Charles Edward Buckland.

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the senior Presidency chaplaincy, and
laboured greatly in the cause of missions
and aid to native Christians : was held
in great esteem by the English residents :
founded the AuxiUary Bible Society : Pro-
vost of the College of Fort William, Aug.
18, 1800 : in 1812 he embarked on a ship
which was wrecked in the Bay of Bengal :
was rescued, and returned to Calcutta,
but died there directly, June 14, 1812.

Born at Mahe, Nov. 10, 1792 : son of
Murdoch Brown {q.v.) : educated in
England and France (where he was
detained at the rupture of the peace of
Amiens) : joined the 80th foot : Lieuten-
ant and A.D.C. : retired on half pay to
help his father manage the Anjrakandy
estate: J. P. : returned to Europe, 1838:
was an active member of the committee
of the " British India Society," the first
organization established to promote re-
form in India, and afterwards of the
" India Reform Society " : died at Telh-
cherry, Sep. 23, 1868 : author of pamphlets
on Indian subjects. Letters to and from the
Government of Madras relating to the
Disturbances in Canara in April, 1837-8:
Free Trade and the Cotton Question with
reference to India, being a Memorial from
the British merchants of Cochin, 1847 '
Obstructions to Trade in India, 1862
The Supply of Cotton from India, 1863
his knowledge of native customs and
native matters "" generally on his side ot
India was probably unrivalled among
Englishmen : he was able to explam many
things relating to the natives which others
had not been able to understand.



Entered the Medical Service of the
Bengal Army, 1836 : in the first Afghan
war : became Surgeon-General, 1870 ;
C.B., 1858 : K.C.B., 1875 •• Jid July 27.

BROWN, MURDOCH (1750-1828)
Born at Edinburgh, i75o, left Scotland
for Lisbon merely for the voyage, but



never returned : found work at Lisbon,
made his way through Europe : in 1775
went out as Consul to Calicut for the
Empress Maria Theresa of Austria :
engaged in trade, of which Jonathan
Duncan, Governor of Bombay, wTote, 1792,
as the most considerable of any British
subject on that side of India : he lost
eleven ships, East Indiamen, of 1,000 tons
or more in the war with France : in 1798 he
took over from Government as a plan-
tation " Five Tarras of Randaterra " (The
Anjrakandy estate) in Malabar : was
granted, in 1802, a 99 years' lease, being
the earhest English landholder in India :
the natives regarded him as their Raja :
none but the lowest caste would work on
the estate, which was wasted by war :
he educated his tenants and Christianized
them by native catechists and German
missionaries, raising them in the scale of
civilization : he spoke seven European and
five or six Oriental languages : died at
Tellicherry, 1828.


Son of William Loder Browne : born
Dec, 1802 : was a Midshipman, R.N :
educated at Addiscombe : joined the
Madras Army, 1820 : in 15th and 12th
regis. : examiner in Hindustani and
Persian : Military Secretary to Govern-
ment, Madras, 1857 : Adjutant-General :
commanded at Nagpur, 1862 : commanded
the N. Division, Madras Army, 1863 :
retired, 1864 : wrote a Persian grammar :
established, 1833, Sunday schools at
Madras and the Black Town, the first in
the Madras Presidency: died Feb. 14, 1866.

BROWNE, JAMES ( ? - ? )

Major : in the E. I. Co.'s service, temp.
Warren Hastings : Collector of the
Jungleterry districts, 1773 : had difficult
work in administering the country and
settling disturbances : sent by the Council
on an embassy to Shah Alamat Delhi to
negotiate with him for assistance against
the Sikhs: Resident at Delhi, 1782:
recalled, when Warren Hastings left
for England, 1785 : published, in 1787.
his Indian Tracts, which, he says, were
written by order of Hastings, describing
the Jungleterry districts, and giving an
account of the Sikhs.

