Charles Davies.

# School arithmetic. Analytical and practical online

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Font size is the unit in the question ? How many head of cattle in a pasture ?

SIMPLE NUMBERS. 81

86400 in a day, 604800 in a week, 2419200 in a month,
and 31557600 in a year: how many seconds in the time
named above ?

7. Suppose a merchant to buy the following parcels of
cloth: 3912* yards, 1856, 2011, 4540, 937, 6338, 3603,
1586,2044,2951,4228, 1345, 1011,6138,960,607,5150,*,
13886, 617, 7513, 4079, 743, 612, 2519, 1238, and 2445
yards : how many yards in all ?

8 What is the sum of two millions bushels of corn, five
hundred and thirty-one thousand bushels, one hundred and
twenty bushels, fourteen thousand bushels, thirty thousand
and twenty four bushels, five hundred and sixty bushels, and
seven hundred and two bushels ?

9 The mail route from Albany to New York is 144 miles,
to Baltimore 98 miles, and from Baltimore to Washington
City 38 miles : what is the distance from Albany to Washing-
ton'?

10. A man dying leaves to his only daughter nine hundred
and ninety-nine dollars, and to each of three sons two hundred
dollars more than he left the daughter. What was each son's
portion, and what the amount of the whole estate ?

A ( Each son's part dollars.
'' \ Whole estate dollars.

11. The number of acres of the public lands sold in 1834
was 4658218 ; in 1835, 12564478 ; in 1836, 25167833 The
number sold in 1840 was 2236889; in 1841, 1164796; in
1842, 1 129217 How many acres were sold in the first three,
and how many in the last three years ?

A C 1st 3 yrs.
Ans \ last "

12 What was the population of the British provinces in
North America in 1834, the population of Lower Canada
being stated at 549005, of Upper Canada 336461, of New ,<
Brunswick 152156, of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton 142548, '
of Prince Edward's Island 32292, of Newfoundland 75000 ?

Ans.

13. By the census of 1850, the population of the ten
largest cities was as follows : New York 515547 ; Philadelphia
340045 ; Baltimore 169054 ; Boston 136881 ; New Orleans
116375; Cincinnati 115436; Brooklyn 96838; St. Louis

77860; Albany 50763; Pittsburgh 46601: what was their
entire population ?

14. By the census of 1850, the number of deaf and dumb
in the United States was 9803 ; of blind 9794 ; of insane
15610 ; of idiots 15787 : what was the aggregate ?

15. By the census of 1850, the population of the District
of Columbia was 51687 ; of the Territory of Minnesota
6077 ; of New Mexico 61547 ; of Oregon 13294 ; of Utah
11380 : what was the population of the Territories, including
the District of Columbia ?

16 By the census of 1850, the population of Maine was
583169; of New Hampshire 3L7976; of Vermont 314120;
of Massachusetts 994514 ; of Rhode Island 147545 ; and of
Connecticut 370792: what was the population of the six
New England States ?

17. By the census of 1850, the population of New York
was 3097394 ; the population of New Jersey 489555 ; oi
Pennsylvania 2311786; and of Delaware 91532 : what was
the population of the four Middle States ?

18. By the census of 1 850, the population of Maryland was
583034 ; of Virginia 1421661 ; of North Carolina 869039 ;
of South Carolina 668507 ; of Georgia 906185; of Florida
87445; of Alabama 771623; of Mississippi 606526; of
Louisiana 517762; and of Texas 212592: what was the
whole population of the ten Southern States ?

Ans.

19. By the census of 1850, the population of Tennessee
was 1002717; of Kentucky 982405; of Ohio 1980329; of
Indiana 988416; of Illinois 851470; of Michigan 397654;
of Wisconsin 305391 ; of Iowa 192214 ; of Missouri 682044 ;
of Arkansas 209897 ; and of California 92597 : what was the
entire population of the eleven Western States ?

Ans*

20. By the census of 1850, the population of the six New
England States was 2728116; of the four Middle States
5990267 ; of the ten Southern States 6644374 ; of the eleven
Western States 7685134 ; and of the five Territories 143985 :
what was the entire population ?

21. Write the population of each State and Territory, in
eluding the District of Columbia, and add the whole as ft
single example.

SUBTRACTION.

SUBTRACTION.

86* 1. John has 3 apples and Charles has 2 : how many
have both ?

