European sources this stream has been fed. We find that we have repre-
sentatives of the Huguenot immigration, of Cornishmen from England, of
Welsh, Scotch, Irish. Germans and others.
It is also of interest to note
what endowments of the mind are found among our people. A fine vein
of mental power or a peculiar talent is of as much interest as the discovery
of a good vein of iron ore in our mines. I speak as a teacher. Hence I
am pleased to find among the Dover schoolboys of the past one who gave
such promise of attainment in art as did William J. Lefevre. Diversity of
industries is a good thing for the stability of a community. Wall street men
who deal in bonds say that a town whose prosperity is based upon several
industries has an element of financial strength above one that is dependent
upon one industry. And it is well for a community to have diversity of
human talent as well as diversity of industries. One implies the other. At
my request my friend, Rev. T. F. Chambers, has contributed the following
brief review of Mr. Lefevre's artistic career:
William Jelf Lefevre showed early in life a taste for drawing and a fondness for
out-of-door life, so that when he attained to years of manhood he devoted himself
exclusively to the study of art. His natural reserve helped to strengthen his habit
of communing with nature, while careful attention to his studies gave him undoubted
facility in the presentation of scenes in the world around him. especially scenes with
which early associations were largely bound up. He was born at Hurdtown, Morns
County, New Jersey, amid surroundings that might be said to belong to frontier life.
His father. Dr. Wm. B. Lefevre, was a man of culture and refinement, a leadmg spirit
in matters of education and religion. His earliest ancestry were of Dutch and French
origin, and at a later date of pure New England blood. His artistic tendencies were
not owing to any proximity to picture galleries or even congenial associates o* *"2
same tastes. He was well grounded in the studies which are preparatory to a college
course, but never received a collegiate education. The trip he took abroad was after
his choice of his life work was made, so that his interest in art was an original out-
growth of his own personality. And his career as an artist, though so soon cut short,
revealed a native talent of undoubted originality and power.
He was a man of a retiring disposition, with a sensitive temperament, and ms
choice of subjects for his paintings and etchings proves that his sv-mpathy with nature
was spontaneous and natural and his art was the expression of such personal
MORRIS COUNTY 403
interest and pleasure. His sympathies were drawn toward the lowly and humble
forms of life and of nature with which his boyhood life was associated. This is
shown by his numerous paintings and etchings of cattle and farm life in general, of
rustic bridges and sketches of woods, of stony fields and sluggish streams. It is one
of the clearest proofs of talent to know what to paint. Nor is this all, but his choice
must have been due to his own insight. No prettiness of coloring or sensationalism
of attitude or composition will or can take the place of the artistic enjoyment of light
and shadow, solidity of form, depth of perspective, and expression in general. To
delight in these elements, which constitute the real difficulties of artistic reproduction,
is the mark of the strength and vigor of the true painter's talent. He sees a challenge
flung at him in what the unseeing multitude despises or ignores. In fact, the raison
d'etre of all or any art is the finding of "beauty in everything." Of course, the force
of this reasoning depends upon the success of the painter. But Mr. Lefevre did
succeed. His domestic animals and rural scenes have a charm that appeals to a
careful student. The industry and application evinced were evidently inspired, yes,
and controlled by his own sympathy with them, his delight in them. No one lingers
long upon any subject which he does not love. This makes true the famous criticism,
"Le style est I'homme" (the style is the man). This is the mystic charm which to
the initiated makes a real work of art "a thing of beauty and a joy forever."
It is a far cry from the mining village of Hurdtown, or even the Magie school
at Dover, to a studio in Philadelphia, the friendship and patronage of Peter Moran,
and The Etchers' Club. But even farther removed, the one from the other — in the
impression they produce, though not in their physical aspects — are the barren and
forbidding scenes of nature, the angular forms and ungainly gait of animal life which
he depicts, and their presentation in black and white or in oils with the secret
witchery of a loving play of light and shade, or harmony of tint, of significant angle
or line, or well harmonized unity of compositon. To feel the truth and force of
this criticism it will be necessary to study carefully the paintings and etchings which
cost Mr. Lefevre no little labor and pains. Some of these have received their meed
of public appreciation and have appeared in exhibitions where they had to bear com-
parison with the work of other artists who had lived longer or under more favorable
advantages than Mr. Lefevre. The latter's early death at thirty-five years of age
was in his case more disastrous than would usually be the case, because his talent
would necessarily require a longer apprenticeship. As it is, his work is well worth
recognition and reward, at least so far as his memory shall be cherished and his
example publicly commended.
