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LIFE AXD ADVENTUEES



MARTIN CHUZZLEWIT



I



MACMILLAN AND CO., Limited

LONDON ■ BOMBAY ■ CALCUTTA
MELBOUKNE

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

NEW YORK • nOSTON • CHICAGO
ATLANTA • ?;AN FRANCISCO

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd.

TORONTO



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LIFE AXD ADYENTURES



OF



MAETIN CHUZZLEWIT



(YJJ



CHARLES DICKENS



A REPRINT OF THE FIRST EDITION,

WITH THE ILLUSTRATIONS, AND AN INTRODUCTION,

BIOGRAPHICAL AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL, BY

CHARLES DICKENS THE YOUNGER.



MACMILLAX AND CO., LIMITED
ST. MARTINS STREET, LONDON

191U






First Edition 1892
Reprinted 1899, 1903, 1910



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J



CONTENTS.



PAGE

Introduction xix



CHAPTER I
Introductory, concerning the Pedigree of the Chuzzlewit Family . 1



CHAPTER II

"Wherein certain Persons are presented to the Reader, with whom he
may, if he please, become better acquainted ....



CHAPTER III

In which certain other Persons are introduced ; on the same Terms

as in the last Chapter 24



CHAPTER IV

Prom which it will appear that if Union be Strength, and Family
Aftection be jileasant to contemplate, the Chuzzlewits were the
strongest and most agreeable Family in the World ... 42



CHAPTER V

Containing a full Account of the Installation of Mr. Pecksniffs new
Pupil into the Bosom of Mr. Pecksniffs Family. With all the
Festivities held on that Occasion, and the great Enjoyment of
Mr. Pinch . . . •



433G3i



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER VI

PAGE



Comprises, among other im])ortaiit Matters, Pecksuiffiau and Archi-
tectural, an exact Relation of tlie Progress made by Mr. Pinch
in the Confidence and Friendship of the New Pupil .



CHAPTER VII

In which Mr. Chevy Slyme asserts the Independence of his Spirit :

and the Blue Dragon loses a Limb 98



CHAPTER VIII

Accomjianies Mr. Pecksuilf and his charming Daughters to the City

of London ; and relates what fell out, upon their way thither . 113



CHAPTER IX
Town and Todgers's ....



CHAPTER X

Containing strange Matter ; on which many Events in this History

may, for their good or evil Influence, chiefly depend . .149



CHAPTER XI

AVherein a certain Gentleman becomes particular in his Attentions
to a certain Lady ; and more Coming Events tli.ui one. cast
their Shadows before 165



CHAPTER XII

Will he seen in the Long Run, if not in the Short One, to concern
Mr. Pinch and Others, nearly. Mr. Pecksniff asserts the Dig-
nity of outraged Virtue ; and Voung Martin Chuzzlewit forms a
desperate Resohttion 185



CHAPTER XIII

Showing what became of Martin and his desperate Resolve after he
left Mr. Pecksniff's House ; what Persons he Encountered ;
what Anxieties he Suffered ; and what News he Heard . . 205



CONTENTS.



CHAPTEH XIV



In which Martin bids Adieu to the Lady of his Love ; and Honours
an obscure Individual whose Fortune lie iuteuds to make, by
connuending her to his Protection 226



CHAPTER XV
The Burden whereof is Hail, Columbia ! 237



CHAPTER XVI

ilartin Disembarks from that noble and fast-sailing Line-of-Packet
Ship, the Screw, at the Port of New York, in the United States
of America. He makes some Acquaintances, and Dines at a
Boarding-house. The Particulars of those Transactions . . 246



CHAPTER XVII

Martin enlarges his Circle of Acquaintance ; increases his Stock of
AVisdom ; and has an excellent Opportunity of comparing his
own Experiences with those of Lummy Ned of the Light Salis-
burv, as related bv his Friend Mr. AVilliam Simmons . . 267



CHAPTER XVIII

Does Business with the House of Anthony Chuzzlewit and Son, from
which One of the Partners retires unexpectedly



CHAPTER XIX

The Reader is brought into Communication with some Professional
Persons, and sheds a Tear over the Filial Piety of good Mr.
Jonas 298