If John's apples be taken from the sum, 5 apples, how
many apples will remain ? 2 from 5 leaves how many f

2. If James has 5 apples and gives 3 to Charles, how
many will he have left ? 3 from 5 leaves how many \$

Let the following table be carefully committed to memory:

SUBTRACTION TABLE.

1 from 1 leaves
1 from 2 leaves 1
1 from 3 leaves 2
1 from 4 leaves 3
1 from 5 leaves 4
1 from 6 leaves 5
1 from 7 leaves 6
1 from 8 leaves 7
1 from 9 leaves 8
1 from 10 leaves 9
1 from 11 leaves 10

2 from 2 leaves *0
2 from 3 leaves 1
2 from 4 leaves 2
2 from 5 leaves 3
2 from C leaves 4
2 from 7 leaves 5
2 from 8 leaves 6
2 from 9 leaves 7
2 from 10 leaves 8
2 from 11 leaves 9
2 from 12 leaves 10

3 from 3 leaves
3 from 4 leaves 1
3 from 5 leaves 2
3 from 6 leaves 3
3 from 7 leaves 4
3 from 8 leaves 5
3 from 9 leaves 6
3 from 10 leaves 7
3 from 11 leaves 8
3 from 12 leaves 9
3 from 13 leaves 10

4 from 4 leaves
4 from 5 leaves 1
4 from 6 leaves 2
4 from 7 leaves 3
4 from 8 leaves 4
4 from 9 leaves 5
4 from 10 leaves 6
4 from 11 leaves 7
4 from 12 leaves 8
4 from 13 leaves 9
4 from 14 leaves 10

5 from 5 leaves
5 from C leaves 1
5 from 7 leaves 2
5 from 8 leaves 3
5 from 9 leaves 4
5 from 10 leaves 5
5 from 11 leaves
5 from 12 leaves 7
5 from 13 leaves 8
5 from 14 leaves 9
5 from 15 leaves 10

6 from 6 leaves
6 from 7 leaves 1
6 from 8 leaves 2
6 from 9 leaves 3
6 from 10 leaves 4
6 from 11 leaves 5
6 from 12 leaves 6
from 13 leaves 7
6 from 14 leaves 8
6 from 15 leaves 9
C from 16 leaves 10

7 from 7 leaves
7 from 8 leaves 1
7 from 9 leaves 2
7 from 10 leaves 3
7 from 11 leaves 4
7 from 12 leaves 5
7 from 13 leaves 6
7 from 14 leaves 7
7 from 15 leaves 8
7 from 16 leaves 9
7 from 17 leaves 10

8 from 8 leaves
8 from 9 leaves 1
8 from 10 leaves 2
8 from 11 leaves 3
8 from 12 leaves 4
8 from 13 leaves 5
8 from 14 leaves 6
8 from 15 leaves 7
8 from 16 leaves 8
8 from 17 leaves 9
8 from 18 leaves 10

9 from 9 leaves
9 from 10 leaves 1
9 from 11 leaves 2
9 from 12 leaves 3
9 from 13 leaves 4
9 from 14 leaves 5
9 from 15 leaves 6
9 from 16 leaves 7
9 from 17 leaves 8
9 from 18 leaves 9
9 from 19 leaves 10

34 SUBTRACTION.

PRINCIPLES AND EXAMPLES.

37 John has 6 apples and gives 4 to Charles : how many
has he left ?

The 2 is called the difference between the numbers 6
and 4 and this difference added to the less number 4, will
give the greater number 6 : hence,

" THE DIFFERENCE between two numbers, is such a number as
(added to the less will give the greater.

SUBTRACTION is the operation of finding the difference be-
tween two numbers.

When the two numbers are unequal, the larger is called
the minuend, and the less is called the subtrahend. Their
difference, whether they are equal or unequal, is called the
remainder.

OF THE SIGNS.

38 The sign , is called minus, a term signifying less.
When placed between two numbers it denotes that the one
on the right is to be taken from the one on the left.

Thus, 64=2, denotes that 4 is to be taken 'from 6. Here,
6 is the minuend, 4 the subtrahend, and 2 the remainder.

122 =

=

12 3= how many ?
16 4= how many ?
11 6= how many ?
18 9= how many?
25 8= how many ?

17 7= how many?
16 8= how many ?
19 9= how many?
20 4= how many ?
137= how many?
14 2= how many?

EXAMPLES.