Mr. Lefevre belonged to The Philadelphia Sketch Club as well as to The Etchers'
Club. The latter paid the following tribute to his memory, as given upon the minutes
of The Philadelphia Society of Etchers. November 6th, 1883:
"Resolved, That in the death of our esteemed fellow member, William J. Lefevre,
our society has lost a talented etcher, an industrious worker, and a warm friend."
Signed — B. Uhle, Hermann Faber, James Simpson, Committee.
From Mrs. Louisa M. Crittenden, October 9, 1913:
In regard to the oldtime singing schools I can only say they were very instructive
and very entertaining, and I recall now only two of the names of the teachers — Mr.
Foote and Mr. Hinds of Newark, who were particularly fine teachers. Mr. Hinds
had several fine concerts in the church after the winter's teaching, bringing instru-
mental musicians from Newark to help make the concerts attractive.
You say, "I feel like another Plutarch." I think, if I keep looking up data of
the old times. I shall begin to feel like an old scribe or historian. Don't you think
you put a good deal of work on a lady of eighty-five! But I'm not complaining. I
enjoy being of service when I can.
Louisa M. Crittenden.
Mrs. Crittenden also keeps a scrap-book. She has very kindly been
at the pains to copy out the following extracts from it:
Mr, Guy Maxwell Hinchman died at Dover, N. J., February 13. 1877. Mr. Hinch-
man was born in Elmira, N. Y., on the 2gth of November, 1795. His father. Dr.
Joseph Hinchman, was the first physician settled in that region. In 1810 (after the
death of his father and mother) Mr. Hinchman came to New Jersey and lived with
his uncle at Succasunna Plains. The fine business talent which marked his whole life
became early developed and at the age of twenty years he was the owner and
operator of the well-known Mt. Pleasant Mine. In 1823 he removed to New York
City. In 1834 he returned to New Jersey, and in 1835 he became superintendent of
the iron works in Dover owned by Mr. Henry McFarlan, which position he retained
404 NEW JERSEY
until 1868. Prominent among the responsible positions he held was the Presidency
of the Union Bank of Dover, to which he was elected in 1840. He held this position
until the bank went out of existence in 1866.
Mentally Mr. Hinchman was one of the most remarkable of men. None who
ever conversed with him could fail to be astonished at the culture, intellectual ability,
and perfect memory that marked this gentleman after attaining the age of four-
score years. Physically, few would have supposed that he was an octogenarian. He
seemed stronger than most men are at sixty. When he wrote, there seemed to be
not a tremor in his hand, and specimens of his Writing which have come to this
office within a few months past were among the most beautiful we have ever seen.
Withal, Mr. Hinchman was one of those kind-hearted, courtly gentlemen of the old
school, and it will always be pleasant to contemplate the value of such a life. (By
James Gibson, in The Era.)
Mr. Charles E. Noble died December l6th, 1899. at Morristown, N. J. Mr. Noble
was born at Southwark, Mass., and was educated at Suffield Literary Institute, Suffolk,
Conn. He was a civil engineer. In 1847 he came to Morris County, N. J., and
taught school at Green Village and Dover. In 1851 he was appointed chief assistant
engineer, by Superintendent Bassinger, of the Morris & Essex R. R. He served as
superintendent of the Morris & Essex R. R. in 1862, when the road had several
extensions. In 1870 he went to Texas as representative of a syndicate of capitalists,
among whom were William E. Dodge and Moses Taylor, and built about seven
hundred miles of the International and Great Northern R. R.
Mr. Noble returned in 1874 and purchased property in Morristown, N. J., making
his home there. He was a member of the Board of Proprietors of New Jersey. He
had also served as a member of the Common Council of Morristown, and was a
director of The First National Bank. (From a l\Iorristown newspaper.)
Mr. Charles McFarlan died September 25th. 1872. He resided for some years
at Longwood and was closely identified with the iron interest in the early history
of its development in the county. He represented his district in the Assembly of the
State. Afterwards he became a resident of Dover. He was elected to the office of
Recorder and remained a member of the Common Council until the spring of 1871.
He also held the office of Justice of the Peace. He was a prominent member of the
Masonic fraternity and was one of the oldest members in the State. He belonged to
St. John's Church and was a member of the Vestry. Mrs. Charles McFarlan placed
a memorial window in St. John's Church for her husband.