CHAPTER XX
Is a Chapter of Love 313



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XXI



More American Experiences. Martin takes a Partner, and makes a
Purchase. Some Account of Eden, as it appeared on Paper.
Also of the British Lion. Also of the kind of Sympathy pro-
fessed and entertained by the Watertoast Association of United
Sympathizers 32/



CHAPTER XXII

From which it will be seen that Martin became a Lion on his own

Account. Together with the Reason why .... 347



CHAPTER XXIII

Martin and his Partner take Possession of their Estate. The Joyful

Occasion involves some further Account of Eden . .35;



CHAPTER XXIV

Reports Progress in certain homely Matters of Love, Hatred,

Jealousy, and Revenge ........ 367



CHAPTER XXV



Is in part Professional ; and furnishes the Reader with some Valuable

Hints in relation to the Management of a Sick Chamber . 384



CHAPTER XXVI
An Unexpected Meeting, and a Promising Prospect .... 399

CHAPTER XXVII

Showing that Old Friends may not only appear with New Faces, but
in False Colours. That People are prone to Bite ; and that
Biters may sometimes bo Bitten 408



CONTENTS.
CHAPTER XXVIII



PAOI



Mr. Montagne at Home. And Mr. Jonas Chuzzlewit at Home . 429

CHAPTER XXIX

Precocious, othe

Ivsterious : all in their several "Way:



In which some People are Precocious.^others Professional, and others ^^^



CHAPTER XXX



Proves that Changes may be rung in the best-regulated Families,

and that Mr. Pecksniff was a special hand at a Triple- Bob- ^^^
Major



CHAPTER XXXI

Mr Pinch is discharged of a Duty which he never owed to Anybody ;

and Mr. Pecksniff discharges a Duty which he owes to Society . 4b&



CHAPTER XXXII

Treats of Todg^rs's again ; and of another Blighted Plant besides

the Plants upon the Leads ^o-^

CHAPTER XXXIII

Further Proceedings in Eden, and a Proceeding out of it. Martin

makes a Discovery of some importance ^^^

CHAPTER XXXIV

In which the Travellers move Homeward, and Encounter some

Distinguished Characters upon the Way 507

CHAPTER XXXV

Arrivint' iu England, Martin witnesses a Ceremony, from which he
dertves the cheering Information that he has not been Forgotten
in his Absence '



XIV CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXXVI

PAGE

Tom Pinch departs to seek his Fortune. What he fiiuls at starting 530

CHAPTER XXXYII

Tom Pinch, going Astray, finds that he is not tlie only Person in

that Predicament. He Retaliates upon a fallen Foe . . 551

CHAPTER XXXVIII
Secret Service ... c^i



CHAPTER XXXIX

Containing some further Particulars of tlic Doraestir' Economy of
the Pinches ; with strange News from the City, narrowly con-
cerning Tom



CHAPTER XI.

The Pinches make a New Acquaintance, and haye fresh occasion
for Surprise and "Wonder



CHAPTER XLI



Mr. Jonas and his Friend, arriying at a Pleasant Understanding set

forth upon an Enterprise ^' qq^



CHAPTER XLI I
Continuation of the Enterprise of Mr. Jonas and his Friend . .613

CHAPTER XLIII

Has an Iiilhiencc on the Fortunes of several People. Mr Pecksnill'
IS e.xhibited in the Plenitude of Power; and wird.ls tlie same
with Fortitud.- an.l JIagnaniinity . . . go.3



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XLIV

PAGE

Further Continuation of the Enterprise of Jlr. Jonas and his Friend 646



CHAPTER XLV

111 which Tom Pinch and his Sister take a little Pleasure ; but quite

in a Domestic Wav, and with no Ceremony about it . . 653



CHAPTER XLYI

111 which Miss Pecksniff makes Love, Mr. Jonas makes Wrath, Jlrs.

