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GANSEVOORT- LANSING

COLLECTION

given to the Xcw^iorA Public Library
. 4stor Lenox and Tilden Foundations

by Victor Hugo Paltsits
under tlw terms of the last will and testament 01

Catherine Gansevoort Lansing

rfranddauonter <>/

General Peter Gansevoort, junior

and widow <>/ the

Honorable . Abraham Lansino~

<>/ . -///x r//y. Nevt lork




"3^

V.5



SAINT DUX ST AN..

Facsimile of an Anglo-Saxon Painting

in a

Manuscript of the Eleventh Century.

In the British Musuem.

The Benedictine monk Dunstan, abbot of Glastonbury, became

archbishop of Canterbury in the year 958 ; hence the

Latin inscription above the throne on which

he is seated :

"Dunstani Archiepiscopi."



mnivetsitti Haitian



A LIBRARY OF THE



WORLD'S BEST LITERATURE



ANCIENT AND MODERN



CHARLES DUDLEY WARNER

EDITOR

HAMILTON WRIGHT MABIE LUCIA GILBERT RUNKLE

GEORGE HENRY WARNER

ASSOCIATE EDITORS



FORTY-FIVE VOLUMES
Vol. V.



NEW YORK
THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY

i MDCCCXCVII



41292A



University edition

LIMITED TO ONE THOUSAND COPIES

9 J ~i

No £l!±jJL



Copyright, 1896, by

R. S. Peale and J. A. Hill

All rights reserved



THE ADVISORY COUNCIL



crawfor: toy, a. m., ll. d.,

Professor of Hebrew, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

THOMAS R. LOUNSBURY, LL. D., L. H. D.,

Professor of English in the Sheffield Scientific School of

Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

WILLIAM M. SLOANE, Ph. D., L. H. D.,

Professor of History and Political Science,

Princeton University, Princeton, N. J.

BRANDER MATTHEWS, A. M., LL. B.,

Professor of Literature, Columbia University, New York City.

JAMES B. ANGELL, LL. D..

President of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.

WILLARD FISKE, A. M., Ph. D.,

Late Professor of the Germanic and Scandinavian Languages
and Literatures, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.

EDWARD S. HOLDEN, A. M., LL. D.,

Director of the Lick Observatory, and Astronomer,

University of California, Berkeley, Cal.

ALCEE FORTIER, Lit. D.,

Professor of the Romance Languages,

Tulane University, New Orleans, La.

WILLIAM P. TRENT, M. A.,

Dean of the Department of Arts and Sciences, and Professor of
English and History,

University of the South, Sewanee, Tenn.

PAUL SHORE Y, Ph. D.,

Professor of Greek and Latin Literature,

University of Chicago, Chicago, 111.

WILLIAM T. HARRIS, LL. D.,

United States Commissioner of Education,

Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C.

MAURICE FRANCIS EGAN, A. M., LL. D.,
Professor of Literature in the

Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

VOL. V



LIVED PAGE

Otto Edward Leopold von Bismarck 1815- i9 2 9

BY MUNROE SMITH

Letters — To Frau von Arnim

To His Wife: Aug. 7. 1851 ; June 6, 1859; June

8, 1859; June 28, 1859; July 26, 1859
To Oscar von Arnim

To His Wife: Aug. 4. 1862; July 9, 1866; Sept. 3,
1870; June 23, 1852
Personal Characteristics of the Members of the Frankfort

Diet
From a Speech on the Military Bill

BjORNSTJERNE BjORNSON 1832- 1959

BY WILLIAM MORTON PAYNE

Over the Lofty Mountains ^Arne*)

The Cloister in the South (/Arnljot Gelline*)

The Plea of King Magnus (< Sigurd Slembe >)

Sin and Death (same)

The Princess

Sigurd Slembe's Return

How the Mountain Was Clad (< Arne >)

The Father

William Black 1841- 1983

The End of Macleod of Dare
Sheila in London (<A Princess of Thule>)