1. James has 27 apples, and gives 14 to John : how many
has he left?

37. What is the difference between two numbers ? What is Sub-
traction ? What is the larger number called ? What is the smaller
number called ? What is the difference called ? In the first exam-
ple, which number was the minuend ? Which the subtrahend ?
Which the remainder?

38. What is the sign of Subtraction ? What is it called ? What
does the term signify ? When placed between two numbers what
does it denote ?

SIMPLE NUMBERS. 35

The 27 is made up of 7 units and 2 tens; 27 Minuend,

and the 14, of 4 units and 1 ten. Subtract 4 ** Q ,. , -.

unite from 7 units, and 3 units will remain; 2

subtract 1 ten from 2 tens and 1 ten will re- 13 Bemamder.
main : hence, the remainder is 13.

2. What are the remainders in the following examples :

(1.) (2.) (3. (4.)

Minuends, 874 972 999 8497

Subtrahends, 642 ' 631 367 7487

Remainders, 232 1010

3. A farmer had 378 sheep, and sold 256 : how many had
he left?

We first write the number 378, and then 256 under 373

it, so that units of the same order shall fall in the same 2 z.a

column. We then take 6 units from the 8 units, 5 tens __

from 7 tens, and 2 hundreds from 3 hundreds, leaving for 122
the remainder 122.

4. A merchant had 578 dollars in cash, and paid 475 dol-
lars for goods : now much had he left ?

5. What are the remainders in the following examples :

(1.) (2.) (3.)

62843 278846 894862

51720 167504 170641
Tll23

39, We see, from the above examples,

1st. That units of the same order are written in the
same column ; and

2d. That units of any order are always subtracted from
units of the same order.

40. To find the difference when any figure of the minuend
is less than the one which stands under it.

1. What is the difference between 843 and 562 ?

39. What principles are shown by the examples ?

40. Can you subtract a greater number from a less? When the tipper figure
is the least, how do you proceed? Does this change the difference between the
numbers ? What then may we always do ?

36 SUBTK ACTION.

ANALYSIS. Begin at the units' column, and say, OPERATION.
2 from 3 leaves 1, which is written in the units' g^o
place. At the next place we meet a difficulty, for
we cannot subtract a greater number from a less.

If now, we take 1 from the 8 hundreds (equal to
f 10 tens) and add it to the 4 tens, the minuend will
become 7 hundreds, 14 tens, and 3 units, as written
below. We may then say 6 tens from 14 tens leaves
8 tens ; and then 5 hundreds from 7 hundreds leaves
2 hundreds ; hence, the remainder is 281.

The same result is obtained by adding, mentally, 10 to 1 o
the 4 tens, and then adding 1 to 5, the next figure of the

subtrahend at the left ; for, adding 1 to the 5 is the same 562

as diminishing the 8 by 1. This process of adding 10 _J

to a figure of the minuend and returning 1 to the next 281
figure of the subtrahend, at the left, is called 'borrowing.

41* Hence, to find the difference between two numbers, we
have the following

KULE.

I. Set down the less number under the greater, so that units
of the same order shall fall in the same column.

IL Begin at the right hand subtract each figure of the
lower line from the one directly over it, when the upper
figure is the greater; but when it is the less, add 10 to it,
before subtracting, after which add 1 to the next figure of the
subtrahend.

PROOF.

The remainder or difference is such a number as added to
the subtrahend, will give a sum equal to the minuend, (Art.
7,) hence :

Add the remainder to the subtrahend. If the work is right
\$IK sum will be equal to the minuend.

EXAMPLES. d^

Minuends,
Subtrahends,
Remainders,
Proofs,

(1.)

8592678

1078953

J 2 ->

67942139

9756783

(3.)
219067803
104202196

7513725

8592678

67942139

219067803

41. How do you set down the numbers for subtraction ? Where
do you begin to subtract ? How do you subtract ? Give the rule ?
How do you prove subtraction?

SIMPLE NUMBERS. 37

(4.) (5.) (6.) (7.) (8.)

10000 30000 67087 100000 87000

4 9999 40000 1 1009

Remainders, 9996 85991

9. From 2637804 take 2376982.

10. From 3762162 take 826541.

11. From 78213609 take. 27821890.

12. From thirty thousand and ninety-seven, take one
thousand six hundred and fifty-four.

13. From one hundred millions two hundred and forty-seven
thousand, take one million four hundred and nine.

14. Subtract one from one million.

15. From 804367 subtract 27905.

16. From 18623041 subtract 61294.

17. From 4270492 subtract 26409.

18. From 8741209 subtract 728104.

19. From 741874 subtract 689346.

42. 1. What is the difference between 725 and 341 ?

