approval by those writers who have referred
directly or indirectly to the pleasure of reading, rather than as
suggestions of my own.

I have no doubt that on reading the list, many names of
books which might well be added would occur to almost any one.
Indeed, various criticisms on the list have appeared, and many
books have been mentioned which it is said ought to have been
included. On the other hand no corresponding omissions have
been suggested. I have referred to several of the criticisms, and
find that, while 300 or 400 names have been proposed for addition,
only half a dozen are suggested for omission. Moreover, it is
remarkable that not a single book appears in all the lists, or even
in half of them, and only about half a dozen in more than one.

But while, perhaps, no two persons would entirely concur as to
all the books to be included in such a list, I believe no one would
deny that those suggested are not only good, but among the best.

I am, however, ready, and indeed glad, to consider any sugges-
tions, and very willing to make any changes which can be shown
to be improvements. I have indeed made two changes in the list
as it originally appeared, having inserted Kalidasa's " Sakoontala,



INTRODUCTION.



or The Ring," and Schiller's "William Tell"; omitting Lacretius,
which is perhaps rather too difficult, and Miss Austen, as English
novelists were somewhat over-represented.

Another objection made has been that the books mentioned are
known to every one, at any rate by name ; that they are as household
words. Every one, it has been said, knows about Herodotus and
Homer, Shakespeare and Milton. There is, no doubt, some truth
in this. But even Lord Iddesleigh, as Mr. Lang has pointed out
in his " Life," had never read Marcus Aurelius, and I may add
that he afterwards thanked me warmly for having suggested the
"Meditations" to him.* If, then, even Lord Iddesleigh, " prob-
ably one of the last of English statesmen who knew the literature
of Greece and Rome widely and well," had not read Marcus
Aurelius, we may well suppose that others also may be in the same
position. It is also a curious commentary on what was no doubt
an unusually wide knowledge of classical literature that Mr. Lang
should ascribe and probably quite correctly Lord Iddesleigh's
never having had his attention called to one of the most beautiful
and improving books in classical, or indeed in any other literature,
to the fact that the emperor wrote in "crabbed and corrupt Greek."

Again, a popular writer in a recent work has observed that " why
any one should select the best hundred, more than the best eleven,
or the best thirty books, it is hard to conjecture." But this remark
entirely misses the point. Eleven books, or even thirty, would be
very few ; but no doubt I might just as well have given 90, or 'no.
Indeed, if our arithmetical notition had been duodecimal instead
of decimal, I should no doubt have made up the number to 120.
I only chose 100 as being a round number.

Another objection has been that 'every one should be left to
choose for himself. And so he must. No list can be more than
a suggestion. But a great literary authority can hardly perhaps
realize the difficulty of selection. An ordinary person turned into
a library and sarcastically told to choose for himself, has to do so
almost at haphazard. He may perhaps light upon a book with an
attractive title, and after wasting on it much valuable time and
patience, find that, instead of either pleasure or profit, he has
weakened, or perhaps lost, his love of reading.

Messrs. George Routledge and Sons have conceived the idea ol
publishing the books contained in my list in a handy and cheap
form, selecting themselves the editions which they prefer ; and I
believe that in doing so they will confer a benefit on many who
have not funds or space to collect a large library.

JOHN LUBBOCK,
HIGH ELMS,

DOWN, KENT,

30 March, 1891.

* I have since had many other letters to the same effect.



TO

CHARLES LYELL, ESQ., F.R.S.,

THIS SECOND EDITION IS DEDICATED WITH GRATEFUL PLEASURE, AS

AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT THAT THE CHIEF PART OF WHATEVER

SCIENTIFIC MERIT THIS JOURNAL AND THE OTHER

WORKS OF THE AUTHOR MAY POSSESS, HAS

BEEN DERIVED FROM STUDYING

THE WELL-KNOWN

ADMIRABLE

PRINCIPLES OF GEOLOGY.



P RE FACE.



I HAVE stated in the preface to the first Edition of this work,
and in the Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle, that it was in
consequence of a wish expressed by Captain Fitz Roy, of having
some scientific person on board, accompanied by an offer from
him of giving up part of his own accommodations, that I volun-
teered my services, which received, through the kindness of the
hydrographer, Captain Beaufort, the sanction of the Lords of
the Admiralty. As I feel that the opportunities which I en-
joyed of studying the Natural History of the different countries
we visited have been wholly due to Captain Fitz Roy, I hope
I may here be permitted to repeat my expression of gratitude
to him ; and to add that, during the five years we were together,
I received from him the most cordial friendship and steady
assistance. Both to Captain Fitz Roy and to all the Officers of
the Beagle * I shall ever feel most thankful for the undeviating
kindness with which I was treated during our long voyage.