BROWNE, SIR JAMES (1839-1896)

Born Sep. 16, 1839 : son of Robert
Browne : educated at Cheltenham and
Addiscombe : appointed to the Bengal
Engineers, 1857 : served in the N.W.
Frontier campaign against the Mahsud-
Waziris, i860, in the Umbeyla campaign,
1863 : Executive Engineer in the Panjab :
in 1876 surveyed for a railway from
Sukkur to Quetta : Political Officer at
Quetta : in the Afghan war, 1878-9,
Political with Sir D. Stewart's advance to
Kandahar : C.S.I. 1879 : in Egypt, in
1882, commanded the Royal Engineers
of the Indian Contingent : at Tel-el-
Kebir : C.B. 1882 : superintended the
construction of the Indus bridge, 1875 :
Engineer in Chief of the Sind-Peshin rail-
way, 1883-7 : Q.M.G. in India, 1889-90 :
Chief Commissioner of British Belu-
chistan, March, 1892 : died there, June
13, 1896 : K. C.S.I : General.

BROWNE, SIR SAMUEL (1824-1901)

Son of James Browne, M.D : born Oct.
13, 1824 : entered the Bengal Army,
1840 : in the Panjab campaign of 1848-
49 : at Chilianwala and Gujarat : in the
mutiny, with the 2nd Panjab cavalry, in
the movable column of the Panjab :
under Sir Colin Campbell in Oudh, lost an
arm : gained the V.C : for his action at
Nuria, near Philibhit, when he attacked
the rebels, and was severely wounded in
hand-to-hand fight : commanded the
Guides in 1864 : accompanied H.R.H. the
Prince of Wales on his Indian tour, 1875-6 :
K, C.S.I. : Military Member of the Supreme
Council, Aug. 9 to Nov. 5, 1878 : com-
manded the first Division of the Peshawar
Field Force, in the Afghan war, 1878-9 :
captured Ali Masjid, occupied Jalalabad :
K.C.B : retired, 1879 : General : G.C.B.,
1901 : died March 14, 1901 : he invented
the military sword belt, called after him.


Son of Robert Browne : born July 3,
1807 : entered the Army 1824 : in the
campaign, in 1842, of the first Afghan
war commanded his regiment as Major :
was in the repulse of Haikalzai, at Kanda-
har, Kabul and Istalif, and through the
Khyber to India : C.B., 1843 : was
Governor of St. Helena, New Zealand,



Tasmania, Bermuda: K.C.M.G., 1869:
died April 17, 1887.


(1831- )
Born 1831 : son of Colonel George A.
Brownlow : entered the Indian Army :
served in the Panjab campaign, 1848 :
Hazara, 1852-3 : Mohmand expedition,
1854 (severely wounded) ; Yusafzai expedi-
tion, 1858: China war, i860: Umbeyla
campaign, 1863 : C.B. : Hazara, 1868 :
commanded the Southern column, Lushai
expedition, 1871-2 : K.C.B. : A.D.C. to the
Queen, 1869-81 : Assistant Military Secre-
tary at Horse Guards, 1879-80 : G.C.B.
1887 : retired.


Born Jan. II, 1793: atj orehat , Assam :
was the first explorer of tea tracts in
Assam, and discoverer of the indigenous
tea plant in Assam : was appointed
Superintendent of Tea cultivation under
the Government of India until the tea
industry was adopted by private enter-
prise, as stated on a memorial tablet to
him in the Church at Tezpur : wrote a
report on the manufacture of tea, and on
the export and produce of the tea planta-
tions in Assam, 1839 : died April 23,

BRUCE, JOHN (174.-5-1826)

Historian : educated at Edinburgh
University, and Professor of Logic there :
appointed Keeper of the State Paper
Office, and Historiographer of the E. I. Co.:
M.P. for a borough in Cornwall, 1809-14 :
and for a short time Secretary of the
Board of Commissioners for the affairs of
India, i.e. the Board of Control : F.R.S :
died April 16, 1826. He wrote on
philosophy as well as history : his chief
works relating to India were Historical
View of Plans for the Government of British
India, 1793: Annals of the E. I. Co. from
their establishment by the Charter of Queen
Elizabeth, 1600, to the Union of the London
and English E. I. Companies, 1707-8, 1810 :
Report on the Renewal of the E. I. Co.'s
exclusive Privileges of Trade for 20 years
from March 1794-1811.

