Charles E. (Charles Edwin) Bennett.

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vilis liberis.

iudicio: Enn. Trag. 56 (Sc 71 V), quo iudicio Lacedaemonia mulier
adveniet.

iussu : Merc. 102, mecum ilia hospitis iussu f uit.

licentia: H. T. 483, deteriores sumus licentia.

lumine: Enn. Trag. 251 (Sc 292 V), lumine sic tremulo terra et
cava caerula candent.

maerore: Pacuv. 274, corpus meum tali maerore errore macore
senet.

malo, malis: Aul. 725a, laetificantur meo malo et damno; And.
627, ut malis gaudeant ; Ace. 684.

metu: Enn. Trag. 24 (Sc 26 V), quin timido exalbescat metu;
Eun. 977, lingua haeret metu ; Ace. 107.

miseria: Trag. Inc. 115, nostra miseria tu es magnus.

moribus: H. T. 839, quam multa iniusta ac prava fiunt moribus !

morte: And. 799, eius morte ea ad me lege redierunt.

natura : Ace. 235, ipsae suapte natura enitent.

neclegentia: Ad. 14, qui praeteritus neclegentiast.

negotiis: Stich. 5, quorum negotiis sollicitae sumus.

nomine : Ace. 521, nomine celebri claroque potens pectore.

nuntio : Phor. 193, magnum hoc nuntio exspecto malum.

nuptiis : Cas. 876, tantum flagitio superavimus nuptiis nostris ;
Hec. 835, nuptiis laetetur ; 838, incommode mihi nuptiis evenit.

opera: Ace. 579, illius opera et medicina; Merc. 236; And. 689;
Phor. 685.

opibus : Trag. Inc. 150, vir tantis opibus praepotens.

orbitudine : Pacuv. 135, quom ilium videas sollicitum orbitudine.

pavore : Ace. 409, pavore pecuda in tumulis deserunt.

plagis : Pseud. 136, plagis costae callent.

poteriis : Trin. 1017, tribusne poteriis memoriam esse oblitum !



316 The Ablative.

praesidio: And. 842, animo otioso esse impero meo praesidio
atque hospitis.

profectione : Pacuv. 409, profectioae laeti.

propinquitate : Pacuv. 69, me gravidam sentio adgravescere pro-
pinquitate parti.

qui : And. 511, multa concurmnt simul, qui coniecturam hanc
nunc facio.

re, rebus: Merc. 365, sollicitus mihi nescioqua re videtur; And.
909 ; Eun. 11 ; Hec. 703, tot me nunc rebus miserum ; et pass.

risu: Eun. 432, risu omnes qui aderant emoriri; Com. Inc. 10,
risu mortuost.

saltu : Enn. Ann. 129 (V), Horatius inclutus saltu.

scelere : Ace. 600, ne scelere tuo Thebani vastescant agri.

sermone : Pseud. 201, sermone huius ira incendor.

somnio : Enn. Sc 37 (V), somnio metu perculsus.

somno : Turp. 173, dum ego conixi somno ; Ace. 69, segnis somno
et tarditudine.

spectu : Pacuv. 147, spectu protervo ferox.

studio : Hec. 4, populus studio stupidus ; so Pacuv. 54 ; Lucil. 158.

succussu : Pacuv. 257, ne succussu arripiat dolor.

tarditie : Ace. 278, multa amittuntur tarditie et socordia.

terrore : Amph. 1066, qui terrore meo occidistis prae metu.

tiinore : Ad. 612, animus timore obstipuit ; Phor. 998.

tonitru : Pacuv. 413, caelum tonitru contremit.

ubertate : Enn. Sc 153 (V), rami bacarum ubertate incurvescere.

usu : Aec. Praet. 8, usu calleinus.

vacivitate : Cure. 319, cibi vacivitate venio lassis lactibus.

verbo: Cure. 212, istoc verbo vindictam para; Hec. 347, istoc
verbo animus mihi redit.

victoria : Enn. Sc 52 (V), vitulans victoria : OIL, i, p. 288, com-
pluribus victoris ferocem.

virtute : Most. 173, virtute formai evenit ; especially with made,
< honored," famed ' : Pacuv. 146, macte esto virtute ; Lucil. 225 (Mx),
macte virtute simulque his viribus; Ace. 473, macte his armis,
macte virtute patris ; Aul. 166, virtute deum et maiorum ; Capt
324 ; Pers. 391 ; Trin. 346 ; 355 ; et pass.

vitio : Aul. 745, quia vini vitio atque amoris feci.