This volume contains, in the form of a Journal, a history of
our voyage, and a sketch of those observations in Natural
History and Geology, which I think will possess some interest
for the general reader. I have in this edition largely condensed
and corrected some parts, and have added a little to others, hi
order to render the volume more fitted for popular reading ; but
I trust that naturalists will remember, that they must refer for
details to the larger publications, which comprise the scientific
results of the Expedition. The Zoology of the Voyage of
the Beagle includes an account of the Fossil Mammalia, by
Professor Owen; of the Living Mammalia, by Mr. Water-
house; of the Birds, by Mr. Gould; of the Fish, by the

* I must take this opportunity of returning my sincere thanks to Mr. Bynoe,
the surgeon of the Beagle, for his very kind attention to me when I was ill
*t Valparaiso.



x PREFACE.

Rev. L. Jenynsj and of the Reptiles, by Mr. Bell. I hav
appended to the descriptions of each species an account of its
habits and range. These works, which I owe to the high
talents and disinterested zeal of the above distinguished authors,
could not have been undertaken, had it not been for the liberality
of the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, who
through the representation of the Right Honourable the Chan-
cellor of the Exchequer, have been pleased to grant a sum of
one thousand pounds towards defraying part of the expenses of
publication.

I have myself published separate volumes on the "Structure
and Distribution of Coral Reefs ; " on the " Volcanic Islands
visited during the Voyage of the Beagle ; " and a third volume
frill soon appear on the " Geology of South America." The
sixth volume of the " Geological Transactions " contains two
papers of mine on the Erratic Boulders and Volcanic Phenomena
of South America. I intend hereafter to describe, in a set of
papers, some of the marine invertebrate animals collected during
the voyage. Mr. Bell, I hope, will describe the Crustacea, and
Mr. Sowerby the shells. Messrs. Waterhouse, Walker, New-
man, and White have published several able papers on the
Insects which were collected, and I trust that many others will
hereafter follow. The plants from the southern parts of America
will be given by Dr. J. Hooker, in his great work on the Botany
of the Southern Hemisphere. The Flora of the Galapagos
Archipelago is the subject of a separate memoir by him, in the
" Linnean Transactions." The Reverend Professor Henslow
has published a list of the plants collected by me at the Keeling
Islands; and the Reverend J. M. Berkeley has described my
cryptogamic plants.

I shall have the pleasure of acknowledging the great assist-
ance which I have received from several other naturalists in the
course of this and my other works ; but I must be here allowed
to return my most sincere thanks to the Reverend Professor
Henslow, who, when I was an under-graduate at Cambridge,
was one chief means of giving me a taste for Natural History,
who, during my absence, took charge of the collections I sent
home, and by his correspondence directed my endeavours, and
who, since my return, has constantly rendered me every assist-
ance which the kindest friend could offer.

June, 1845.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER L

Port > Praya Ribeira Grande Atmospheric
Dust with Infusoria Habits of a Sea-slug
and Cuttle-fish St. Paul's Rocks, non-
volcanic Singular Incrustations Insects
the first Colonists of Islands Fernando
Noronha Bahia Burnished Rocks
Habits of a Diodon Pelagic Confervse
and Infusoria Causes of discoloured
Sea i



CHAPTER II.

Rio de Janeiro Excursion north of Cape
Frio Great Evaporation Slavery Boto-
fogo Bay Terrestrial Planariae Clouds
on the Corcovado Heavy Rain Musical
Frogs Phosphorescent Insects Elater,
Springing Powers of Blue Haze Noise
made by a Butterfly Entomology Ants
Wasp killing a Spider Parasitical
Spider Artifices of an Epeira Gre-
garious Spider Spider with an Unsym-
metrical Web 14

CHAPTER III.

Monte Video Maldonado Excursion to R.
Polanco Lazo and Bolas Partridges
Absence of Trees Deer Capybara, or
River Hog Tucutuco Mololhrus, Cuc-
koo-like Habits Tyrant Flycatcher
Mocking-bird Carrion Hawks Tubes
formed by Lightning House struck . 38

CHAPTER IV.

Rio Negro Estancias attacked by the
Indians Salt Lakes Flamingoes R.
Negro to R. Colorado Sacred Tree
Patagonian Hare Indian Families
General Rosas Proceed to Bahia Blanca
Sand Dunes Negro Lieutenant Bahia
Blanca Saline Incrsstations Punta Alta
Zorillo 45

CHAPTER V.

