Charles Downer Hazen.

Europe since 1815 online

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iHmertcan i|i£itorical ^ertesi



Piofestor of History in Harvard University








Copyright, 19 JO,





The purpose of this book is the presentation of the history
of Europe since the downfall of Napoleon. Needless to say,
only the broader lines of the evolution of so crowded a cen-
tury can be traced in a single volume. I have, moreover,
omitted many subjects, frequently described, in order to
give a fuller treatment to those which, in my opinion, are
more important. I have endeavored to explain the internal
development of the various nations, and their external rela-
tions in so far as these have been vital or deeply formative.
I have also attempted to preserve a reasonable balance be-
tween the different periods of the century and to avoid the
danger of over-emphasis.

The great tendencies of the century, the transference of
power from oligarchies to democracies, the building up of
nations like Germany and Italy and the Balkan states which
was the product of long trains of causes, of sharp, decisive
events, and of the potent activity of commanding person-
alities, the gradual expansion of Europe and its insistent
and growing pressure upon the world outside, shown in so
many ways and so strikingly in this age of imperialism and
world-politics, the increasing consciousness in our day of the
urgency of economic and social problems, all these and other
tendencies will, I trust, emerge from the following pages,
with clearness and in just proportion.

The problem of arranging material covering so many dif-
ferent countries and presenting such varieties of circumstance
and condition is one of the greatest diflSculty. It arises from
the fact that Europe is only a geographical expression. The
author is not writing the history of a single people but of a
dozen different peoples, which, having much in common, are



nevertheless very dissimilar in character, in problems, in
stages of development, and in mental outlook. If he adopts
the chronological order (and events certainly occurred in
chronological sequence), if he attempts to keep the histories
of a dozen different countries moving along together as they
did in fact, he must pass continually from one to the other
and his narrative inevitably becomes jerky, spasmodic, and
confused. If on the other hand he takes each nation in
turn, recounting its history from starting point to point of
conclusion, he gains the great advantage of continuity, which
begets understanding, but he writes a dozen histories, not one.
He therefore compromises, perforce, with his intractable
problem and works out a method of presentation of whose
vulnerability he is probably quite as acutely conscious as
any reader could be. My method has been to bring down
more or less together the histories of those countries which
have so intimately and significantly interacted upon each
other, Austria, Prussia, France, and Italy, that the evolution
of one cannot be, even approximately, understood apart from
a knowledge of the current evolution of the others. I then
return to my starting point, 1815, and trace the histories of
England, Russia, Turkey and the lesser states separately,
gaining the advantage of being able to show their continuous
development. I hope that this method has at least the merit
of rendering clearness of exposition possible.

My narrative is based to some extent upon an examination
of the sources, although, considering the vast extent of the
original material available, this has been necessarily com-
paratively limited. It is based chiefly, as probably any
synthetic work covering so large a field must be, on the
elaborate general histories of different periods or countries,
on biographies, and on the special monographic literature.
These are indicated in the bibliography at the end of the
volume which I have attempted to make critical and descrip-
tive rather than extensive. It has been impossible for me to
employ footnotes freely and consequently I am restricted to


a general recognition of my great and constant indebtedness
to the authorities used, a recognition which I wish to make as
explicit and as grateful as it must be brief and comprehensive.

C. D. H.

Northampton, Massachuseits,
December 31, 1909.





The Overthrow of Napoleon — The Great Coalition — The Problem
of the Government of France — Treaty of Paris — Congress of
Vienna — The Great Powers — The Division of the Spoils — Prin-
ciple of Legitimacy — Demands of Russia — Demands of Prussia
• — The Fate of Poland and Saxony — Russian Acquisitions —
Austrian Acquisitions — English Acquisitions — The Future of
Italy — Italy a " Geographical Expression " — Criticism of the
Congress — The Indignation of the Germans — Defiance of the
Principle of Nationalitv — Denunciation of the Slave Trade —
The " Hundred Days "—Second Treaty of Paris— The Holy Alli-
ance — The Allies Promise Aid to Each Other — ^Unusual Charac-
ter of the Alliance — Quadruple Alliance — Precautions Against
France — The Concert of Powers — Quadruple Alliance and Met-
ternich — Alexander I — Francis I of Austria — Metternich — His
Diplomatic Skill — His Self-esteem — His Historical Importance —
Doctrine of Immobility 1