Ablative of Quality. 317

The ablative with confido also I regard as one of Cause. A Loca-
tive origin has sometimes been advocated for this construction, but
the Instrumental occurs in Slavic with verbs of trusting. The
examples are : Merc. 363, qui rebus meis confidam ; so Capt. 536 ;
Pseud. 1204, non confidit nugis; Ace. 84, tain obstinato animo
confisus tuo; Lucil. 1010 (Mx), neminis ingenio tantuin confidere
oportet. By analogy, we find diffido with the ablative: CIL, i,
1175, re sua difeidens.

Under the head of Ablative of Cause I bring also the use with
contentus (' self-contained because of ') : Merc. 824, uxor contenta
est uno viro ; Enn. Ann. 245 (V), suo contentus : H. T. 444, quae
paululo turn erat contenta ; Eun. 122 ; Turp. 142, ut quisque minimo
contentus fuit ; Lucil. 1086 (Mx), his te versibus contentus teneto ;
Afran. 117.

ABLATIVE OF QUALITY. 1

The Ablative of Quality is an obvious outgrowth of the sociative
force of the Instrumental case. Thus in a sentence like serpens
immani corpore labitur, the original idea was : ' the serpent glides on
with its huge body,' as though the body were a distinct accompani-
ment of the serpent. But in course of time the ablative in such cases
came to be felt as a modifier of the noun (cf. the analogous origin of
the dative with nouns; p. 183). In this way such expressions as
acerba taens immani corpore serpens became possible. Here the
phrase immani corpore can be conceived only as an Ablative of Quality
limiting serpens; it cannot be associated with the verb as in the first
example.

In conformity with its origin, the Ablative of Quality primarily
denotes more or less transitory qualities. Qualities which are the
mere outward accompaniment of an action are naturally not perma-
nent. The observation sometimes made that the genitive denotes
internal qualities, whereas the ablative primarily denotes external
ones, is not sufficiently exact. In the sentence hortatur ut bono

i Delbriick, Grnndriss, Hi, p 240 f. ; Ebrard, p. 622; Edwards, The Ablative of
Quality and the Genitive of Quality, New York, 1900 ; the same author, The Ablative
of Quality and Genitive of Quality, in Studies in Honour of Gildersleeve, Baltimore,
1902, p. 301 ff . ; Edwards- Wolfflin, Archiv fiir lat. Lexikogr. xi, pp. 197 ff . ; 469 ff. ;
Schmalz, Synt. u. Stil.* p. 381.



318 The Ablative.

animo sint, the quality is internal : yet the genitive could not be
used here ; for while the quality is internal, it is transitory. The
same criticism applies to the view of Edwards (op. cit. p. 11 f.) 1 that
the Genitive of Quality denotes things as they are, while the Ablative
of Quality denotes things as they manifest themselves to the eye of the
observer. For the most part, the Krilger-Edwards theory is in es-
sence only a statement in other terms of the distinction between the
permanent and the transitory ; for the ' thing as it is,' is the perma-
nent characteristic, while what manifests itself to the eye of the ob-
server is usually and naturally the transitory. When Schmalz, I.e.,
says : "Der Ablativus qualitatis wird nur von solchen Eigenschaften
gebraucht, die etwas Singulares bezeichnen und daher keine Begriffs-
rubrik bilden konnen ; das letzere ist Aufgabe des Genetives welche
angibt, unter welche Eubrik etwas unterzubringen ist," he seems to
be giving his adhesion to the Edwards-Kriiger view. At all events
Schmalz's statement seems to me to be open to the same criticism
as Edwards's. Like Edwards's, also, it is a statement in other terms
of the distinction between the transitory and the permanent, — only
narrower.

Even in Early Latin the ablative had begun to abandon its original
field of the temporary, however, and to be applied to permanent
characteristics (mulierem, pudico ingenio; antiqua fide ; etc.); but the
genitive is not used to denote temporary qualities. Physical and
bodily characteristics are regularly denoted by the ablative. Edwards
seems to consider that these are permanent, citing the hair as an ex-
ample; but that changes color with age; sometimes it has been
known to disappear, even in relative youth. So with the complexion,
eyes, teeth, etc.