(lamp makes Tea, and Mr. Chuffey makes Business . . .662



CHAPTER XLVII
Conclusion of the Enterprise of Mr. Jonas and his Friend 685

CHAPTER XLVIII

Bears Tidings of Martin, and of Mark, as well as of a Third Person
not quite unknown to the Reader. Exhibits Filial Pietj' in an
Ugly Aspect ; and casts a doubtful Ray of Light upon a very
Dark Place 694

CHAPTER XLIX

In which Mrs. Harris, assisted by a Teapot, is the cause of a Division

between Friends 710

CHAPTER L

Surprises Tom Pinch very much, and shows how certain Confidences

passed between Him and his Sister ...... 724

CHAPTER LI "

Sheds New and Brighter Light upon the very Dark Place ; and con-
tains the Sequel of the Enterprise of Mr. Jonas and his Frieml 735



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER LII



In which the Tables are Turned, completely Upside Down



CHAPTER LII I

What John Westlock said to Tom Pinch's Sister ; what Tom
Pinch's Sister said to John Westlock ; what Tom Pinch said to
both of them ; and how they all passed the Remainder of the
Day 775



CHAPTER LIY
Gives the Author great Concern, For it is the Last in the Book



■84



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



FACilMILE OF FKONTISPIECK AND TrrLK I'AGE UV THE FIllST

EDITION iv, V

FACSI.MILE OF THE AVKAPPER TO THE OUIGINAL EDITION . XXxiii

MEEKNESS OF Ml!. PECKSNIFF AND HIS CHAKMING DAUGHTERS . 17
MARTIN CHUZZLEWIT SI'SPECTS THE LANDLADY AVITHOUT ANY

KEASON 30

PLEASANT LITTLE FAMILY PAPTY AT MP.. PECKSNIFf'.S . . . 54

PINCH STARTS HOMEWAPD AVITH THE NEW PUPIL ... 75

MR. PINCH AND THE NEW PUPIL, ON A SOCIAL OCCASION . . 90

MARK BEGINS TO BE JOLLY UNDER CREDITABLE CIRCUMSTANCES . 112

M. TODGERS AND THE PECKSNIFFS, CALL UPON MISS PINCH . . 132

TRUTH PREVAILS AND VIRTUE IS TRIUMPHANT .... 154
MR. JONAS CHUZZLEWIT ENTERTAINS HIS COUSINS . , .177

MR. PECKSNIFF RENOUNCES THE DECEIVER 204

MARTIN MEETS AN ACQUAINTANCE, AT THE HOUSE OF A MUTUAL

REL.\TION 213

MR. TAPLEY ACTS THIRD PARTY, WITH GREAT DISCRETION . . 228
MR. JEFFERSON BRICK PROPOSES AN APPROPRIATE SENTIMENT . 254
MR. TAPLEY SUCCEEDS IN FINDING A " JOLLY " SUBJECT FOR CON-
TEMPLATION 271

THE DISSOLUTION OF PARTNERSHIP 295

MR. PECKSNIFF ON HIS MISSION 300

THE THRIVING CITY OF EDEN, AS IT APPEARED ON PAPER . . 340

THE THRIVING CITY OF EDEN, AS IT APPEARED IN FACT . . 366

HALM FOR THE WOUNDED ORPHAN 377



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



Page

MRS. GAMP HAS HER EYE OX THE FUTURE 407

THE BOARD .... 417

EASY SHAVING 441

MR. PECKSNIFF DI.SCHARGES A DUTY WHICH HE OWES TO SOCIETY 481

MR. MODDLE IS BOTH PARTICULAR AND PECULIAR IX HIS ATTEXTIOX.S 489

MR. TAPLEY IS RECOGXIZED" BY SOME FELLOW-CITIZENS OF EDEN . 492

MARTIN IS MUCH GRATIFIED BY AX IMPOSING CEIIEMONY . 529

MR. PINCH DEPARTS TO SEEK HIS FORTUNE 535

MR. NADGETT BREATHES, AS USUAL, AN ATMO.SPUERE OF MYSTERY 569

MR. PINCH AND RUTH, UNCONSCIOUS OF A VISITOR . . . 577

MYSTERIOUS INSTALLATION OF MR. PIXCH 587

MR. JONAS EXHIBITS HIS PRESENCE OF MIND .... 619

MR. PECKSNIFF ANNOUNCES HIMSELF AS THE SHIELD OF VIRTUE . 634

MR. MODDLE IS LED TO THE CONTEMPLATION OF HIS DE.STINY . 664

MRS. GAMP MAKES TEA 674

MRS. GAMP PROPOGES A TOAST 717

MR. PINCH IS AMAZED BY AN UNEXPECTED APPARITION . . 734

WARM RECEPTION OF MR. PECKSNIFF BY HIS VENERABLE FRIEND 763

THE NUPTIALS OF MI.SS PECKSNIFF RECEIVE A TEMPORARY CHECK 793



INTRODUCTION.