Lack of Unity in the Austrian Empire — Racial Differences — Not a
German Empire — Policy of Francis I and Metternich — Austria
a Land of the Old Regime — Local Government — The Police
System — The System of Espionage — Application of the Met-
ternich System in Other Countries — Germany a Loose Confedera-
tion—Varieties of States — The Diet — Its Powers not Defined —
Germany not a Nation — The International Character of the Con-
federation — Dissatisfaction of the Germans with This System^
Why the Problem of German Unity was so Difficult — The States-
right Feeling — Dualism the Outcome of German Evolution —
The Demand for Constitutional Government — Metternich's Suc-
cessful Opposition — Various Forms of Government in the Dif-
ferent German States — Popular Sovereignty Nowhere Recog-
nized — Constitutions Granted in Certain States — The King of
Prussia Becomes Reactionary — Indignation of the Liberals —
Ferment in the Universities — The Wartburg Festival — The Mur-
der of Kotzebue — The Holy Alliance Converted into an Engine
of Oppression — The Carlsbad Decrees — Provision Concerning
Constitutional Government — Control of the Universities — Pro-
hibition of Student Societies — Tlie Censorship of the Press-
Reaction the Order of the Day in Germany — The Persecution of
Liberals — Prussia a Docile Follower of Austria .... 23





Spain — Spanish Constitution of 1812 — Ferdinand VII, Abolition of
the Constitution — Persecution of Liberals — Inefficiency of the
Government — Disintegration of the Spanish Empire — Neglect
of the Army and the Navy— Revolution of 1820-18:23— Italy-
Napoleon on Italian Unity — Significance of Napoleon's Activity
in Italy — The Awakening of Italy — The Decision of the Congress
of Vienna — The Ten Italian States — The Dominance of Austria —
The Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom — The Kingdom of Sardinia —
The States of the Church— The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies— Uni-
versal Reaction — The Carbonari — The Revolution of 1830 in
Naples — The Powers Prepare to Suppress These Revolutions —
The Doctrine of the Right of Intervention — The Congress of
Aix-la-Chapelle, 1818— The Congress of Troppau, 1830— The
Congress of Laibach, 1821 — The Revolution in Piedmont —
Reasons for the Failure of the Movements of 1820 — The Congress
of Verona, 1822 — Reaction in Spain — The Triumph of the Holy
Alliance — The Monroe Doctrine — The " Metternich System "
Checked 45



The Profound Effects of the French Revolution — The Restoration
of the Bourbons not a Restoration of the Old Regime — The
Constitutional Charter — The Form of Government — The Re-
stricted Suffrage — Provisions Concerning Civil Rights — Recog-
nition of the Work of the Revolution— Louis XVIII— The Diffi-
culties of His Situation — The Ultras — The Center Parties — The
White Terror— Louis XVIII Checks the Ultras— A Period of
Moderate Liberalism — The I>iberation of the Territory — Re-
organization of the Armj^ — The Electoral Sj'stem — The Press
Law of 1819 — Activity of the Ultras — Election of Gregoire—
Murder of the Duke of Berry— Electoral Law of 1820— The
Double Vote — The Censorship Restored — French Invasion of
Spain — Triumph of the Ultras — Death of Louis XVIII —
Charles X — Policy of the New King — The Nobles Indemnified
for Propertj' Confiscated During the Revolution — Method
of Paying the Indemnity — The Law Against Sacrilege —
Clerical Reaction — Attempt to Re-establish the Principle of
Primogeniture — Attempt to Destroy the Freedom of the Press — ■
Disbandment of the National Guard — Attempt to Stamp Out
the Opposition in Parliament — The Martignac Ministry — The
Polignac Ministry — Widespread Opposition to the Ministry —
Conflict Between Charles X and the Chamber of Deputies — The
Ordinances of July — Charles X's Interpretation of the Charter
— The King's Mistaken Judgment — The Opposition of the Liberal
Editors of Paris — The July Revolution — The Character of the
Fighting — The Ordinances Withdrawn — The Candidacy of Louis
Philippe — Abdication of Charles X — Louis PhilijDpe King — The
End of the Restoration 66