The sociative character of the Ablative of Quality is well supported
by the frequent use of cum, e.g. : Aul. 553, quingentos coquos cum
senis manibus ; Cas. 34, Plautus cum latranti nomine ; Cure. 230,
quis est hie homo cum conlativo ventre atque oculis herbeis ; 286 ;
M. G. 16, ilium cum arm is aureis ; 658, cedo tris mi homines cum
istis moribus ; Most. 657, nullum genus est taetrius nee minus bono
cum iure ; Poen. 981, inceduut cum anulatis auribus ; 1298 ; Rud.
1303,.di te ament cum inraso capite ; Stich. 350 ; Trin. 1096, probo

1 Following Krliger.



Ablative of Quality. 319

et fideli et fido et cum magna fide ; Enn. Ann. 338 (V), ille vir haud
magna cum re sed plenus fidei ; 381, Hannibal audaci cum pectore ;
Afran. 133, meretrix cum veste longa.

The Ablative of Quality has two uses, an attributive and a predicate
one. I group the material according to these two general sub-
divisions :

A. Attributive Uses.

aetate : Cas. 518, ' aetate aliena ' addito ; Merc. 972 j Pacuv. 253,
aetate integra virum ; so And. 72 ; et pass.

anima : Merc. 574, anima foetida senex.

animo : Pacuv. 54, suspenso animo ci vitas ; Ace. 158, pervico
animo atque advorsabili ; 636 ; 645 ; Ad. 297.

ardore : Ace. 581, sol qui flammam fervido ardore explicas.

aspectu : Pacuv. 2, quadrupes aspectu truci.

barba : see capite.

capite : Bacch. 1101, cano capite atque alba barba miserum me ;
so Cas. 518 ; Merc. 305 ; Capt. 475, capite aperto ad lenones eunt ;
so 476 ; Pacuv. 2, quadrupes, brevi capite, cervice anguina.

capitulo : Cure. 293, operto capitulo calidum bibunt.

caulibus : Cato, Agr. 157, 2, est tertia (brassica), minutis caulibus.

centonibus : Lucil. 1061 (Mx), culcitulae accedunt privae centoni-
bus binis.

cervicibus : Lucil. 247 (Mx), tauri validis cervicibus ; see also
under capite.

cinctu : Lucil. 290 (Mx), aureolo cinctu rorarius veles.

collo : Cato, Agr. 88, 1, amphoram defracto collo.

colore : Eun. 688, senex, colore mustelino ; Pacuv. 147, amplus,
rubicundo colore.

corde : Stat. 79, hi sunt inimici pessumi, f ronte hilaro, corde tristi ;
Afran. 77, sollicito corde corpus non potitur nunc quie.

corio : Pseud. 229, Phoenicium poeniceo corio.

crinibus : Trag. Inc. 132, Erebo creata, fuscis crinibus Nox.

dentibus : Stat. 268, atratis dentibus.

ditiis : Capt. 170, prognatum genere summo et summis ditiis ;
Poen. 60.

facie: Pseud. 724, si modo mini hominem invenietis. : : qua facie?



320 The Ablative.

Pacuv. 254, facie procera virum ; Eun. 229, ducit secum virginem
. . . facie honesta ; 473 ; Hec. 440, crassus, caesius, cadaverosa
facie; Lucil. 832 (Mx), in adulescentulis meliore paulo facie.

fide : see under virtute.

filo : Enn. Ann. 253 (V), deducunt habiles gladios filo gracilento.

forma: Men. 19, forma simili pueri; Merc. 13, forma eximia
mulierem ; Pers. 521, forma expetenda liberalern virginem ; Merc.
260; 414; Eud. 894, forma scitula et aetatula; Pacuv. 230, mulier
egregiissima forma; And. 72, (mulier) egregia forma; 119; 428,
virginem forma bona; Eun. 366, summa forma conservam; et pass.

f ronte : Rud. 318, senem contracta fronte ; M. G. 201 ; Stat. 79,
hi sunt inimici pessumi, fronte hilaro, corde tristi.

genere : Cist. 125, adulescens summo genere ; so M. G. 680 ; Trin.
326 ; Poen. 60.