Towards the end of the year 1841 — it having been found
necessary to discontinue MuMcr Humplireij's Clod; which had
been started in April, 1840, and had been found to involve
too great a strain on its author's powers — negotiations were
entered into between Charles Dickens and his publishers,
Messrs. Chapman and Hall, with a view to the settlement of
their future business relations. The result was an agreement,
which was signed on Tuesday, the 7th of September, in ]\Ir.
Forster's chambers in Lincoln's Inn — Mr. Forster having
acted in this matter, as in so many others, as Charles Dickens's
adviser — and which was to the following effect : —

At the termination of Barnabij Budge the Clock was to
come to an end, and an engagement was made for a new
story in twenty shilling numbers, after the fashion of Pichvick
and Xickleby, which, however, was not to be commenced until
November, 1842. Under this agreement Charles Dickens
was to receive £200 per month, to be reckoned as part of
the expenses, all of which were to be defrayed by the pub-
lishers, who, out of the profits of each number, were to
take one-fourth.^ This arrangement was to hold good until
six months after the completion of the book, when, on pay-
ment to Charles Dickens of one-fourth of the value of all
then existing stock, the publishers were to be entitled to one-
half of future profits. During the twelve months preceding
the commencement of the book, the author was to be paid £150
per month by way of advance, which was to be repaid by
him out of his fourth share of the profits. This agreement was
scarcely so business-like on the author's side as it may have

* Under the Clock agreement the publishers took one-half of the profits.
h



XX INTRODUCTION.

looked at first sight, inasmucli as it practically left the
publishers to decide what amount they should pay for their
subsequent one-fourth share of the profits — the amount of
stock at the end of the six months being a matter entirely
within their own control — and there being also a clause.
providing against the event of the profits being inadequate to
the repayment of these advance payments, which was to
cause a great deal of trouble, as we shall see, by and by.

The only drawback which Charles Dickens's advisers
could see to this agreement was a certain fear as to the
manner in which he would employ the twelve months' leisure
which lay before him — a fear, that is, that, instead of taking
a really much -needed rest, he would dash into some other
fatiguing and distracting enterprise. This fear was, indeed,
well grounded, for within a fortnight he wrote to Mr. Forster
announcing his intention of making that voyage to America —
a rather serious undertaking in those days — which had been
for some time in his mind, and, moreover, of starting as soon
after Christmas "as it will be safe to go." The question of
safety, involved no loss of time, and on the 4 th of January,
1842, the six months' trip began.

On his return Charles Dickens worked at the American
Notes during a summer visit to Broadstairs, and also spent
some merry weeks in Cornwall, where he had had a strong
desire to lay the opening scenes of the new book. During
the whole of this time, however, nothing was settled about
the story, and it was not until the 12th of November that
Mr. Forster received from Charles Dickens the title — "Don't
lose it," he said, " for I have no copy." Even then there Avas
a good deal of hesitation, and not a little discussion, before
the name Chuzzlewit — which had passed through the various
preliminary stages of Sweezleden, Sweezleback, Sweezlewag,
Chuzzletoe, Chuzzleboy, Chubblewig, and Chuzzlewig — was
finally adopted.

The title of the original edition was long and elaborate,
and was fully set forth in the wrapper of the monthly parts.

In later editions all the facetious elaboration was discarded,
and the book was simply called The Life and Adventures of
Martin ChuzdevAf.