Bahia Blanca Geology Numerous gigan-
tic extinct Quadrupeds Recent Extinc-
tion Longevity of Species Large



Animals do not require a Luxuriant
Vegetation Southern Africa Siberian
Fossils Two Species of Ostrich Habita
of Oven-bird Armadilloes Venomous
Snake, Toad, Lizard Hybernation of
Animals Habits of Sea-Pen Indian
Wars and Massacres Arrow-head
Antiquarian Relic 58

CHAPTER VI.

Set out for Buenos Ayres Rio Sauce
Sierra Ventana Third Posta Driving
Horses Bolas Partridges and Foxes-
Features of the Country Long-legged
Plover Teru-tero Hailstorm Natural
Enclosures in the Sierra Tapalguen
Flesh of Puma Meat Diet Guardia del
Monte Effects of Cattle on ths Vegetation
Cardoon Buenos A3Tes Corral where
Cattle are slaughtered 76

CHAPTER VII.

Excursion to St. Fe Thistle-Beds Habits
of the Bizcacha Little Owl Saline
Streams Level Plains Mastodon St.
Fe Change in Landscape Geology
Tooth of extinct Horse Relation of the
Fossil and recent Quadrupeds of North
and South America Effects of a great
Drought Parana Habits of the Jaguar
Scissor-beak King-fisher, Parrot, and
Scissor-tail Revolution Buenos Ayres
State of Government 88

CHAPTER VIII.

Excursion to Colonia del Sacra mi en to
Value of an Estancia Cattle, how counted
Singular Breed of Oxen Perforated
Pebbles Shepherd-D9gs Horses bro-
ken-in, Gauchos Riding Character of
Inhabitants Rio Plata Flocks of Butter-
flies Aeronaut Spiders Phosphores-
cence of the Sea Port Desire Guanaco
Port St. Julian Geology of Patagonia
Fossil gigantic Animal Types of
Organization constant Change in the
Zoology of America Caust A of Extinc-
tion , , J3



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER IX.

Santa Cruz Expedition up the River
Indians Immense Streams of Basaltic
Lava Fragments not transported by the
River Excavation of the Valley Condor,
Habits of Cordillera Erratic Boulders
of great Size Indian Relics Return to
the Ship Falkland Islands Wild Horses
Cattle, Rabbits Wolf-like Fox Fire made
of Bones Manner of hunting Wild Cattle
Geology Streams of Stones Scenes
of Violence Penguin Geese Eggs of
Doris Compound Animals, 128

CHAPTER X.

Tierra del Fuego, first Arrival Good Suc-
cess Bay An Account of the Fuegians
on Board Interview with the Savages
Scenery of the Forests Cape Horn
Wigwam Cove Miserable Condition of
the Savages Famines Cannibals Mat-
ricide Religious Feelings Great Gale
Beagle Cfiannel Ponsonby Sound Build
Wigwams and settle the Fuegians
Bifurcation of the Beagle Channel
Glaciers Return to the Ship Second
Visit in the Ship to the Settlement-
Equality of Condition amongst the
Natives 147

CHAPTER XI.

Strait of Magellan Port Famine Ascent of
Mount Tarn Forests Edible Fungus
Zoology Great Sea-weed Leave Tierra
del Fuego Climate Fruit Trees and
Productions of the Southern Coasts
Height of Snow-line on the Cordillera
Descent of Glaciers to the Sea Icebergs
formed Transported of Boulders Cli-
mate and Productions of the Antarctic
Islands Preservation of Frozen Car-
casesRecapitulation ., 167

CHAPTER XII.

Valparaiso Excursion to the Foot of the
Andes Structure of the Land Ascend
the Bell of Quillota Shattered Masses of
Greenstone Immense Vallevs Mines
State of Miners Santiago Hot-baths of
Cauquenes Gold-mines Grinding-mills
Perforated Stones Habits of the Puma

El Turco and Tapacolo Humming-
birds 183

CHAPTER XIII.

Chiloe General Aspect Boat Excursion
Native Indians Castro Tame Fox
Ascend San Pedro Chonos Archipelago

Peninsula of Tres Monies Granitic
Range Boat-wrecked Sailors Low's
Harbour Wild Potato Formation of
Peat Myopot.imus, Otter and Mice
Cheiirau and Barking-bird Opetio-
rhynchus Singular Character of Orni-
thologyPetrels , 198



CHAPTER XIV.