"Mr. Charles MacFarlan was superintendent of schools for Jefferson township
almost continuously from 1851 to 1862. No better school officer than Mr. McFarlan,
who was a gentleman of much culture and refinement, could be found. He devoted
his time, his talents, and his money to promote the cause of education." (From
Munsell's Hist, of Morris Co.)
Dr. Thomas Rockwell Crittenden died September 27th, 1906. Dr. Crittenden
was born in Dover, August 21st, 1822. He graduated from the New York City
College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1848, and at once entered upon the practice
of his profession in Dover, and for some time was the only physician in this section.
He succeeded his father. Dr. Ira Crittenden, who was the first physician^ settled in
Dover. Dr. T. R. Crittenden served Dover several times as a public official, having
been Recorder of the town and a member of the Board of Health. He was also a
member of Acacia Lodge No. 20. F. and A. M., from its beginning in 1856. In the
Presbyterian Church, of which he was a member he served for some years as a
trustee whose judgment was sound and whose ability was honored. He was a
member of the Morris County Medical Association up to the time of his death.
The following extract from a Dover paper refers to the Hinchman garden, which
Mrs. Crittenden's eldest sister had kept up just as their father left it, until her
death in 1889.
"Have you ever noticed the fragrance that rises to greet the passer-by from the
old Hinchman homestead garden on Blackwell street, as soon as the first spring
flowers begin to bloom? The hyacinths here are always the first to break the crust
of the earth, and the bushes and shrubs come quickly to blossom in its generous soil.
I have no doubt they remind many, as they do me. of that genial and courtly old
gentleman, the late Mr. Guy Hinchman. whose figure, among his flowers, was so
familiar a few years ago. No one has left a sweeter memorial than he did in the
grateful fragrance of these flowers, which seem to breathe his memory."
The Garrigues Family, by Mrs. M. L. Cox : ^ , , ,
Newark, New Jersey, Thirteenth Avenue School, October 6th, 1913.
My dear Mr. Piatt— Mrs. Cox has kindly come to my assistance and has arranged
MORRIS COUNTY 405
the information which this letter contains. Miss Clara Sturtevant of Rockaway told
Mrs. Cox that she had facts of family history dating back to 1500.
Elias Garrigus married Pamela Cooper, daughter of Moses and Sarah Clifton
Cooper. Pamela Cooper was the sister of Samuel Cooper, my grandfather. Elias
and Pamela Cooper Garrigus were the parents of Mrs. Cornelius B. Gage, mother of
Mrs. William Harris Jr., who can give you additional information concerning the
Sarah Clifton Cooper was the daughter of Knox, a nurse of Washington's
army, and Clifton, a soldier of the army. Both died during the war and the
child was adopted by Mrs. John Cooper, daughter of Capt. Enoch Beach of the
Continental Army. Can you help me to more definite information?
Wishing you every success in your work, I am
Very truly yours,
M. L. Cox, Prin.
The Garrigus Family of Netv Jersey — In southeastern France is a
province bearing the name of Garrigties, which means barren moor or wild
lands. There is also a mountain bearing that name in that part of France.
Part of the Garrigues family spell the name without the "e." The
first people of the name who emigrated to America settled among the
Quakers in Philadelphia and exchanged the Huguenot faith for that of the
Quakers. When the war broke out between England and the colonies, the
Jersey members of the family felt that patriotism led to the camp and the
battlefield. The Philadelphia members of the family felt that the Quaker
faith forbade their going to war. This difference of opinions led to family
contentions regarding the conduct of Jacob and his sons. As the result,
Jacob decided to drop the "e" from the family name and in that way sever
all connection with the family which felt disgraced by his patriotic con-
duct. Jacob's descendants have never since used the "e." The descendants
of the Pennsylvania families retain the original spelling of the name.
The Garrigues family came to America in 1700 and settled in Phila-
delphia. It was represented in the persons of David Garrigties and his
wife. They had many sons and daughters. One of their sons, Jacob, came
to New Jersey and settled on the Peck farm in Hanover township. Jacob
had four sons and five daughters. Jacob was born in 17 16 and he died
in May, 1798. His wife, Sarah , was born in 1720 and died in 1777
Jacob joined the Rockaway Presbyterian Church and traditions tell of
his habit of walking to church, a distance of more than five miles. This
habit he practiced with great regularity through all kinds of weather. The
four sons, David, Jacob, Isaac, and John, all served in the Revolutioiiary
War, two of them enlisting at a very young age. Jacob Sr. was a militia-
man, subject to call, but remained at home with his family most of the
David Garrigus, son of Jacob Sr., married Abigail, daughter of John
Losey, March 18. 1773. David had a daughter, Sarah, bom in 1714.