gradu : Pacuv. 37, torvos, praegrandi (praegnandi codd) gradu.

industria : Vid. 41, cibi minimi maxumaque industria.

ingenio : Most. 206, mulierem lepidam et pudico ingenio ; Pacuv.
37, feroci ingenio, torvos ; 253 ; Ad. 297, talem, tali ingenio (genere
codd) atque animo, natum ex tanta familia ; Trin. 812.

lingua : Poen. 1034, bisulci lingua quasi proserpens bestia.

litteris : Poen. 837, nomina insunt cubitum longis litteris.

malis : Merc. 643, ille oblongis malis.

manubrio : Epid. 524, malleum sapientiorem vidi excusso manu-
brio.

matre : Epid. 641, istic frater tuos, alia matre, uno patre.

moribus : Capt. 105, ille antiquis est adulescens moribus ; Ace.
636, Tereus indomito more.

naso : H. T. 1061, illam virginem adunco naso.

natura : Trin. 812, ilium natura ilia atque ingenio ; Afran. 121,
idem natura tristiori paululo.

nomine : Phor. 392, neque mi cognatus fuit quisquam istoc
nomine; Ace. 520, inclute, nomine celebri; Capt. 590.

oculo : True. 593 ; Lucil. 1342 (Mx), viscus aprinum, uno oculo ;
Stat. 268, grammonsis oculis ipsa.

opera : Pacuv. 348, odi ego homines ignava opera et philosopha
sententia.

ore : Naev. Com. 123, merula sanderacino ore; Enn. Ann. 303 (V),



Ablative of Quality. 321

additur orator Cornelius suaviloquenti ore Cethegus ; H. T. 1062,
illam virginem, caesiam, sparso ore; Lucil. 417 (Mx), si tricosus
bovinatorque ore inprobus duro ; Cas. 862.

patre: Enn. Ann. 177 (V), navos repertus homo Graio patre
Graius homo rex ; see also under matre.

pectore : Epid. 533, quis illaec est timido pectore ?

pedibus : Lucil. 1341 (Mx), viscus aprinum uno oculo, pedibusque
duobus.

pediculo : Cato, Agr. 8, 1, ficos tellanas atras pediculo longo.

pulchritudine : Ace. Praet. 20, pecus lanigerum eximia pulchri-
tudine ; M. G. 998.

sapientia : Com. Inc. 95, odi puerulos praecoqui sapientia.

sexu : Pacuv. 68, triplicem virili sexu partum procreat.

sonitu : Enn. Trag. 3 (Sc. 11 V), unde oritur imber sonitu saevo
et spiritu.

specie : Rud. 415, specie lepida mulierem.

statura : Pers. 698, persimilem tui, eadem statura.

superciliis : Rud. 318, senem tortis superciliis.

testibus : Lucil. 534 (Mx), aries . . . quantis testibus.

tonsu : Ace. 86, quaenam haec est mulier tonsu lugubri ?

tunicis : Poen. 1303, genus hoc mulierosumst tunicis demissiciis.

ungulis : Pseud. 851, an tu in venire postulas quemquam coquom
nisi milvinis aut aquilinis ungulis ? Enn. Var. 11 (V), sol equis iter
repressit ungulis volantibus.

vapore : Ace. 532, nemus exspirante vapore vides.

vasis : Cato, Agr. 18, 1, torcularium quadrinis vasis ; so 18, 3.

veste : Ace. 86, haec mulier funesta veste.

villis : Lucil. 13 (Mx), psilae atque amphitapae, villis ingentibus.

virtute : Ad. 441, civium antiqua virtute ac fide.

voltu : And. 119, voltu adeo modesto, adeo venusto.

B. Predicate Uses.

These are somewhat more frequent than attributive uses,
aetate : Bacch. 1079, fui ego ilia aetate ; Merc. 520, una aetate quae
sit ; Hec. 737, ea aetate iam sum.
aetatula : Stat. 153, quis vostrarum fuit integra aetatula ?