Richard Doddridge Blackmore 1825- 201 1

A Desperate Venture ( ( Lorna Doone >)
A Wedding and a Revenge (same)
Landing the Trout ( ( Alice Lorraine*)
A Dane in the Dike (< Mary Anerley >)



VI



William Blake

Song
Song
The Two Songs

Night



LIVED
1757-1827

The Piper and the Child
Holy Thursday
Cradle Song
The Little Black Boy
The Tiger



PAGE
204I



Charles Blanc



1813-1882



2051



Rembrandt (< The Dutch School of Painters')
Albert Diirer's < Melancholia ' (same)
Ingres (< Life of Ingres')

Calamatta's Studio (< Contemporary Artists')
Blanc's Debut as Art Critic (same)
Delacroix's ( Bark of Dante' (same)
Genesis of the ( Grammar '

Moral Influence of Art ( ( Grammar of Painting and En-
graving ')
Poussin's ( Shepherds of Arcadia ' (same )
Landscape (same)
Style (same)
Law of Proportion in Architecture (same)



Steen Steensen Blicher

A Picture

The Knitting-Room

The Hosier



1782-1848



2064



Mathilde Blind

From ( Love in Exile '

Seeking

Songs of Summer

A Parable

Love's Somnambulist



1847-1896



2075



The Mystic's Vision
From ( Tarantella '
O Moon, Large Golden Sum-
mer Moon
Green Leaves and Sere



Giovanni Boccaccio i3 I 3 _I 375

BY W. J. STILLMAN

Frederick of the Alberighi and His Falcon

The Jew Converted to Christianity by Going to Rome

The Story of Saladin and the Jew Usurer

The Story of Griselda



2089



vu

LIVED PAGE

Friedrich Martin von Bodenstedt 1819-1892 21 16

Two

Wine

Song

Unchanging'

The Poetry of Mirza-Schaffy (< Thousand and One Days in

the East*)
Mirza-Schaffy (same)
The School of Wisdom (same)
An Excursion into Armenia (same)
Mirza-Jussuf
Wisdom and Knowledge

Johann Jakob Bodmer 1698-1783 2128

Kinship of the Arts ( ( Rubens ')
Poetry and Painting ( ( Holbein*)
Tribute to Tobacco ( ( Durer*)

Boetius 475-5-5 2l S3

Of the Greatest Good ( ( Consolations of Philosophy*)

Nicholas Boileau-Despreaux 1636-1711 2141

Advice to Authors ( ( The Art of Poetry * )

The Pastoral, the Elegy, the Ode, and the Epigram (same)

To Moliere (< The Satires*)

Gaston Boissier 1823- 2152

Madame de Sevigne as a Letter- Writer ( ( Life of Madame

de Sevigne*)
French Society in the Seventeenth Century (same)
How Horace Lived at his Country-House ( ( The Country

of Horace and Virgil *)

George H. Boker 1823-1890 2163

The Black Regiment
The Sword-Bearer
Sonnets

Saint Bonaventura 1221-1274 2169

BY THOMAS DAVIDSON

On the Beholding of God in His Footsteps in This Sensible
World



Vlll

LIVED PAGE

George Borrow 1803-1881 2175

by julian hawthorne

At the Horse-Fair ( < Lavengro > )
A Meeting (< The Bible in Spain >)

Juan Boscan i493-?i54o 2203

On the Death of Garcilaso

A Picture of Domestic Happiness (< Epistle to Mendoza>)

Jacques Beni.gne Bossuet 1627-1704 2209

BY ADOLPHE COHN

From the Sermon upon <The Unity of the Church >
Opening of the Funeral Oration on Henrietta of France
From the < Discourse upon Universal History >
Public Spirit in Rome

James Boswell 1740-1795 2227

BY CHARLES F. JOHNSON

An Account of Corsica

A Tour to Corsica

The Life of Samuel Johnson

Paul Bourget 1852- 2252

The American Family ( ( Outre-Mer >)

The Aristocratic Vision of M. Renan (< Stud}' of M. Renan >)

Sir John Bowring 1792-1872 2263

C The Cross of Christ

Watchman! What of the Night?