Wide-spread Influence of the July Revolution — Powerlessness of the
Holy Alliance — The Congress of Vienna and the Kingdom of
the Netherlands — A Union of Two Fundamentally Dissimilar
Peoples — The Spirit of Nationality Awakened Among the Bel-
gians — Difficulties in the Drafting of the Constitution — Friction
Between the Belgians and the Dutch— The Influence of the July
Revolution — The Belgians Declare Their Independence — Inter-
vention of the Holy Allies Prevented by Events in Poland —
Recognition of the Kingdom of Belgium — The Restoration of
the Kingdom of Poland in 1815 — Alexander I Grants a Constitu-
tion to Poland — Friction Between the Poles and the Russians —
Influence of the July Revolution — The Polish Expectation of
Foreign Aid Disappointed — The Failure of the Insurrection —
Italy After the Revolutions of 1820 — Revolutionary Movements
in 1831 — The Italians Receive No Help from France — Austrian
Intervention — The Results of the Insurrections — Revolution in
Germany — New Measures of Repression — Metternich Supreme in
Germajiy 100



The Career of Louis Philippe — His Liberalism — His Legal Title
to the Throne — -The Constitution Revised — The Franchise
Lowered — The Character of the July Monarchy — Insecurity of
the New Regime — A Period of Storm and Stress — The Progressive
Partj^^The Conservative Party — Popular Unrest — Casimir-
Perier and the Policy of the Conservatives — Foreign Policy — Op-
position Parties — The Legitimists — The Duchess of Berrj^ — Re-
publican Insurrections — Vigorous Measures of the Government —
The Prosecution of Journalists — Attempts upon the Life of
Louis Philippe — The September Laws, 1835 — The Press Law —
The Bonapartists — Louis Philippe and the Napoleonic Legend —
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte — The Second Funeral of Napoleon
I — The Boulogne Fiasco — Ministerial Instability — Rivalry of
Thiers and Guizot — Louis Philippe Intends to Rule — Personal
Government — Thiers and the Eastern Question — Resignation of
Thiers — Guizot, Prime Minister — Guizot's Political Principles—
The Government Scrupulously Parliamentary — How the Gov-
ernment Obtained Its Majorities — The Manipulation of the
Voters — The Manipulation of the Deputies — The Servility
of Parliament — Demand for Electoral and Parliamentary Re-
form — Rigid Opposition of the Guizot Ministry — Rise of Radi-
calism — Economic Distress — ^^Introduction of tlie Factory System
— Condition of the Working Classes — Growth of Socialism —
Louis Blanc — Wide-spread Opposition to the Policy of the Gov-
ernment — Fusion of the Opposing Parties — The " Reform
Banquets " — Emergence of Lamartine — The People Support the
Demand for Reform — The Revolution of February, 1848 —
Resignation of Guizot — The Overthrow of Louis Philippe — The
Rise of the Second Republic 114





The February Revolution a Signal for Other Revolutions — The
General Character of the Period between 1830 and 1848— Evolu-
tion of Prussia — Great Intellectual Activity — The Achievement
of Prussian Unity Imperative — Revision of the System of Tax-
ation—The Question of the Tariif— The Zollverein— The Ad-
vantages of the Zollverein — Death of Frederick William III —
Frederick William IV — The Demand for a Parliament — The Let-
ter Patent of February 3, 1847 — Popular Dissatisfaction— Con-
flict Between Frederick William IV and the United Landtag —
Austria not a Homogeneous State — Political Stagnation — The In-
dustrial Revolution — The Development of Nationalities Within
the Empire— Bohemia— Hungary — The Hungarian Constitution —
The Importance of the Nobility — The Prevalence of Feudalism —
Szechenyi and Reform— The Policy of the Diet — The Language
Question^Rise of a Radical Party — Louis Kossuth — The De-
mands of the Hungarians in 1847 — Italy After 1831 — Importance
of a Group of Writers — Joseph Mazzini — His Intense Patriotism
— His Imprisonment— Founder of " Young Italy " — The Methods
of the Society — The Aims of the Society — Unity, a Practicable
Ideal — Mazzini as a Conspirator — Gioberti — D'Azeglio — Balbo—
The Risorgimento— Pius IX, Pope, 1846-1878— Charles Albert,
King of Piedmont — Italy on the Brink of Revolution . . . 145