The first monthly number of Martin Chuzzleuit was pub-
lished in January, 1843 — a facsimile of the first page of the



IXTRODUCTIOX. xxi

wrapper is given here on page xxxiii — and the uncertainty of
constructive purpose witli which the story began troubled its
author a great deal during a considerable portion of its com-
position. " Beginning so hurriedly as at last he did," Mr.
Forster says, " altering his course at the opening " — it was
while the tliird number was in progress that he first devised
old Martin's plot to degrade and punish Pecksniff — "and
seeing little of the main track of its design," it is not surprising
that he encountered difficulties serious enough to induce him
to devote more care to the construction of his later stories,
and to devote himself more closely to any design which he
might have in his mind at the outset. In this connection it
is not uninstructive to note that a very " superior " notice of
Charles Dickens in the Contemporary Review for February,
1869, declared that "as well-framed stories, perhaps there
are no better models than some of his earlier and greater
novels — David Copperfield, Martin Chuzzleuit, or Domhey and
Son" — while Mr. Forster's criticism far more justly says, "In
construction and conduct of story Martin Chuzzlewit is defec-
tive, character and description constituting the chief part of
its strength." And it is clear that no one could possibly
have had a more keen sense of these characters than Charles
Dickens had himself — a sense of reality which, as I have had
occasion to point out more than once before, was always
present to him. Thus, of two of the principal characters in
Martin Chuzzlewit, he wrote, " As to the way in which these
characters have opened out, that is to me one of the most
surprising processes of the mind in this sort of invention.
Given what one knows, what one does not know springs up ;
and I am as absolutely certain of its being true, as I am of
the law of gravitation — if such a thing be possible, more so."

The real origin of the book, Mr. Forster says, was the
taking Pecksniff for a type of character ; but it is perhaps
safer to follow the author himself, who tells us, plainly enough,
in his preface that his object was to "show how Selfishness
propagates itself ; and to what a grim giant it may grow from
small beginnings."

That the American experiences of Martin and Mark should
have raised a prodigious outcry across the Atlantic, where the
American Notes had already greatly excited public opinioji, is
not altogether surprising, although the extreme strength of



xxii IKTRODUCTION.

the language used liy some of the more irate and less respon-
sible critics was, to say the least of it, unusual to English
readers. Some of these gentlemen, indeed, wrote as if they
were, as Charles Dickens expressed it, "stark, staring, raving
mad." For Martin's visit to America — which had nothing to
do with the original plan of the story, such as it was, and the
notion of which " Dickens adopted as suddenly as his hero " —
was felt to be intended as a driving home of the nail, in answer to
the challenges to justify his Notes which hostile American critics
were constantly addressing to Charles Dickens, and, naturally
enough, had the effect of making matters ten times worse
than they had been before. But the storm blew over after a
comparatively short time, one portion of tlie American public
and press taking the easy line of pooh-poohing Elijah Pogram,
and Colonel Diver, and Mr. Jefferson Brick, and Mrs. Hominy,
and the rest, as mere caricatures ; while the other, and more
sensible, readers very soon came to reflect that, however hard
Charles Dickens had been in some of his American models, he
had in no wise spared his own countrymen, and that, after
all, there is very little to choose between Mr. Hannibal
Chollop and Mrs. Gamp, between Zephaniah Scadder and
Montague Tigg, or between the Eden Land Corporation and
the Anglo -Bengalee Disinterested Loan and Life Insurance
Company. According to Mr. Forster, by the way, the original
of Eden was found somewhere between Harrisburgh and
Pittsburgh on the journey over the Alleghany mountains,
which is described in the Notes, but public opinion in America
points, and more correctly, I think, to the city of Cairo on
the Mississippi Eiver.

Martin Chuzzlewit ran on uninterruptedly from January,
1843, to its conclusion in July, 1844 — parts nineteen and
twenty were issued in the same wrapper — when it was re-
published in one volume of six hundred and twenty-four
pages, Avith forty illustrations by H. K. Browne, at one
guinea, bound in cloth. A curious mistake was made in one
of the first plates etched for the title-page, the amount of the
reward offered by the notice on the sign-post being printed
as 100£. This was altered in the other plates to £100.
The parts with the 100£ are always considered the first
issue. The book was dedicated to the Baroness Burdett-
Coutts, then Miss Burdett-Coutts, in the following terms : —



INTRODUCTION. xxiu

TO

MISS BURDETT COUTTS,

THIS TALK

IS DEDICATED,

WITH THE TRUE AND EARNEST REGARD

OF

THE AUTHOR.