Hymn

From Luis de Gongora: Not All Nightingales

From John Kollar: Sonnet

From Bogdanovich (Old Russian) : Song

From Bobrov : The Golden Palace

From Dmitriev: The Dove and The Stranger

From Sarbiewski : Sapphics to A Rose

HjALMAR HjORTH BoVESEN 1848-1895 2272

A Norwegian Dance (^Gunnar*)



IX

LIVED PAGE

Mary Elizabeth Braddon 1837- 2279

Advent of the Hirelings ( ( The Christmas Hirelings >)
«How Bright She Was — » etc. (< Mohawks >)

Georg Brandes 1842- 2299

BY WILLIAM MORTON PAYNE

Bjornson (< Eminent Authors of the Nineteenth Century >)

The Historical Movement in Modern Literature ( ( Main

Currents in the Literature of the Nineteenth Century*)

Sebastian Brandt 1458-1521 2311

The Universal Shyp

Of Hym That Togyder Wyll Serve Two Maysters

Of To[o] Moche Spekynge or Bablynge



FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS



VOLUME V



Saint Dunstan (Colored Plate)

Bismarck (Portrait)

«The Surrender at Sedan" (Photogravure)

Richard Doddridge Blackmore (Portrait)

« Rembrandt and His Wife» (Photogravure)

Giovanni Boccaccio (Portrait)

« The Decameron » (Photogravure)

w Fatima w (Photogravure )

« Domestic Happiness" (Photogravure)



PAGE

Frontispiece
1930



1944
2012
2055
2090
2108
2120
2206



VIGNETTE PORTRAITS



Bjornstjerne Bjornson

William Black

William Blake

Mathilde Blind

Friedrich M. von Bodenstedt

Johann Jakob Bodmer

Boetius

Nicholas Boileau-Despreaux

Gaston Boissier



George H. Boker

George Borrow

Jacques Benigne Bossuet

James Boswell

Paul Bourget

Sir John Bowring

Hjalmar Hjorth Boyesen

Georg Brandes

Sebastian Brandt



I 9 2 9




OTTO EDWARD LEOPOLD VON BISMARCK

(1815-)

BY MUNROE SMITH

[TO Edward Leopold, fourth child of Charles and Wilhelmina
von Bismarck, was born at Schonhausen in Prussia, April 1,
1815. The family was one of the oldest in the <( Old Mark**
(now a part of the province of Saxony), and not a few of its mem-
bers had held important military or diplomatic positions under the
Prussian crown. The young Otto passed his school years in Berlin,
and pursued university studies in law (1832-5) at Gottingen and at
Berlin. At Gottingen he was rarely seen at lectures, but was a
prominent figure in the social life of the student body: the old uni-
versity town is full of traditions of his prowess in duels and drink-
ing bouts, and of his difficulties with the authorities. In 1835 he
passed the State examination in law, and was occupied for three
years, first in the judicial and then in the administrative service of
the State, at Berlin, Aix-la-Chapelle, and Potsdam. In 1838 he left
the governmental service and studied agriculture at the Eldena
Academy. From his twenty-fourth to his thirty-sixth year (1839-5 1)
his life was that of a country squire. He took charge at first of
property held by his father in Pomerania; upon his father's death
in 1845 he assumed the management of the family estate of Schon-
hausen. Here he held the local offices of captain of dikes and of
deputy in the provincial Diet. The latter position proved a stepping-
stone into Prussian and German politics; for when Frederick William
IV. summoned the <( United Diet w of the kingdom (1847), Bismarck
was sent to Berlin as an alternate delegate from his province.