The Great Mid-century Uprising — Vienna the Storm-center— The
Decisive Intervention of Hungary — The Overthrow of Metter-
nich — The March Laws — Hungary Practically Independent —
Revolution in Bohemia — Revolution in the Austrian Provinces
— Revolution in Lombardy-Venetia — Italy renounces Austrian
Control — Revolution in Germany — The National Movement — The
Parliament of Frankfort — The March Revolutions Everywhere
Triumphant — Austria Begins the Work of Restoration — Bohemia
Conquered — Italy Partially Conquered — Civil Dissension Within
Hungary — The Croatians Rise Against the Magj'ars — Austria
Exploits the Situation — Radical Party in Hungary Seizes Control
— Abdication of the Emperor of Austria — Accession of Francis
Joseph I — Hungary Declares Francis Joseph a Usurper — War
Between Austria and Hungary — Hungarian Declaration of In-
dependence, April 14, 1849 — Hungary Conquered — The Conquest
of Italy Completed — Abdication of Charles Albert — Overthrow
of the Roman Republic — Fall of Venice — The Parliament of
Frankfort — Leadership in Germany Oifered to the King of
Prussia — Rejection of the Work of the Frankfort Parliament —
The " Humiliation of Olmiitz " — Results of the Revolutions of
1848 169



The French Revolution of 1848 — Stages in the History of the
Second Republic — Two Elements in the Provisional Government —



The Republicans — The Socialists — Louis Blanc's Theories —
Achievements of the Provisional Government — The Question of
the Flag — The Labor Commission — Its Impotence — The National
Worlishops — Their Rapid Growth — The National Constituent As-
sembly — The Assembly Hostile to the Socialists — Abolition of
the National Workshops — The June Days — A Military Dictator-
ship — Growing Opposition to the Republic — An Unpopular Fi-
nancial Measure— The Framing of the Constitution — The Powers
of the Executive — Discussion Concerning the Presidency — The
President to be Chosen by Universal Suffrage — The Voters to be
Untrammeled in Their Choice — Louis Napoleon Bonaparte's
Opportunity — His Previous Career — A Member of the Constit-
uent Assembly — A Candidate for the Presidency — Causes of His
Triumph — Louis Napoleon Elected President, Dec. 10, 1848 —
The Legislative Assembly — President and Assembly Opposed to
the Constitution — They Combine to Crush the Republicans — The
Franchise Law of 1850 — President Demands the Revision of the
Constitution— The Coup d'Etat— Events of December 2d— The
"Massacre of the Boulevards" — The Plebiscite — Napoleon HI,
Emperor, Dec. 2, 1852 — The Programme of the New Emperor —
The Political Institutions of the Empire — Parliament Carefully
Muffled — Its Legislative Power Limited — The Senate — The Coun-
cil of State — The Emperor — The Press Shackled — The Empire
Both Repressive and Progressive — The Emperor's Activities —
Economic Development — Paris Beautified — General Prosperity
— The Congress of Paris, 1856 — The Emperor's Policy of Peace
—The Italian War of 1859 187




Reaction in Italy After 1848 — Victor Emmanuel II — Piedmont a
Constitutional State — Count Cavour — His Interest in Political
and Economic Questions — Becomes an Editor — Cavour Prime
Minister, 1852 — Policy of Economic Development — Cavour Seeks
a Military Ally — Why Piedmont Participated in the Crimean
War — Cavour at the Congress of Paris — Discussion of the Italian
Question — Moral Victory for Cavour — Army Strengthened —
Founding of the National Society — Cavour and Napoleon — The
Interview of Plombi^res — A Conspiracy to Bring About a War —
The Conditions Agreed upon — Difficulties and Dangers of
Cavour's Position — Cavour's Diplomacy — The Austro-Sardinian
War — The Campaign of 1859 — The Preliminaries of Villafranca
— Reasons for Napoleon's Action — Austria Eager for Peace —
Resignation of Cavour — Piedmont Acquires Lombardy — Central
Italy — Impossibility of Restoring the Old Order — England's Par-
ticipation in Affairs — Cavour Returns to OflBce — Annexations to
Piedmont— Cession of Savoy and Nice by the Treaty of Turin,
March 24, 1860— Effect upon Napoleon III— The Sicilian Insur-
rection — Giuseppe Garibaldi — The Defense of Rome — Leader of
" The Hunters of the Alps " — Determines to go to Sicily — Cavour's
Dilemma— The Expedition of " The Thousand "—Conquest of the
Kingdom of Naples — Garibaldi Plans to Attack Rome — Inter-



vention of Piedmont — The Annexation of the Kingdom of
Naples and of l^mbria and the Marches — Siege of Gaeta — The
Kingdom of Italy Proclaimed — The Kingdom Still Incomplete —
The Question of Rome — Death of Cavour 215