Entered the Army 1842, in the Bengal
Artillery : in the Gwalior campaign, at

Maharajpur : in the Satlaj campaign,
1845-6: at Badiwal, Aliwal, Sobraon : in
the Panjab campaign, 1848-9 ; at Sadu-
lapur, Chilianwala, Gujarat : in the
mutiny at the second relief of Lucknow,
at Cawnpur and many engagements :
C.B. 1875 : retired as Lt-General, 1878 :
K.C.B. : 1898 : died April 15, 1899.

Born 1840 : son of Jonathan Bruce :
served in the Afghan war, 1878-9 : on the
N.W. Frontier of India : at Daulatzai,
1884 : in the Zhob Valley expedition, 1890 :
co-operated in the opening of the Gomal
Pass, 1890 : British Commissioner of the
Afghan-Waziristan Delimitation Com-
mission, 1894 : at Wano, 1894 : in
Waziristan, 1894-5 = a Commissioner in
the Panjab : author of a Gazetteer of
Dera Ghazi Khan, and a manual of
Beluchi : a History of the Marri-Beluch
tribe : of The Forward Policy and its

Entered the Army, 1795 : went to India :
at Seedaseer, 1799, and at the siege of
Seringapatam, May 4, 1799 : in the
Canara campaign ; under Lord Lake,
1804-5 : at the siege of Bhartpur, 1805 :
under General St. Leger on the Satlaj,
1809 : in the Pindari campaigns of 181 2
and 1817 : in the Nipal war of 1815 : at
the siege of Hatras : retired in 1837 from
the nth Hussars, as Lt-Colonel : died
March 26, 1843.

Maj-General : appointed to- E. I. Co.'s
Army, 1798 : served in Oudh : in the
Mahratta war : in Bundelkund : at Deeg,
1804 : Town and Fort Major, Fort
VVilham, 1815 : Judge Advocate General,
1817, 1824 : in the Dekkan war : at
Bhartpur, 1826 : knighted, 1829 : C.B. :
commanded the 14th N.I., 1835 : Director
E. I. Co., 1841 : died June 10, 1845.

BARONET (17(34-1847)
In the E.I. Co.'s Civil Service: son of
Harford Jones of Presteign : born Jan. 12.
1764 : assumed the name of Brydges from
his mother's family : Envoy to Persia,
1807-1811 : Baronet in 1807: resigned
in 1811 : D.C.L., 1831 : Privy Councillor:
died March 17, 1847 = wrote on Persian
affairs and his mission.



BRYDON, WILLIAM (1811-1873)
Born Oct. 9, iSii : entered the E. I. Co.'s
medical service in 1835 : served with Sir
H. Fane and Lord Auckland : sent in
1839 with a regiment to the first Afghan
war. When the Army retreated from
Kabul in Jan. 1842, Brydon was attached
to the 6th regt. of Shah Shuja's Hindustani
Infantry and, alone, of 13,000 persons,
reached Jalalabad alive on January 13,
1842 : he was in the garrison of Jalalabad
under Sir R. Sale, and with General
Pollock's army to Kabul and back in
1842 : in the mutiny of 1857 he was, by
a curious fate, again besieged, being in the
Lucknow garrison, and was iminjured
throughout the siege : C.B., 1858: retired,
1859, as Surgeon-Major of the Bombay
Army : died March 20, 1873.


? )

I.C.S. : appointed a writer on the
Madras Estabhshment, Aug. 1792 :
Assistant under the Secretary in the
Military, PoUtical and Scout Department,
and French Translator, 1794 : also for
supplying " beetle," tobacco, and " gangee"
in 1795 : Paymaster to the Malacca
expedition, 1796 : sub-Secretary in the
above Department, 1799 : Secretary in
the Public and Commercial Department,
1801 ; in the Military Department, 1801 :
Chief Secretary, 1803 : Private Secretary
to Government, 1809 : went home, 1810 :
" out of the service," 1814.