The next three years were full of events. The revolution of 1848
forced all the German sovereigns who had thus far retained absolute
power, among them the King of Prussia, to grant representative con-
stitutions to their people. The same year witnessed the initiation
of a great popular movement for the unification of Germany. A na-
tional Parliament was assembled at Frankfort, and in 1849 it offered
to the King of Prussia the German imperial crown ; but the constitu-
tion it had drafted was so democratic, and the opposition of the
German princes so great, that Frederick William felt obliged to re-
fuse the offer. An attempt was then made, at a Parliament held in
Erfurt, to establish a "narrower Germany B under Prussian leadership;



jo-o OTTO EDWARD LEOPOLD VON BISMARCK

but this movement also came to nothing. The Austrian govern-
ment, paralyzed for a time by revolts in its own territories, had
re-established its power and threatened Prussia with war. Russia
supported Austria, and Prussia submitted at Olmiitz (1850). In these
stirring years, Bismarck — first as a member of the United Diet and
then as a representative in the new Prussian Chamber of Deputies —
made himself prominent by hostility to the constitutional movement
and championship of royal prerogative. He defended the King's
refusal of the imperial crown, because (< all the real gold in it would
be gotten by melting up the Prussian crown w ; and he compared the
pact which the King, by accepting the Frankfort constitution, would
make with the democracy, to the pact between the huntsman and
the devil in the ( Freischiitz > : sooner or later, he declared, the people
would come to the Emperor, and pointing to the Imperial arms,
would say, (( Do you fancy this eagle was given you for nothing ? *
He sat in the Erfurt Parliament, but had no faith in its success. He
opposed the constitution which it adopted, although this was far
more conservative than that drafted at Frankfort, because he deemed
it still too revolutionary. During the Austro-Prussian disputes of
1850 he expressed himself, like the rest of the Pnissian Conserva-
tives, in favor of reconciliation with Austria, and he even defended
the convention of Olmiitz.

After Olmiitz, the German Federal Diet, which had disappeared
in 1848, was reconstituted at Frankfort, and to Frankfort Bismarck
was sent, in 1857, as representative of Prussia. This position, which
he held for more than seven years, was essentially diplomatic, since
the Federal Diet was merely a permanent congress of German
ambassadors; and Bismarck, who had enjoyed no diplomatic training,
owed his appointment partly to the fact that his record made him
persona grata to the (< presidential power, " Austria. He soon forfeited
the favor of that State by the steadfastness with which he resisted
its pretensions to superior authority, and the energy with which he
defended the constitutional parity of Prussia and the smaller States;
but he won the confidence of the home government, and was con-
sulted by the King and his ministers with increasing frequency on
the most important questions of European diplomacy. He strove to
inspire them with greater jealousy of Austria. He favored closer
relations with Napoleon III., as a make-weight against the Austrian
influence, and was charged by some of his opponents with an undue
leaning toward France ; but as he explained in a letter to a friend,
if he had sold himself, it was (< to a Teutonic and not to a Gallic
devil."

In the winter of 1858-9, as the Franco- Austrian war drew nearer,
Bismarck's anti-Austrian attitude became so pronounced that his



ASTOf*. LENOX
TILDfcN F^UNpAllQNS



OTTO EDWARD LEOPOLD VON BISMARCK I q. i

government, by no means ready to break with Austria, but rather
disposed to support that power against France, felt it necessary to
put him, as he himself expressed it, "on ice on the Neva. w From
1859 to 1862 he held the position of Prussian ambassador at St.
Petersburg. In 1862 he was appointed ambassador at Paris. In the
autumn of the same year he became Minister-President of Prussia.

The new Prussian King, William I., had become involved in a
controversy with the Prussian Chamber of Deputies over the reor-
ganization of the army; his previous ministers were unwilling to
press the reform against a hostile majority ; and Bismarck, who was
ready to assume the responsibility, was charged with the premiership
of the new cabinet. (( Under some circumstances, w he said later,
<( death upon the scaffold is as glorious as upon the battlefield. w
From 1862 to 1866 he governed Prussia without the support of the
lower chamber and without a regular budget. He informed a com-
mittee of the Deputies that the questions of the time were not to be
settled by debates, but by <( blood and iron. 8