Reaction in Germany After 1849 — Prussia a Constitutional but not
a Parliamentary State — The Police System — Control of the
Press — The Privileged Class — Economic Transformation — Indus-
trial Development — Rise of a Wealthy Middle Class — Intellec-
tual Activity— Influence of Events in Italy upon German
Thought — The National Union — William I — The Prussian Array
— The Obligatory Service not Enforced — Army Reform — Op-
position of the Chamber — Determination of William I — Otto von
Bismarck-Schonhausen — Bismarck's Previous Career — Bismarck's
Political Opinions — His Attitude Toward Parliamentary Institu-
tions — His Hatred of Democracy — Bismarck in the Diet — The
Period of Conflict — Army Reform Carried Through — " Blood
and Iron " Policy — Prussia's Three Wars — The Schleswig-
Holstein Question — Action of Denmark Concerning Schleswig
— Bismarck's Handling of the Question — Prussia and Austria
at War with Denmark — Treaty of Vienna, Oct. 1864 — The
Future of the Duchies — Friction Between Prussia and Aus-
tria — Prussia Acquires Lauenburg by Purchase — The Meeting
at Biarritz — Treaty of Alliance with Italy — Bismarck Pre-
pares for a War with Austria — Bismarck Proposes a Reform
of the Confederation — Prussia Withdraws from the Confedera-
tion — The Austro-Prussian War — Hellmuth von Moltke — Prussia
Conquers North Germany — The Battle of Koniggratz or Sadowa
— Causes of Austria's Defeat — Results of the Austro-Prussian
War — Annexations to Prussia — The North German Confedera-
tion, 1867-1871— The Bundesrath— The Reichstag— Alliance with
South German States — Consolidating the New System . , , 240



Disastrous Effect of the Italian War upon Napoleon III — The
War Approved only by the Democratic Party — Napoleon's Va-
cillation — England Offended — Treaty of Commerce Offends
Protectionists — Napoleon Turns to the Liberals — Powers of Par-
liament Increased — Revival of Interest in Politics — Rise of a
Republican Party — The Mexican Expedition — Napoleon's Pur-
poses — Napoleon Overthrows the Mexican Republic — Disastrous
Outcome of this Adventure — Intervention of the United States —
Discomfiture of Napoleon III — Additional Concessions to Liberal-
ism — The Right of Interpellation Granted — Dramatic Emergence
of Leon Gambetta — Bitter Attacks upon Napoleon III — The
Third Party — The Transformation of the Empire Completed —
Popular Approval— The Plebiscite of May, 1870— Sudden Col-
lapse of the Empire 272





Napoleon's Unwise Adherence to His Doctrine of Nationalities —
The Meeting at Biarritz — Napoleon's Failure to Use His Oppor-
tunity in 18GG — The Year 1866 a Turning Point in Modern His-
tory — " Revenge for Sadowa "—Failure of Napoleon's Diplo-
macy — Bismarck Regards a War with France as Inevitable — The
Spanish Candidacy of Leopold of Hohenzollern — The Candidacy
Withdrawn — Folly of the Duke of Gramont — The Ems Despatch
— The War Party in Paris — France Declares War upon Prussia
— South German States Join Prussia — France Isolated — The
French Army — The Numerical Inferiority of the French — The
Germans Invade France — The Battle of Sedan — The Fall of the
Empire — The Government of National Defense — The Fall of
Mctz — The Siege of Paris — Election of a National Assembly —
Thiers Chosen Chief of the Executive — Treaty of Frankfort —
Fall of the Temporal Power — Completion of Italian Unification
— Completion of German Unification 285



Growth of National Feeling in Germany Since 1815 — Constitution
of the New German Empire — The Emperor — The Bundesrath —
The Reichstag — A Confederation of Monarchical States — Reign
of Emperor William I — Bismarck's Commanding Position — A
Religious Conflict — Causes of tlie Kulturkampf — Formation of
the Center Party— Dogma of Papal Infallibility— The Old
Catholics— The Falk Laws— Conflict of Church and" State— Bis-
marck's Retreat — Financial and Industrial Questions^-Adoption
of the Policy of Protection — Its Advantage Proved by the His-
tory of Other Nations — Germany Should Imitate the United
States— The System Gradually Applied— The Growth of Social-
ism — Alarm of the Ruling Classes — Attempts upon the Life of
the Emperor — Severe INIeasures Against the Socialists — Their
Failure — Continued Growth of the Socialist Party — The Imperial
Government Undertakes Social Reform — Various Forms of In-
surance Proposed — State Socialism — Tiie Measures Carried — Bis-

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