When David was doing sentry duty in Washington's camp, Foster Wil-
liams, son of Samuel Williams of Shongum, laid a wager with some of the
men of the company that he could take David's musket away from hirn
while he was at his post. Williams came up to David and demanded his
musket, but David, who knew the penalty, refused. Williams undertook
to deprive him of his gun by force, and in the struggle which ensued Wil-
liams was accidentally shot and died a few hours later.
Jacob's daughters married as follows: Rebecca married Samuel, son
of Timothy Pierson ; Sarah married John Pierson, and later married — —
Smith; Mary married Ward, she was baptized in 1762; Nancy married
Bumwell, later Samuel Merrill ; Hannah, no record of marriage found.
4o6 NEW JERSEY
Jacob's son, John, married Elizabeth Shipman and lived on the home-
stead. Their children were : Mary, who married Daniel Ayres ; Anna, who
married Stephen Hall; Charity, who married Alexander Wilson; John Jr.,
who married Mary, daughter of John Hall ; Elexta, who married Timothy,
son of Silas Palmer; Ruth, who married John Hiler; and Isaac, who mar-
ried Sarah Shepard of Green Village. Isaac and Sarah had a son, J. Henry
Garrigus, of Waterbury, Connecticut, husband of Sophronia Elizabeth
Upson. He is still an active old gentleman of seventy-odd years. I am in-
debted to him for much of tliis history.
Jacob's son, Isaac, married Phoebe Losey. Jacob Jr. married Elizabeth
McKelvey. He lived at Harrisonville, a small settlement below Mt. Tabor
on the Morristown road. Jacob Jr. had children as follows: Daniel, James
and Sarah. (Lewis and Horace T. are jewelry manufacturers in Newark,
New Jersey. They are grandsons of Daniel and are sons of Stephen.)
Sarah married Asher Fairchild. Among Asher's children was Jonathan
Fairchild who married Eliza Jane Dickerson, of Danville, and became the
father of Eliza Jane Fairchild who married William Wallace Hennion and
became the mother of Harriet Jane Hennion-Dickerson, who married Martin
L. Cox, and has two sons, William H. D. Cox and Edmund H. Cox. Asher
Fairchild was the son of Jonathan Fairchild and his wife Sarah Howell.
The children of David and Abigail Losey Garrigus were: Sarah;
Jeptha ; David Jr., who married Rachel Lyon ; Stephen ; Hannah, who mar-
ried Daniel, son of Robert Ayres; Silas; David, who owned the John O.
Hill farm of 600 acres and built the stone house there. David removed to
Ohio with most of his family and died there.
The children of John and Mary Hall Garrigus were : Jacob, married
Abbie S., daughter of Henry Beach ; Alexander Wilson Garrigus, who first
married Catherine Pierson and later married Amanda Searing; Stephen,
who married Catherine S., daughter of James Miller; Sarah, who married
Eliphalet Sturtevant of Rockaway. Eliphalet, died after being wounded
three times in the battle of Gettysburg. He left five children: Clara;
Katharine, wife of Charles G. Buchanan of Newark; Cornelia, wife of
John F. Stickle of Rockaway; Mary, wife of Chidister, of Newark;
and Thomas, of Dover.
More children of John and Mary Hall Garrigus are: Elizabeth, who
married James Miller, of Rockaway; John A., who married Anna Leek;
Mary J., who married Frank Doremus ; Edward, who married a daughter
of Ira Hall.
The Garrigus family ranked high in character, refinement, mtelligence,
and the culture of the times.