Born March 12, 1766 : son of Alexander
Buchanan : educated at Inverary and
Glasgow University ; Queen's College, Cam-
bridge, 1791-5 : ordained, 1795 : went
to Calcutta as a Chaplain on the Establish-
ment, 1797 : at Barrackpur and Calcutta :
was Professor and Vice-Provost of the
CoUege of Fort William, 1799-1807, when
the latter appointment was abolished : he
devoted himself to the promotion of
Christianity and to native education : he
made two prolonged tours in Southern and
Western India, 1806-7, to ascertain the
circumstamces and facts of the various
reUgions of the country and suggest
measures : he returned to England in
1808, and advocated the appointment of
Bishops in India and the cause of missions,
besides publishing translations of the

Scriptures in Malayalam, Syriac, etc. : he
wrote Christian Researches in Asia, 1810 :
Colonial Ecclesiastical Establishment, and
papers about Christianity and Christian
Missions in India : he was D.D. of
Glasgow and Cambridge : died Feb. 9,


(1836- )

Son of John Buchanan, of Co. TjTone,
Ireland : volunteered for the Crimea :
served in the Indian mutiny in the 88th
Connaught Rangers : author of Through
the Himalayas and Chinese Tibet : Colonel :



Doctor : bom Feb. 15, 1762, son of
Thomas Buchanan, doctor : took his degree
of M.D. at Edinburgh in 1783 : after
serving on a man-of-war, joined the E.I.
Co.'s service in 1794 : employed on a
mission to the Court of Ava, and on
various botanical, zoological and statistical
inquiries in Chittagong and Tippera, and,
in 1 800-1, through Mysore, Canara and
Malabar, on which he -wTote a fuU report :
went to Nipal in 1802 : he was Surgeon
to Lord WeUesley, and accompanied him
to England in 1805. The records of his
subsequent inquiries in several Bengal
districts and Assam were deposited at the
India House in 1816 and not utilized for 22
years. He was Superintendent of the
Botanic Garden, Calcutta, 1814-5, when
he returned to Scotland and took the
additional name of Hamilton on succeeding
to his mother's property : F.R.S. and
F.R.A.S., and contributed largely to the
literary and scientific societies to which he
belonged : wTote on the History of Xipal,
the Genealogy of the Hindu gods, the
Fishes of the Ganges, etc : died June 15,


(1838- )

I.C.S. : educated at Norwich and
Oakham School, and Clare College,
Cambridge : entered the Bengal Civil
Service in 1862 and retired in 1897 :
represented the Indian Government at
the Colonial Exhibition, 1886 : Secretary
to the Government of India, 1882-97 :
Knight Bachelor and K. C.S.I.




Son of Christopher Buckingham : born
Aug. 25, 1786: was at sea from 1796:
went to India, 1815 : in 1818, at Calcutta,
he brought out the Calcutta Journal,
attacked Government so vigorously that,
in 1823, his licence was taken away by
Mr. J. Adam (q.v.), and he was deported
from the country : years afterwards, the
E.I. Co. gave him a pension of £200 a
year : went to India again when the
restrictions on the Press had been re-
moved : M.P. for Sheffield, 1832-7 :
conducted the Oriental Herald and Colon-
ial Review, 1824-9, and was connected
with other journals, besides writing
largely on social and political subjects :
travelled extensively to and from India :
wrote Arabia, 1825 : Mesopotamia and
Adjacent Countries, 1827 : Assyria and
Media, 1830 : travelled also in Europe and
N. America : and gave lectures in Eng-
land : died June 30, 1855.

THIRD DUKE OF (1823-1889)

Governor : born Sep. 10, 1823, only son
of the second Duke : educated at Eton
and Christ Church, Oxford : M.P. for
Buckingham, 1846-57 : Junior Lord of
the Treasury, 1852 : as Marquis of Chandos
was Chairman of the London and N.W.
Railway, 1853-61 : succeeded as Duke,
1 861 : Lord President of the CouncU,
1866-7 : Secretary for the Colonies,
1867-8 : Governor of Madras from Nov.
1875 to Dec. 1880 : had to deal with the
severe famine of 1877, when immense
numbers of the population came on relief
works and gratuitous relief, and there was
great mortality : built Government House
at Ootacamund : Chairman of Commit-
tees in the House of Lords, 1886-9 = P-C- :
G.C.S.I. : CLE. : D.C.L. : died March
26, 1889 : when the Dukedom became



Son of third Earl : born May 6, 1760 :
educated at Westminster : joined 7th
regt., 1776 : served in the American war :