San Carlos, Chiloe Osorno in eruption,
contemporaneously with Aconcagua and
Coseguma Ride to Cucao Impenetrable
Forests Valdivia Indians Earthquake
Concepcion Great Earthquake Rocks
Fissured Appearance of theformer Towns
The Sea black and boiling Direction
of the Vibrations Stones twisted round
Great Wave Permanent Elevation of
the Land Area of Volcanic 1'henomena
The Connection between the Elevatory
and Eruptive Forces Cause of Earth-
quakes Sk>w Elevation of Mountain-

CHAPTER XV.

Valparaiso Portillo Pass Sagacity of
Mules Mountain Torrents Mines, how
discovered Proofs of the Gradual Eleva-
tion of the Cordillera Effect of Snow on
Rocks Geological Structure of the two
Main Ranges Their Distinct Origin and
Upheaval Great Subsidence Red Snow
Winds Pinnacles of Snow Dry and
clear Atmosphere Electricity Pampas
Zoology of the Opposite Sides of the Andes
Locusts Great Bugs Mendoza
Uspallata Pass Silicified Trees buried as
they grew Incas Bridge Badness of the
Passes Exaggerated Cum bre Casuchas
Valparaiso aaj

CHAPTER XVI.

Coast-road to Coquimbo Great Loads car-
ried by the Miners Coquimbo Earth-
quake Step-formed Terraces Absence
of recent Deposits Contemporaneous-
ness of the Tertiary Formations Excur-
sion up the Valley Road to Guasco
Deserts Valley of Copiapd Rain and
Earthquakes Hydrophobia The Des-
poblado Indian Ruins Probable Change
of Climate River-bed arched by an Earth-
quake Cold Gales of Wind Noises from
a Hill Iquique Salt Alluvium Nitrate
of Soda Lima Unhealthy Country
Ruins of Callao, overthrown by an Earth-
quake Recent Subsidence Elevated
Shells on San Lorenzo, their Decompo-
sitionPlain with Embedded Shells and
Fragments of Pottery Antiquity of the
Indian Race 245

CHAPTER XVII.

Galapagos Archipelago The Whole Group
Volcanic Number of Craters Leafless
Bushes Colony at Charles Island James
Island Salt-lake in Crater Natural
History of the Group Ornithology,
Curious Finches Reptiles Great Tor-
toises, Habits of Marine Lizard, feeds on
Sea-weed Terrestrial Lizard, burrowing
Habits, Herbivorous Importance of
Reptiles in the Archipelago Fish, Shells,
Insects Botany American Type of Or-



CONTENTS.



raniration- Differences in the Species or
Races on Different Islands Tameness of
the Birds Fear of Man, an Acquired
Instinct 270

CHAPTER XVIII.

Pass through the Low Archipelago Tahiti
Aspect Vegetation on the Mountains
View of Eimeo Excursion into the
Interior Profound Ravines Succession
of Waterfalls Number of Wild Useful
Plants Temperance of the Inhabitants
Their Moral State Parliament Convened
New Zealand Bay of Islands Hippahs
Excursion to Waimate Missionary
; Establishment English Weeds now run
wild Waiomio Funeral of a New Zea-
land Woman Sail for Australia 292

CHAPTER XIX.

Sydney Excursion to Bathurst Aspect of
the Woods Party of Natives Gradual
Extinction of ithe Aborigines Infection
generated by Associated Men in Health
Blue Mountains View of the Grand Gulf-
like Valleys Their Origin and Formation
Bathurst, general Civility of the Lower
Orders State of Society Van Diemen's
Land Hobart Town Aborigines all
Banished Mount Wellington King
George's Sound Cheerless Aspect of the
Country Bald Head, calcareous Casts of
Branches of Trees Party of Natives-
Leave Australia



CHAPTER XX.

Keeling Island Singular Appearance
Scanty Flora Transport of Seeds Birds
and Insects Ebbing and Flowing Wells-
Fields of Dead Coral Stones transported
in the Roots of Trees Great Crab Sting-
ing Corals Coral-eating Fish Coral
Formations Lagoon Islands, or Atolls-
Depth at which Reef-building Corals can
live Vast Areas interspersed with Low
Coral Islands Subsidence of their Foun-
dationsBarrier Reefs Fringing Reefs
Conversion of Fringing Reefs into
Barrier Reefs, and into Atolls Evidence
of Changes in Level Breaches in Barrier
Reefs Maldiva Atolls; their Peculiar
Structure Dead and Submerged Reefs-
Areas of Subsidence and Elevation Dis-
tribution of Volcanoes Subsidence Slow,
and Vast in Amount ,3$,

CHAPTER XXI.