322 The Ablative.

animo: Merc. 890, potin ut animo sis tranquillo? Most. 396,
potin animo ut sies quieto ; Pseud. 233, liquido es animo ! 322, animo
bono es; so Mere. 531; Eim. 84; H. T. 822; Ad. 284; et pass. ; Pacuv.
260 nimis paene animo es molli ; And. 842, animo otioso esse ; 879,
inpotenti esse animo ; H. T. 665, ne animo ita esses duro ; 962, animo
esse omisso ; Phor. 957, animo virili praesentique ut sis para ; Hec.
270, sum animo leni natus ; 502, sin aliost animo ; 389, animo esse
amieo ; 472, quam fideli animo et benigno et dementi fui ; 548, ut eo
essem animo ; 747, hoc animo erit ; Ad. 338, alieno animo esse ; 852,
qui isto animo sies ; Enn. Trag. 213 (Sc 254 V), Medea animo aegro
(aegra codd deterr) ; Ace. 560, animo immani ; and frequently.

argumento: And. 11, non ita sunt dissimili argumento, et tamen
dissimili oratione sunt factae ac stilo.
. aspectu : Afran. 14, est fallaci aspectu.

audacia : M. G. 464, neque est quisquam tanta audacia.

axe : Pacuv. 398, volucri currit axe quadriga. — Possibly not a fully
developed use, but exhibiting the origin of the idiom.

capite : Most. 1148, qui sunt capite candido ; Pseud. 1218, magno
capite.

colore: Pud. 997, quo colorest, hoc colore capiuntur pauxilluli.
The genitive, Pseud. 1196.

confidentia : Enn. Trag. 23 (Sc 25 V), nemo est tanta confidentia ;
so Pud. 645.

corde : Enn. Trag. 130 (Sc 139 V\ lapideo sunt corde multi ; Afran.
15, quis tarn sagaci corde atque ingenio unico?

corio : Pud. 998, sunt alii puniceo corio.

corpore: Asin. 944, neque quisquamst tarn firmo corpore; Capt.
647 ; Poen. 1112, corpore aquilost ; Enn. Ann. 521 (V), corpore tarta-
rino prognata Paluda virago; Turp. 13, quam sit gracili corpore;
Lucil. 174 (Mx), quod si nulla potest mulier tarn corpore duro esse.

crassitudine : see firmitate.

dente, dentibus : Lucil. 117 (Mx), dente adverso eminulo hie est ;
True. 224, bonis dentibus.

facie: Pers. 547, sat edepol concinnast facie; Poen. 592; Pseud.
1217, qua facie f uit ? Trin. 903 ; Phor. 100, virgo ipsa facie egregia
(sc. erai) ; et pass.

factione : Cist. 493, neque nos factione tanta quanta tu sumus.



Ablative of Quality. 323

factis : see fide. In M. G-. 57, factis invictissumis, edd. generally
read invictissumum.

fidelitate : Ace. 19, quali in te siet fidelitate.

fide : Aul. 213, quid fide ? : : bona, quid factis ? : : neque malis
neque improbis ; M. G-. 1369 ; Stat. 30, itane invenitur profluvia fide ?
Ad. 161, fuit fide optima.

firmitate: Most. 819, quanta firmitate facti et quanta crassi-
"tudine ?

foliis : Enn. Ann. 262 (V), longique cupressi stant rectis foliis et
•amaro corpore buxum; Cato, Agr. 157, 1, ea (brassica) est grandis,
latis foliis, caule magno.

forma: Amph. 316, alia forma esse oportet; Merc. 638, qua forma
esse aiebant ? M. G. 967 ; Pers. 130, quia forma lepida et liberali
est ; And. 122, quia erat forma bonesta ae liberali ; Eun. 132.

fronte : Cato, fr. (Jord), p. 81, 17, una depugnatio est fronte largo,
quadrato exereitu ; Asm. 401.

genere : Pers. 651, summo genere esse arbitror ; Trin. 851.

gradibus: Epid. 13, ut tu es gradibus grandibus !

honore : Capt. 279, quo honorest illic ? : : summo.

ingenio : Poen. 1185, ingeniis quibus sumus ; Aul. 9, ita avido
ingenio fuit; Merc. 969, sunt ingenio malo; Pseud. 137, eo enim
ingenio bi sunt ; so Enn. Sc 12 (V) ; Pseud. 1134, illi sunt alio in-
genio atque tu ; Enn. Trag. 23 (Sc 25 V), nemo est tam firmo ingenio ;
Asin. 944; And. 487, ipsest ingenio bono; H. T. 151, ingenio te
esse leni ; 420, ingenio egregio natus sum ; Phor. 497, ingenio esse
duro te atque inexorabili ; Eun. 880, non adeo inhumano ingenio sum ;
Hec. 489, fuisse erga me miro ingenio; 164, liberali esse ingenio;
and frequently.