In the diplomatic field it was his effort to secure a position of
advantage for the struggle with Austria for the control of Germany,
— a struggle which, six years before, he had declared to be inevitable.
During his stay in St. Petersburg he had strengthened the friendly
feeling already subsisting between Prussia and Russia; and in 1863
he gave the Russian government useful support in crushing a Polish
insurrection. To a remonstrance from the English ambassador, some-
what arrogantly delivered in the name of Europe, Bismarck responded,
« Who is Europe ?» While in Paris he had convinced himself that no
serious interference was to be apprehended from Napoleon. That
monarch overrated Austria; regarded Bismarck's plans, which appear
to have been explained with extraordinary frankness, as chimerical ;
and pronounced Bismarck "not a serious person. w Bismarck, on the
other hand, privately expressed the opinion that Napoleon was «a
great unrecognized incapacity. » When, in 1863, the death of Fred-
erick VII. of Denmark without direct heirs raised again the ancient
Schleswig-Holstein problem, Bismarck saw that the opportunity had
come for the solution of the German question.

The events of the next seven years are familiar history. In 1864
Prussia and Austria made war on Denmark, and obtained a joint
sovereignty over the duchies of Holstein and Schleswig. In 1866,
with Italy as her ally, Prussia drove Austria out of the German Con-
federation; annexed Schleswig, Holstein, Hanover, Electoral Hesse,
and Frankfort; and brought all the German States north of the Main,
except Luxemburg, into the North German Confederation, of which
the King of Prussia was President and Bismarck Chancellor. When
war was declared by France in 1870, the South German States also



jo 32 OTTO EDWARD LEOPOLD VON BISMARCK

placed their forces at the King of Prussia's disposal; and before the
war was over they joined the newly established German Empire,
which thus included all the territories of the old Confederation except
German Austria and Luxemburg. The old Confederation was a mere
league of sovereign States; the new Empire was a nation. To this
Empire, at the close of the war, the French Republic paid an indem-
nity of five milliards of francs, and ceded Alsace and Lorraine.

In giving the German people political unity Bismarck realized their
strongest and deepest desire; and the feeling entertained toward him
underwent a sudden revulsion. From 1862 to 1866 he had been the
best hated man in Germany. The partial union of 1867 — when, as
he expressed it, Germany was w put in the saddle" — made him a
national hero. The reconciliation with the people was the more com-
plete because, at Bismarck's suggestion, a German Parliament was
created, elected by universal suffrage, and because the Prussian min-
isters (to the great indignation of their conservative supporters) asked
the Prussian Deputies to grant them indemnity for their unconstitu-
tional conduct of the government during the preceding four years.
For the next ten years Bismarck had behind him, in Prussian and in
German affairs, a substantial nationalist majority. At times, indeed,
he had to restrain their zeal. In 1867, for instance, when they desired
to take Baden alone into the new union, — the rest of South Ger-
many being averse to entrance, — Bismarck was obliged to tell them
that it would be a poor policy (< to skim off the cream and let the
rest of the milk turn sour. w

Bismarck remained Chancellor of the Empire as well as Minister-
President of Prussia until 1890, when William II. demanded his
resignation. During these years the military strength of the Empire
was greatly increased; its finances were placed upon an independ-
ent footing ; its authority was extended in legislative matters, and
its administrative system was developed and consolidated. Conflicts
with the Roman Catholic hierarchy (1873-87), and with the Social De-
mocracy (1878-90) resulted indecisively; though Bismarck's desire to
alleviate the misery which in his opinion caused the socialistic move-
ment gave rise to a series of remarkable laws for the insurance of
the laboring classes against accident, disease, and old age. With a
return to the protective system, which Bismarck advocated for fiscal
reasons, he combined the attempt to enlarge Germany's foreign mar-
ket by the establishment of imperial colonies in Africa and in the
Pacific Ocean. In other respects his foreign policy, after 1870, was
controlled by the desire to preserve peace. (< Germany, M he said,
<( belongs to the satisfied nations. w When the Russian friendship
cooled, he secured an alliance with Austria (1879), which Italy also
joined (1882); and the "triple alliance w thus formed continued to



OTTO EDWARD LEOPOLD VON BISMARCK ^9?,2>

dominate European politics for many years after Bismarck's with-
drawal from office.