Mrs. Sarah A. Fichter, October 18, 1913:
Mrs. Sarah Ann Fichter. widow of John Fichter, was born March i,
1829, and was married in 1849. She was born in the school district of Den-
ville, next to John O. Hill's farm, and in 1841 she went to school to John
O. Hill at the Union school. John O. Hill was one of the best men that
ever lived, always helping people, and doing good in many ways to his
neighbors. If one wanted to build himself a house, Mr. Hill would help
him along. If some one wanted to sell a cow or other cattle to raise cash m
time of need Mr. Hill would buy and pay a good price. John Fichter once
ofifered a cow for sale. One neighbor ofifered him $20, but John Hill gave
him $40 for the cow. He sold a yoke of steers for $40. He sold some
sheep. His wife persuaded him to put his money at interest against a
rainy day. The rainy day came when John was drafted for the army. He
MORRIS COUNTY 407
wanted to get a substitute and this required $700. By getting together
what he had saved he made up part of the sum, but John Hill helped him out
with a check for a hundred dollars, the father-in-law lent a hand and the
substitute was secured. It was the grandfather of John Hill who once
took his son John to church in Morristown and pointed out to him Gen.
Washington in the congregation. This was on the occasion when Wash-
ington partook of the Communion. Mrs. Fichter then gave a long account
of the Johnes family of Morristown, which I cannot now repeat.
It was at the house of her son, Dan W. Fichter of Wharton, that I
called on her. She has 28 grandchildren and 24 great-grandchildren. The
house that she was born in was a log house and had a fine spring of water.
It had one good room on the ground tioor, a half cellar, one room finished
oflf up stairs, and an unfinished garret on the same floor. They lived very
comfortably in this house.
While Mrs. Fichter has not told me so much about Dover in particular,
she has given many glimpses of the life and customs that prevailed in this
vicinity, say at Pigeon Hill, east of Dover and these sketches may reveal
some things that were true of Dover too, in their time, as in these descrip-
tions of life in a log house.
Once her mother was sick and the nurse went to get something from
the further end of the room. Her feet were bare and when she unexpectedly
trod on a snake in the dark she started in fright. Then she went to the
candle tree to get a candle. A candle tree? What is that? Did they have
trees in the garden that — Why, don't you know what a candle tree is ? It was
a little tree or branch on which they hung their stock of candles. They
used to make their own candles, of course, by dipping wicks in melted tal-
low.' Oh yes, I see. And this candle tree was hung up high somewhere,
where the mice could not get at the candles. Exactly. And what about
that snake? Well, the nurse got a candle and lighted it and looked hard for
that snake, but she could not find it. It must have crawled in between the
logs. Snakes can flatten themselves out when they want to crawl between
the logs of a log house, you know. That is one of the interesting things
about living in a log house. What could have become of that snake? The
anxious mother went to look at her two children, who by that time had been
put to bed. There was the snake, making himself comfortable in their
warm bed. It did not take the mother long to get those children out of
bed. What next? She went to the fireplace and stirred up the embers.
They never let the fire go out in those days. This was a wood fire, of
course. So she waked up the slumbering embers. Then she went back to
the bed. This snake was a pilot snake, a copperhead pilot, poisonous.
She gathered the corners of the sheet and thus secured the reptile in such
a way that she could carry him over to the fireplace. There she dumped him
into the freshly kindling fire and when he fell into it he fairly squealed like a
pig. (If Eve had only been as heroic!)
Where did you go to church? To the Presbyterian church at Rocka-
way. I was brought up a Presbyterian ; became a Methodist later. Did
you ever know the Rev. Barnabas King? Of course I did. He was a very
good man. Interesting preacher? He always spoke very low. When Dr.
Tuttle (Rev. Joseph F. Tuttle) succeeded him he interested the people
better. But Mr. King was an excellent good man. He used to call on the
people at their homes. He would call on each family once a year.
When the people built the old church at Rockaway, the one they built
before the Revolutionary War, one would bring a log and another a log, and
4o8 NEW JERSEY
so on, and they all helped to build it. They were so anxious to hold meet-
ings in it that they couldn't wait until the floor was laid, but held their
first meeting's sitting on the beams. Aunt Abigail Jackson was the first
one to attend meeting in it. They asked her how many had been to meet-
ing. She said: There was just three of us at the meeting — the Father, the
Son, and the Holy Ghost — and me; that made four. She sat on a beam
and sang the hymns and she could sing like a bird. Next time there were
more attended.' She belonged to that old Jackson family. Some remark-
able people in that family. There was one of them that used to be all dressed
up in his military uniform and ride around mounted on his gray horse when
they had the militia out. He did look so handsome ! And there was
one of them that used to get drunk and go through the streets shouting
"Once I sucked the breast of bondage, but I was weaned on the nipple of
Liberty and Independence." How he would holler it out!
\\'hen the railroad first came to Morristown everybody drove over to
Morristown, Squire Stephen Conger among them, and got a free ride to