OPERATION.

By the common method, which is spelling, we say, 725
1 from 5 leaves 4 ; 4 from 12 leaves 8 ; 1 to carry 34^
to 3 is 4 ; 4 from 7 leaves 3.

Reading the words which express the final result, we should
make the operations mentally, and say, 4, 8, 3.

Let the pupils be practiced separately in the reading, and also
in concert in classes.

APPLICATIONS.

43. It should be observed, that in all the applications of
Subtraction, one number can be subtracted from another, only
when they both have the same unit.

.

42. Explain the process of reading the results in subtraction.

43. What is always necessary in order that one number may be
subtracted from another ?

38 SUBTEACTIOK.

EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE.

1. Suppose John were Lorn in eighteen hundred and
fifteen, and James in eighteen hundred and twenty-five :
what is the difference of their ages ?

2. A man was born in 1785 : what was his age in 1830 ?

Ans.

3. Suppose I lend a man 1565 dollars, and he dies, owing
me 450 dollars : how much had he paid me?

Ans,

4. In five bags are different sums of money to the amount
in all of 1000 dollars. In the first there are 100 dollars; in
the second, 314 dollars; in the third, 143 dollars ; and in the
fourth, 209 dollars : how many dollars does the fifth contain ?

Ans.

5. America was discovered by Christopher Columbus in
the year 1492. What number of years has since elapsed ?

6. George Washington was born in the year 1732, and
died in 1799 : how old was he at the time of his death ?

Ans.

7. The declaration of independence was published, July
4th, 1776: how many years to July 4th, 1838?

Ans.

8. In 1850 there were in the State of New York 3,097,394
inhabitants, and in the State of Pennsylvania 2,311,786 in-
habitants: how many more inhabitants were there in New
York than in Pennsylvania ? Ans.

9. The revolutionary war began in 1775 ; the next war in
1812 : what time elapsed between their commencements?

Ans.

10. In 1850 there were in New York, which is the largest
city in the United States, 515,547 inhabitants, and in Phila-
delphia, the next largest city, 340,045: how many more
inhabitants were there in New York than in Philadelphia ?

Ans.

11. A man dies worth 1200 dollars: he leaves 504 to his
daughter, and the remainder to his son? what was the son's
portion ?

12. Suppose a gentleman has an income of 3090 dollars
a year, and pays for taxes 150 dollars, and expends besides
307 dollars: how much does he save?

SIMPLE NUMBERS. 39

IS. A merchant bought 500 barrels of flour for 3500 dol-
lars; he sold 250 barrels for 2000 dollars: how many bar-
rels remained on hand, and how much must he sell them for,
that he may lose nothing ?

14. The tune of Yankee Doodle was composed by a doctor
of the British Army to ridicule the Americans in 1775 : how
many years to the present time ?

15. Lord Corn wallis surrendered at Yorktown, and marched
into the American lines in 1781 to the tune of Yankee Doodle:
how many years was that after the tune was composed?

Am.

16. At a certain period there were 4338472 children in
the United States between the ages of 5 and ]5; of this
number 2477667 were in schools: how many were out of
schools?

17. The circulation of the blood was discovered in 1616:
how many years to 1855?

18. Henry Hudson sailed up the Hudson river in 1609:
how many yean, since?

19. Pliny the historian died 17 years after the birth of
Christ: how many years before the declaration of independ-
ence ? Ans.

20. Potatoes were carried to Ireland from America in 1565 :
how many years was that before the settlement of Plymouth
in 1620?

21. The Mariner's Compass was discovered in England in
the year 1302 : how many years was this before the discovery
of America in 1492 ? How many years to the present time?

Ans.

22. A merchant bought 1675 yards of cloth, for which he
paid 5025 dollars: he then sold 335 yards for 1005 dollars;
how much had he left, and what did it cost him ?

Ans.

23. In 1850 the slaves in the United States amounted to
3204313; free colored to 434495: what was their differ-
ence?

24. What length of time elapsed between the birth of
William Penn in 1644 and the birth of Sir William Herschel
in 1738?

40 SUBTRACTION.

25. What length of time elapsed between the birth of Sir
Francis Bacon in 1561 and the birth of Benjamin Franklin
in 1706?