Mauritius, Beautiful Appearance of Great
Crateriform Ring of Mountains Hindooe
St. Helena History of the Changes in
the Vegetation Cause of the Extinction of
Land-snells Ascension Variation in the
Imported Rats Volcanic Bombs Beds
of Infusoria Bahia Brazil Splendour
of Tropical Scenery Pernambuco Singu-
lar Reef Slavery Return to England
Retrospect on our Voyage 351

INDEX MINMMMMM.K ..... 371



CHARLES DARWIN'S JOURNAL

DURING THE VOYAGE OF H.M.S. "BEAGLED
ROUND THE WORLD.



CHAPTER I.

ST. JAGC - CAPE DE VERD ISLANDS.

Porto Praya Ribeira Grande Atmospheric Dust with InfusoriaHabits
of a Sea-slug and Cuttle-fish St. Paul's Rocks, Non-volcanic Singular
Incrustations Insects the first Colonists of Islands Fernando Noronha
Bahia Burnished Rocks Habits of a Diodon Pelagic Confervse and
Infusoria Causes of Discoloured Sea.

AFTER having been twice driven back by heavy south-western gales,
Her Majesty's ship Beagle, a ten-gun brig, under the command of
Captain Fitz Roy, R.N., sailed from Devonport on the 27th of
December, 1831. The object of the expedition was to complete the
survey of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, commenced under Captain
King in 1826 to 1830 to survey the shores of Chile, Peru, and of
some islands in the Pacific and to carry a chain of chronometrical
measurements round the world. On the 6th of January we reached
Teneriffe, but were prevented landing, by fears of our bringing the
cholera : the next morning we saw the sun rise behind the rugged
outline of the Grand Canary Island, and suddenly illumine the Peak
of Teneriffe, whilst the lower parts were veiled in fleecy clouds. This
was the first of many delightful days never to be forgotten. On the
i6th of January, 1832, we anchored at Porto Praya, in St. Jago, the
chief island of the Cape de Verd archipelago.

The neighbourhood of Porto Praya, viewed from the sea, wears a
desolate aspect. The volcanic fires of a past age, and the scorching
heat of a tropical sun, have in most places rendered the soil unfit for
vegetation. The country rises in successive steps of table-land, inter-
spersed with some truncate conical hills, and the horizon is bounded
by an irregular chain of more lofty mountains. The scene, as beheld
through the hazy atmosphere of this climate, is one of great interest ;
if, indeed, a person, fresh from sea, and who has just walked, for
the first time, in a grove of cocoa-nut trees, can be a judge of anything
but his own happiness. The island would generally be considered as
very uninteresting; but to any one accustomed only to an English



2 ST. J AGO CAPE DE VERD ISLANDS. [CHAP. i.

landscape, the novel aspect of an utterly sterile land possesses a
grandeur which more vegetation might spoil. A single green leaf can
scarcely be discovered over wide tracts of the lava plains ; yet flocks
of goats, together with a few cows, contrive to exist. It rains very
seldom, but during a short portion of the year heavy torrents fall,
and immediately afterwards a light vegetation springs out of every crevice.
This soon withers ; and upon such naturally formed hay the animals
live. It had not now rained for an entire year. When the island
was discovered, the immediate neighbourhood of Porto Praya was
clothed with trees,* the reckless destruction of which has caused
here, as at St. Helena, and at some of the Canary Islands, almost
entire sterility. The broad, flat-bottomed valleys, many of which
serve during a few days only in the season as watercourses, are clothed
with thickets of leafless bushes. Few living creatures inhabit these
valleys. The commonest bird is a kingfisher (Dacelo lagoensis), which
tamely sits on the branches of the castor-oil plant, and thence darts on
grasshoppers and lizards. It is brightly coloured, but not so beautiful
as the European species : in its flight, manners, and place of habitation,
which is generally in the driest valley, there is also a wide difference.

One day, two of the officers and myself rode to Ribeira Grande, a
village a few miles eastward of Porto Praya. Until we reached the
valley of St. Martin, the country presented its usual dull brown appear-
ance ; but here, a very small rill of water produces a most refreshing
margin of luxuriant vegetation. In the course of an hour we arrived
at Ribeira Grande, and were surprised at the sight of a large ruined
fort and cathedral. This little town, before its harbour was filled up,
was the principal place in the island ; it now presents a melancholy,
but very picturesque appearance. Having procured a black Padre for
a guide, and a Spaniard who had served in the Peninsular war as an
interpreter, we visited a collection of buildings, of which an ancient
church formed the principal part. It is here the governors and captain-



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