Of Bismarck's State papers, the greater portion are still buried in
the Prussian archives. The most important series that has been pub-
lished consists of his dispatches from Frankfort (Poschinger, Preussen
im Bundestag, 185 1—8, 4 vols.). These are marked by clearness of
statement, force of argument, and felicity of illustration. The style,
although less direct and simple than that of his unofficial writings, is
still excellent. A large part of the interest attaching to these early
papers lies in their acute characterization of the diplomatists with
whom he had to deal. His analysis of their motives reveals from the
outset that thorough insight into human nature which was to count
for so much in his subsequent diplomatic triumphs. Of his later
notes and dispatches, such as have seen the light may be found in
Hahn's documentary biography ( ( Fiirst Bismarck,* 5 vols.). His re-
ports and memorials on economic and fiscal questions have been
collected by Poschinger in * Bismarck als Volkswirth.'

Of Bismarck's parliamentary speeches there exists a full collection
(reproduced without revision from the stenographic reports) in fifteen
volumes. Bismarck was not an orator in the ordinary acceptation of
the word. His mode of address was conversational ; his delivery was
monotonous and halting. He often hesitated, searching for a word;
but when it came, it usually seemed the only word that could have
expressed his meaning, and the hesitation that preceded it gave it a
singular emphasis. It seemed to be his aim to convince his hearers,
not to win them ; his appeal was regularly to their intelligence, not
to their emotions. When the energy and warmth of his own feelings
had carried him into something like a flight of oratory, there was apt
to follow, at the next moment, some plain matter-of-fact statement
that brought the discussion back at once to its ordinary level. Such
an anti-climax was often very effective : the obvious effort of the
speaker to keep his emotions under restraint vouched for the sincer-
ity of the preceding outburst. It should be added that he appre-
ciated as few Germans do the rhetorical value of understatement.

He was undoubtedly at his literary best in conversation and in
his letters. We have several volumes of Bismarck anecdotes, Bis-
marck table-talk, etc. The best known are those of Busch, which
have been translated into English — and in spite of the fact that his
sayings come to us at second hand and colored by the personality of
the transmitter, we recognize the qualities which, by the universal
testimony of those who knew him, made him one of the most fas-
cinating of talkers. These qualities, however, come out most clearly
in a little volume of letters ( ( Bismarck briefe y ), chiefly addressed to
his wife. (These letters have been excellently translated into English



rn ,. OTTO EDWARD LEOPOLD VON BISMARCK

by F. Maxse.) They are characterized throughout by vivid and
graphic descriptions, a subtle sense of humor, and real wit; and they
have in the highest degree — far more than his State papers or
speeches — the literary quality, and that indescribable something
which we call style.

Bismarck furnishes, once fur all, the answer to the old French
question, whether a German can possibly have esprit — witness his
response to the German prince who desired his advice regarding the
offer of the crown of one of the Balkan States: — "Accept, by all
means: it will be a charming recollection for you." He possessed
also to a high degree the power of summing up a situation or char-
acterizing a movement in a single phrase; and his sayings have
enriched the German language with more quotations than the spoken
words of any German since Luther.

Of the numerous German biographies, Hahn's gives the greatest
amount of documentary material; Hesekiel's (which has been trans-
lated into English) is the most popular. The best French biography
is by Simon; the only important English work is that by Lowe. For
bibliography, see Schulze and Koller, < Bismarck-Literatur > (1895),
which contains about 600 titles. The Frankfort dispatches and the
speeches have been translated into French, but not into English.




<Z^-ww/zC



■*>



TO FRAU VON ARNIM

SCHONHAUSEN, AugUSt 7th, 1850.

The fact is, this journey, and I see it more clearly the nearer
it approaches, gives me a right of reversion on the new
lunatic asylum, or at least a seat for life in the Second
Chamber. I can already see myself on the platform of the
Genthiner station; then both of us packed in the carriage, sur-
rounded with all sorts of child's necessaries — an embarrassing
company; Johanna ashamed to suckle the baby, which accord-
ingly roars itself blue; then the passports, the inn; then at Stettin



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