Major : M.P. in both the English and
Irish Parliaments : Secretary to the Lord
Lieutenant of Ireland, 1789-93 : Privy
Councillor, 1793 = was, as Lord Hobart,
Governor of Madras from Sep. 1794 to
Feb. 1798 : led an expedition to Malacca
and destroyed the Dutch settlements :
by his independence he came into antagon-
ism with the Governor-General, Sir John
Shore, over the affairs of the Nawab of
the Carnatic, when Hobart desired to
make financial reforms : the Court of
Directors recalled him, but supported his
action in Tanjore affairs : Hobart co-
operated with the Governor-General against
Tippoo : called up to the House of Lords,
1798 : helped to arrange the imion with
Ireland, 1799 • Secretary for War and the
Colonies, 1 801-4 : became Earl, 1804 :
appointed President of the Board of
Control, April 4, 1812 : and spoke on the
renewal of the E.I. Co.'s charter, 1813:
died Feb. 4, 1816.


(1847- )
I.C.S. : son of Charles Thomas Buck-
land, I.C.S. : born Sep. 19, 1847 : edu-
cated at Laleham, Eton, and Balliol
College, Oxford : joined the Civil Service
in Bengal, 1870 : Private Secretary to
Sir Richard Temple, when Lieutenant-
Governor of Bengal, 1874-7, and Gover-
nor of Bombay, 1877-8 : Revenue, and
Chief Secretary to Government of Bengal,
and Member of the Bengal Legislative
CouncO : Senior Member of the Board of
Revenue : retired in 1904 : CLE., 1895 :
author of Bengal under the Lieutenant
Governors : editor of The Dictionary of
Indian Biography.



I.C.S. : son of the Rev. John Buckland :
born Feb. 27, 1824 : educated at Laleham,
Eton, and Hailcybury : gained his ap-
pointment to the Indian Civil Service
by competition at Eton : went to India
in 1844 : served throughout his career ia
Bengal, making a reputation for ability
and independence as an administrator :
Junior Secretary to the Governor of
Bengal : Member of the Bengal Legisla-
tive Council, and Member of the Board of
Revenue, Calcutta : retired in 1881 :
died March 21, 1894.




Born July 19, 1837,3! Borstel, in Han-
over : son of a pastor : educated at
Hanover and Gottingen : graduated in
Oriental languages and Archaeology, 1858 :
studied Sanskrit at Paris, London, Oxford :
became an eminent Orientalist : Pro-
fessor of Oriental Languages at the Elphin-
stone College, Bombay, 1863: Superin-
tendent of Sanskrit Studies, Poona, 1866 :
Educational Inspector, N. Division,
Bombay Presidency, 1868, 1872 : edited
Sanskrit texts : several times deputed to
collect Sanskrit texts : discovered over
5,000 MSS., which the Indian Government
distributed among British Universities and
Collections, and Indian Societies and
Institutions : left India, 1880 : gave
much attention to ancient inscriptions,
doing important work as an epigraphist :
wrote on Indian inscriptions : brought
out, with Sir R. West (q.v.), a digest of
Hindu Law : wTote a Sanskrit Primer,
•editions of Sanskrit works : published a
Glossary of the oldest Prakrit dictionary :
collaborated in the series of Sacred Books
of the East : translated the Laws of
Manu : became Professor of Indian
Philology and Archaeology at the Univer-
sity of Vienna : edited an Encyclopaedia
of Indo-Aryan Philology : contributed his
Indische Paldographie, 1896 : was member
of the Royal Asiatic and other learned
Societies : drowned in Lake Constance,
April 8, 1898.

BUIST, GEORGE (1805-1860)

Doctor : born Aug. 22, 1805 : son of
the Rev. J. Buist : educated at St. Andrews
and Edinburgh : became a preacher and
lecturer, and editor of newspapers in
Scotland from 1832 to 1839, when he be-
came editor of the Bombay Times tiU
1857 : he opposed the Government policy
in Kabul in 1842 : from Jan. 1858 he
brought out the Bombay Standard, which
was amalgamated with the Bombay
Times in i860. He was Inspector of
Observatories in Bombay for many years,
and \vrote on scientific subjects, meteoro-
logy, geology, antiquities, for the Bombay
Asiatic Society's J oxirnal : he was instru-
mental in the establishment of a number
of observatories, and founded the Bombay
Reformatory School of Industry : a
Municipal Commissioner in Bombay :

appointed, in 1859, Superintendent of the
Government Press, Allahabad, and Curator
of Government books : died at Calcutta,
Oct. I, i860 : described as " India's fore-
most man of letters," " not only famous
as the most successful of Indian journalists,
but as the thoughtful and enterprising
man of science " : he devoted himself to
scientific philanthropy.