iure : Lex Papiria de sacr. p. 47, Bruns 7 , eodemque iure sunto.

largitate : H. T. 440, vehemens es nimis, aut largitate nimia, aut
parsimonia.

laude : Plaut. fr. 106, magna laude sumus.

malis : Asin. 400, macilentis malis (sc. est) ; Merc. 640.

medicamento: Cato, Agr. 157, 2, nulla (brassica) est illius modi
medicamento. Here a limiting genitive takes tbe place of the
adjective.

more, moribus : Trin. 283, novi ego hoc saeculum moribus quibus



324 The Ablative.

siet; 825; Bacch. 1081; Stioh. 105; True. Arg. 5; Ace. 560,
Phrygiam miti more esse.

naso: Capt. 647, naso acuto (est).

natura : Turp. 28, homo unica est natura ac singularia.

nomine : Men. 1122, uno nomine ambo eratis ? Calp. Piso, p. 82, 9
(Peter), quia Tarquinio nomine esset.

oculis : Capt. 647, oculis nigris (sc. est) ; Merc. 640, subnigris
oculis (sc. esse aiebant) ; Poen. 1113 ; Pseud. 1219, acutis oculis ;
Bacch. 1015 ; M.G. 1108 ; Asin. 401.

oratione : Phor. 5, tenui esse oratione et scriptura levi ; see also
under argumento.

ore : Capt. 647, maoilento ore (sc. est) ; Pseud. 1219 ; Poen. 1113,
ore atque oculis pernigris.

pallio : Capt. 789, conlecto quidem est pallio.

parsimonia: see largitate.

patre: Men. 854, qui cluet Cycno patre (taken by Heckmann,
Indog. Porsch. xviii, p. 330, as Ablative of Source).

pavimento : Lucil. 84 (Mx), compostae tesserulae pavimento atque
emblemate vermiculato.

pectore : Pseud. 674, me ut faciam copi pectore ; Af ran. 60, quam
materno visast pectore ? Lucil. 296 (Mx), quod gracila est, quod
pectore puro ; Asin. 944.

pedibus: Epid. 627, pedibus plumbeis (pulmunes codd) qui perhi-
betur ; Merc. 595, si podagrosis pedibus esset ; Pseud. 1220 ; Ad. 585,
lectulos ilignis pedibus faciundos ; Lucil. 1062 (Mx), clauda una est
pedibus cariosis.

progenie : Lucil. 800 (Mx), progeniem antiquam qua est Quintus
Maxumus.

prosapia : Merc. 634, unde esset, qua prosapia.

ramice : Lucil. 331 (Mx), quod deformis, senex est, exilis, ramice
magno.

ratione : Ad. 855, numquam ita quisquam bene subducta ratione
fuit.

saviis : M. G. 93, meretrices videas valgis saviis.

schema : Stat. 76, incedit in me sat hilara schema.

scriptura: see oratione.

sententia : Hec. 312, sunt levi sententia.



Ablative of Means. 325

spe : Rud. 275, nescia spe sumus.

specie ; Poen. 1113, specie venusta (sc. est) ; Bacch. 838.

statura : Poen. 1112, statura haud magna est ; Asin. 401.

stilo : see argumento.

studio : Ad. 41, dissimili is studiost.

sumptu : Aul. 484, nos minore sumptu simus.

suris: Pseud. 1218, rufus, ventriosus, crassis suris (sc. fuit).

vi: Ace. 685, neque vi tanta quisquam est; True. Arg. 5.

vino : Cato, Agr. 1, 7, vinea est prima, si vino nmlto est.

voltu: Most. 811, voltu uti tristi est senex! Turp. 167, stare
tristis, turbido voltu ; And. 838, vidi iurgantein ancillam . . . vero
voltu.

voce : Most. 576, scio te bona esse voce.