26. What length of time elapsed between the birth of
Shakespeare in 1564 and the birth of George Washington in
1732?

27. What length of time elapsed between the birth of John
Milton in 1608 and the Declaration of Independence in 1776?

28. What length of time elapsed between the birth of
Oliver Cromwell in 1599 and the birth of Patrick Henry in
1736?

29. By the census of 1850, the number of white inhabitants
in the United States amounted to 19553068 ; and the blacks
to 3638808 : by how many did the white inhabitants exceed
the black ?

30. By the census of 1850, the entire population of the
United States was 23191876; that of the six New England
States, 2728116: by how many did the whole population
exceed that of the six New England States ?

31. In 1850, the slaves in the United States amounted to
3204313; and the free colored to 434495: what was their
difference ?

1. A merchant buys 19576 yards of cloth of one person,
27580 yards of another, and 375 of a third ; he sells 1050
yards to one customer, 6974 yards to another, and 10462
yards to a third : how many yards has he remaining ?

Ans.

2. A person borrowed of his neighbor at one time 355
dollars, at another time 637 dollars, and 403 dollars at another
time; he then paid him 977 dollars; how much did he owe
him?

3. I have a fortune of 2543 dollars to divide amoncj my
four sons, James, John, Henry and Charles. I give James
504 dollars, John 600 dollars, and Henry 725 : how much
remains for Charles?

4. I have a yearly income of ten thousand dollars. I pay
275 for rent, 220 dollars for fuel, 35 dollars to the doctor, and
3675 dollars for all my other expenses: how much have I
left at the end of the t year ?

SIMPLE NUMBERS. 41

5. A man pays 300 dollars for 100 sheep, 95 dollars for a
pair of oxen, 60 dollars for a horse, and 125 dollars for a chaise.
He gives 100 bushels of wheat worth 125 dollars, a cow worth
25 dollars, a colt worth 40 dollars, and pays the rest in cash :
how much money does he pay ?

6. A merchant owes 450120 dollars, and has property as
follows : bank stock 350000 dollars, western lands valued at
225100, furniture worth 4000 dollars, and a store of goods
worth 96000: how much is he worth?

Ans.

7. If a man's income is 3467 dollars a year, and he spends
269 dollars for clothing, 467 for house rent, 879 for provi-
sion, and 146 for travelling: how much will he have left at
the end of the year?

8. A man gains 367 dollars, then loses 423 ; a second
time he gains 875 and loses 912 ; he then gains 1012 dollars ;
how much more has he gained than lost?

9. If I agree to pay a man 36 dollars for plowing 25 acres
of land, 200 dollars for fencing it, and 150 for cultivating it,
how much shall I owe him after paying 331 dollars ?

Ans.

10. A merchant bought 85 hogsheads of sugar for 28675
dollars, paid 1231 dollars freight, and then sold it for 1683
dollars less than it cost him : how much did he receive for it?

11. If I buy 489 oranges for 912 cents, and sell 125 for
186. cents, and then sell 134 for 199 cents, how many will
be left, and how much will they have cost me ?

12. By the census of 1850, the entire population of the
United States was 23191876 ; the slave population 3204313 ;
free colored 434495 : what was the white population ?

Ans.

13. Six men bought a tract of land for 36420 dollars: the
first man paid 12140 ; the second 3035 less than the first; the
third 346 ; the fourth 6070 more than the third ; the fifth 1821
less than the fourth : how much did the sixth man pay ?

14. The coinage in the United States Mint from its
establishment in the year 1792 to 1836 was thus: gold
22102035 dollars; silver 46739182 dollars; copper 740331
dollars. The amount coined from the year 1837 to 1848
was 81436165 dollars: how much more'was coined in the
last mentioned period than in the first?

MULTIPLICATION.

MULTIPLICATION.

44. 1. If Charles gives 2 cents apiece for two oranges, how
much do they cost him ?

2. If Charles gives 2 cents apiece for three oranges, how
much do they cost him ?

3. If he gives 2 cents apiece for 4 oranges, how much do
they cost him ?

The cost, in each case, may be obtained by adding the
price of a single orange :

.2 + 2 = 4 cents, the cost of 2 oranges.
2+2+2=6 cents, the cost of 3 oranges.
2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 8 cents, the cost of 4 oranges.
In toe first case 2 is taken two times ; in the second, three
times; in the third, four times; and any number may be
repeated by adding it continually to itself.