RAJA OF (1826-1896)

A Rajput of the Jadon clan : his
grandfather held a high post in Sindia's
Army, and died at Alighar in 1801 : his
sons resided in Agra, and held lands near
the city : Lachhman Singh entered
Government service in 1847 : employed as
a translator in the Secretariat at Agra :
rendered good service diuring the mutiny :
rewarded with a Khilat, and a small parcel
of revenue-free land in the Agra district :
employed in the Educational Department,
and promoted to a Deputy CoUectorship :
wrote a Statistical Memoir of the Buland-
shahr District, and translated various
official works, besides the Sakuntala, in
Hindi : in 1877, was made Raja as a
personal distinction : after his retirement,
resided at Bulandshahr, and died there in
July, 1896.


OF (1881- )

Born Oct. 19, 1881 : son of Raja Ban
Bihari Kapur {q.v.) : succeeded in 1885 :
was installed as Maharaja in Feb., 1903.

DUR OF (1820-1879)

Son of Maharaja Tej Chand Rai : bom
Nov. 17, 1820 : succeeded to the Biurdwan
Raj (which pays over 40 lakhs annually
of Government Revenue), on AprU 16,
1832 : made Maharaja Adhiraj Bahadur,
Aug. 30, 1833 : on Jan. i, 1877, was
granted a salute of 13 guns as a personal
distinction, and the title of " His High-
ness " : appointed to the Governor-
General's Legislative CoimcU in 1864 :
during the Sonthal rebellion of 1855, and
in the mutiny, he helped Government
greatly with transport, and by maintaining
communications : established a college,
schools, hospitals and dispensaries on his



estates ; widely supported charities, and
gave munificent contributions on occasions
of epidemic fever, famines and calamities :
encouraged literature and learning : though
not always a strict observer of Hinduism,
he maintained his numerous religious
endowments and temples : while he did
not seek popularity, he was highly re-
spected by both Europeans and his coun-
trymen, for his independence, high
character and public spirit : died at
Bhagalpur, Oct. 26, 1879.


Born Aug. 14, 1832 : educated at Dum-
fries, Glasgow, Edinburgh : went to
India, 1855 : engaged in educational
work in Calcutta and Bombay : Archajo-
logical Surveyor and Reporter for W. India,
1874 : and for S. India, 1881 : Director-
General of the Archaeological Survey of
India, 1886 : Fellow of the Bombay
University : retired, 1889 : attended the
Geneva Oriental Congress, 1894, as
representative of India : edited the Indian
Antiquary, 1872-84 : published scientific
papers in the Philosophical Magazine,
Archaological Survey Reports, Epigraphica
Indica, 1889-94 : published various ar-
chaeological works, as The Rock Temples
of Elephaiita, 1871 : Temples of Somnath,
Jimaghar and Girnar, The Rock Teml^les
of Ajanta, The Rock Temples of India
(with J. Fergusson), 1880: Buddhist Art
in India, 1901.

BURGOYNE, JOHN (1722-1792)

General : son of Captain John Bur-
goyne : educated at Westminster : entered
the Army in the 13th Light Dragoons,
1740 : M.P. for Midhurst, 1761 : for
Preston, 1768 : spoke, moving for a
Select Committee, on the Government of
India, 1772, urging the principle (after-
wards adopted by Fox and Pitt in their
India Bills) of Government control over
the E. I. Co. : in the attack in Parliament
on Lord Clive, May 3, 1773, Burgoyne,
Chairman of the Committee, was the
accuser, and carried condemnatory reso-
lutions against Clive : commanded in
America in 1774, and siurrendered at
Saratoga, Oct. 17, 1777 : C. in C. in Ire-
land, 1782 : was a manager of the im-
peachment of Warren Hastings, 1787 :

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