ABLATIVE OF MEANS. 1

The notion of Means is an outgrowth of the idea of association
inherent in the Instrumental. Thus hostem telo percussit prima-
rily meant, " he, along with his spear, i.e. with his spear in his hand,
smote his enemy." In a few instances cum is expressed, e.g. Capt.
1003, aut anites aut cotumices dantur quicum lusitent ; Cure. 289,
incedunt suffarcinati cum libris, cum sportulis ; Plaut. f r. 101, cum
virgis caseum radi potest. Out of this sociative idea, the notion of
means or instrument secondarily developed. Yet there are few in-
stances of the Ablative of Means in which traces of the sociative
notion are not more or less apparent. In some instances this socia-
tive force is very prominent, e.g. deos precibus adorare; sanguine
imbutus; quanta adficitur miseria!

In support of the sociative theory of origin of the Ablative of
Means, we may compare the use of the English ' with ' and ' by '
to denote means. These two words originally denoted ' near,' ' in
company with.' Out of these meanings developed the instrumental
force.

As a result of the sociative origin of the Ablative of Means, there
naturally occur many expressions which it is difficult to assign with
finality to this category. According as the sociative force is, or is

i Delbriick, Grundriss, iii, p. 231 ft. ; Ebrard, p. 626 ft.



326 The Ablative.

not, felt as prominent, the construction may be regarded either as an
Ablative of Attendant Circumstance or of Means. At other times
the choice lies between taking the ablative as one of Means or
Cause, e.g. Trin. 540, sues moriuntur angina (regarded as instru-
mental by Ebrard) ; or between Means and Specification, e.g. Pseud.
532, virtute tu regi Agathocli antecesseris, which seems to me
clearly an Ablative of Specification, but which Ebrard, p. 635, takes
as an Ablative of Means.

A special type of the Ablative of Means is that designated by
Delbriick, op. cit. p. 256 f., as the " Ausmalender Instrumentalis," in
which the noun repeats the notion of the verb. Examples of this
are : Men. 203, hoc animo animatos ; Stat. 252, omnibus laetitiis
laetus ; Cato, f r. (Jord), p. 33, 9, laudant me laudibus maximis ; so
Capt. 420 ; Most. 1158, tali ludo ludere ; Capt. 393, facile memoria
memini tamen ; Enn. Trag. 208 (Sc 249 V), quae nunc nominatur
nomine Argo ; etc. ; see Ebrard, p. 629 f.

In the following list no attempt has been made to give full mate-
rial under the separate verbs cited as illustrating the Ablative of
Means. It is hoped, however, that the list includes all verbs so con-
strued. Ebrard's list is very defective.

abduco: Pseud. 902, sese abducturum a me dolis; 1055 (fallaciis).

abigo : Men. 127, iurgio uxorem abegi ab ianua.

abluo: Pacuv. 244, lymphis flavis ut pulverem manibus isdem,
quibus Ulixi saepe permulsi, abluam.

absolvo : Pacuv. 181, paucis absolvit.

absumo : Phor. 340, cura et sumptu absumitur.

accedo : Enn. Ann. 387 (V), hostes accedere ventis navibus veliy-
olis.

accipio : Amph. 587, quae neque fieri possunt neque fando um-
quam accepit quisquam ; Men. 4 ; H. T. 932, quot incommoditates
hac re accipies.

accumulo : CIL, i, 38, virtutes generis mieis moribus accumulavi.

adaucto : Ace. Praet. 14, quibus rem summam et patriam nostram
adauctavit pater.

adficio : Pers. 363, quanta adficitur miseria ; Poen. 1275, me
laetitia adfecistis tanta et gaudiis ; Phor. 441, quanta me cura et
sollicitudine adficit ; 730, ne indigna iniuria adficiatur ; 977, tantane



Ablative of Means. 327

adfectum quemquam esse hominem audacia; Hec. 365, alio morbo
adfectam ; Aec. 259, quanta afEecta est laetitudine ; Lucil. 802 (Mi),
mortifero adfectus volnere.

adiungo : Pacuv. 277, ni hunc adiungas cruciatum reticentia.

adiuvo : Phor. 786, opera me adiuves ; Rud. 12.

adnumero : Merc. 89, talentum ipsus sua adnumerat manu.

adorior : Ad. 404, adortust iurgio fratrem.

adrado : Plaut. fr. 91, scobina illunc adrasi senem.

adsero : Poen. 905, manu eas adserat, liberali eaussa.

adulo: Ace. 390, pinnata cauda nostrum adulat sanguinem.



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