The original preface ran as follows : —

I attach a few preliminary words to the Life and Adventures
OF Martin Chuzzlewit : more because I am unwilling to depart
from any custom wliich has become endeared to me by having
prevailed between myself and my readers on former occasions of
the same kind, than because I have anything in particular to say.

Like a troublesome guest who lingers in the Hall after he has
taken leave, I cannot help loitering on the threshold of my book,
though those two words. The End : anticipated through twenty
months, yet sorrowfully penned at last : stare at me, in capitals,
from the printed page.

I set out, on this journey which is now concluded ; with the
design of exhibiting, in various aspects, the commonest of all the
vices. It is almost needless to add, that the commoner the folly
or the crime which an author endeavours to illustrate, the greater
is the risk he runs of being charged with exaggeration ; for, as no
m.in ever yet recognised an imitation of himself, no man will admit
the correctness of a sketch in wliich his own character is delineated,
however faitlifully.

But, although Mr. Pecksniff will by no means concede to me,
that Mr. Pecksniff is natural ; I am consoled by finding him keenly
susceptible of the truthfulness of Mrs. Gamp. And though Mrs.
Gamp considers her portrait to be quite unlike, and altogether out
of drawing ; she recompenses me for the severity of her criticism
on that failure, by awarding unbounded praise to the picture of
Mrs. Prig.

I have endeavoured in the progress of this Tale, to resist the
temptation of the current Monthly Number, and to keep a steadier
eye upon the general purpose and design. With this object in
view, I have jjut a strong constraint upon mysrlf from time to



xxiv INTRODUCTION.

time, in many places ; and 1 hope tlie story is the better for it,
now.

At any rate, if my readers have derived but half the pleasure
and interest from its j^erusal, which its composition has afforded
me, I have ample reason to be gratified. And if they part from
any of my visionary friends, with the least tinge of that reluctance
and regret Avhich I feel in dismissing them ; my success has been .
complete, indeed.

London,
Twenty -Jifth June, 1844. ;

Unfortunately Martin Chuzzlewit, the success of which has
since ranked but little below that of Pickivick and David
Copperfield, was the cause of no little disappointment on its
first publication. Its early sale Avas, indeed, very far below
the calculations and expectations of author and publishers
alike. Why this should have been is not at all clear. Several
reasons have been assigned — such as the change to weekly
issues in the form of publication of the Old Curiosity Shop and
Barnahy Budge ; the " temporary withdrawal " to America ; or
mere caprice on the part of the reading public — which may
or may not have been the real causes, but the fact remains
that the great sales of its predecessors fell away to a very
remarkable and serious extent. Indeed the circulation of the
Chuzzleivit numbers never reached twenty-three thousand, as
against the forty or fifty thousand of Pichvick and Nickleby,
and the seventy thousand or so of the early numbers of
Master Humphrey s Clock. As Charles Dickens himself said,
arguing in favour of that sojourn abroad which was soon to
follow, " You know, as well as I, that I think Ckuzzlewit in a
hundred points immeasurably the best of my stories. That I
feel my power now, more than I ever did. That I have
greater confidence in myself than I ever had. That I know,
if I have health, I could sustain my place in the minds of
thinking men, though fifty writers started up to-morrow.
But how many readers do not think ! How many take it
upon trust from knaves and idiots, that one writes too fast, or
runs a thing to death ! How coldly did this very book go
oil for months, until it forced itself up in people's opinion,
without forcing itself \\\) in sale ! "

And this vexatious state of things w'as not only to be a



INTRODUCTION. xxv

source of severe disappointment to all concerned. It was,
besides, to lead to a severance of tlie hitherto Aery friendly
relations which had now existed for some years between
author and publishers.

"We have seen tiiat there was a clause in the Chuzzleicit
agreement providing for the event of the profits of the book
proving inadequate to provide for certain necessary repay-
ments. Whether these repayments merely referred to the
£150 a month for twelve months, on account of profits, which
Charles Dickens Avas to draw before the publication of the
book began, or Avhether some other business transactions are
alluded to, is not clear. Mr. Forster says, " What he meant



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