MULTIPLICATION TABLE.

Once is

3 times are

5 times are

Once 1 is 1

3 times 1 are 3

5 times 1 are 5

Once 2 is 2

3 times 2 are 6

5 times 2 are 10

Once 3 is 3

3 times 3 are 9

5 times 3 are 15

Once 4 is 4

3 times 4 are 12

5 times 4 are 20

Once 5 is 5

3 times 5 are 15

5 times 5 are 25

Once 6 is G

3 times 6 are 18

5 times 6 are 30

Once 7 is 7

3 times 7 are 21

5 times 7 are 35

Once 8 is 8

3 times 8 are 24

6 times 8 are 40.

Once 9 is 9

3 times 9 are 27

5 times 9 are 45

Once 10 is 10

3 times 10 are 30

5 times 10 are 50

Once 11 is 11

3 times 11 are 33

5 times 1 1 are 55

Once 12 is 12

3 times 12 are 36

5 times 12 are 60

2 times are

4 times are

6 times are

2 times 1 are 2

4 times 1 are 4

6 times 1 are 6

2 times 2 are 4

4 times 2 are 8

6 times 2 are 12

2 times 3 are 6

4 times 3 are 12

6 times 3 are 18

2 times 4 are 8

4 times 4 are 16

6 times 4 are 24

2 times 5 are 10

4 times 5 are 20

6 times 5 are 30

2 times 6 are 12

4 times 6 are 24

6 times 6 are 36

2 times 7 are 14

4 times 7 are 28

6 times 7 are 42

2 times 8 are 16

4 times 8 are 32

6 times 8 are 48

2 times 9 are 18

4 times 9 are 36

6 times 9 are 54

2 times 10 are 20

4 times 10 are 40

6 times 10 are 60

2 times 11 are 22

4 times 11 are 44

6 times 11 are 66

2 times 12 are 24

4 times 12 are 48

6 times 12 are 72

SIMPLE NUMBERS.

7 times are

9 times are

11 times are

7 times 1 are 7

9 times 1 are 9

11 times 1 are 11

7 times 2 are 14

9 times 2 are 18

11 times 2 are 22

7 times 3 are 21

9 times 3 are 27

11 times 3 are 33

7 times 4 are 28

9 times 4 are 36

11 times 4 are 44

7 times 5 are 85

9 times 5 are 45

11 times 5 are 55

7 times 6 are 42 1 9 times G are 54

11 times 6 are 66

7 times 7 are 49 } 9 times 7 are 68

11 times 7 are 77

7 times 8 are 56

9 times 8 are 72

11 times 8 are 88

7 times 9 are 63

9 times 9 are 81

11 times 9 are 99

7 times 10 are 70

9 times 10 are 90

11 times 10 are 110

7 times 11 are 77

9 times 11 are 99

11 timfes 11 are 121

7 times 12 are 84

9 times 12 are 108

11 times 12 are 132

8 times are

10 times are

12 times are

8 times 1 are 8

10 times 1 are 10

12 times 1 are 12

8 times 2 are 16

10 times 2 are 20

12 times 2 are 24

8 times 3 are 24

10 times 3 are 30

12 times 3 are 36

8 times 4 are 32

^10 times 4 are 40

12 times 4 are 48

8 times 5 are 40

"lO times 5 are 50

12 times 5 are 60

8 times 6 are 48

10 times 6 are 60

12 times 6 are 72

8 times 7 are 56

10 times 7 are 70

12 times 7 are 84

8 times 8 are 64

10 times 8 are 80

12 times 8 are 96

8 times 9 are 72

10 times 9 are 90

-12 times 9 are 108

8 times 10 are 80

10 times 10 are 100

12 times 10 are 12G

8 times 11 are 88

10 times 11 are 110

12 times 11 are 132 j

8 times 12 are 96

10 times 12 are 120

12 times 12 are 144

4. What is the cost of 6 yards of ribbon at 7 cents a yard ?

ANALYSIS. Six yards of ribbon will cost 6 times as much as
1 yard. Since 1 yard costs 7 cents, 6 yards will cost 6 times
7 cents, which are 42 cents.

Let the pupil analyze every question in a similar manner.

5. What will 8 yards of muslin cost at 9 cents a yard ?

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