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Dictionary of Indian biography; online

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The Mahrattas invaded the Carnatic,
1740, besieged Chanda in Trichinopoly,
and took him prisoner in 1741 to Satara :
Dupleix in 1748 procured his release for a
large ransom. On the death of Anwarud-
din, the Nawab of the Carnatic, in 1749,
at the battle of Ambur against Chanda
Sahib and Muzaflar Jang (the claimant
to succeed as Nizam), Chanda was pro-
claimed as Nawab : the British supported
Muhammad Ali, son of Anwaruddin, as
their candidate for the Nawabship, while
the French supported Chanda's aspira-
tions. Muhammad Ali fled from Ambur
to Trichinopoly, where he was besieged
by Chanda : in the fighting that ensued
Chanda surrendered to the Raja of Tan-
jore, in May, 1752, who barbarously put
him to death and sent his head to Muham-
mad Ali.


Born 1822 : educated at the Hindu
College : in 1843 became a clerk in the
Union Bank, Calcutta ; afterwards ap-
prenticed to Messrs Haworth, Hardman
& Co. : appointed, in 1845, their agent
for their Cossipur Sugar Refinery: served for
30 years : began to pubUsh his " Travels "
serially in the Englishman's Saturday
Journal in 1866-7: issued together in
2 vols, in 1869, in England, with an intro-
duction by J. T. Wheeler (q.v.) : published,
in 1894, a life of Raja Digambar Mitra,
C.S.I. : an anther of undoubted literary
ability and powers of observation.

GANESH (1855- )

Educated at Elphinstone College, Bom-
bay : pleader of the Bombay High Court
and Judge of that Court since 1901 :
succeeded Mr. Justice Ranade as leader
of the Indian Social reform movement



Born 1766 : at first a subordinate in
the Customs Department at Hyderabad
under his uncle, Rai Nanak Ram : in 1806
Peshkar, and, after Mir Alam's death,
became the real Minister of the Nizam's
Government, though Munir-ul-mulk was
Diwan : was highly regarded bv Henry
Russell, the Resident at Hyderabad from
1811-30. Chandu Lai ruled Hyderabad
for about 35 years : retired Sep. 1843,
from the Peshkarship, on a monthly
pension of Rs. 30,000 : died April 15, 1845.


(1840- )

General : bom 1840 : son of Henry
Chapman : entered the Bengal Artillery,
1858 : served in the Abyssinian war, 1867-
8 : accompanied Sir Douglas Forsyth as
Secretary to Yarkand in 1873-4 = in the
Afghan war, of 1878-80, was Chief of the
Staff in Sir F. Roberts' march from
Kabul to Kandahar : C.B : and Brevet Lt-
Colonel : in Burma campaign, 1885-6 :
Military Secretary to Sir Donald Stewart,
when C. in C. in India : Q.M.G. in India :
Director of Military Intelligence, 1891-6 :
commanded the Scottish District, .1896-
1901 : Colonel Commanding Royal Artil-
lery : F.R.G.S: A.D.C. to Queen Victoria,


(1829- )

I.C.S. : born Nov. 21, 1829 : son of
Jonathan Chapman : educated at Hailey-
bury : entered the Bengal Civil Service,
1849: and rose to be Secretary to the
Government of India in the Finance
Department, 1869-81, when he retired :

CHASTENAY, HENRY (1794-1822)
B.C.S. : arrived in India as a writer in
Bengal, Nov. 181 1 : served always at the
headquarters of the Government : Private
Secretary to the Marquess of Hastings,
when Governor - General : died May 2,
1822 : buried at Calcutta.



Bengali novelist and prose writer : son
of Jadab Chandra Chatterji, a Deputy



Magistrate : born J line 27. 1838 : educated
at the Midnapur School, Hughli and
Presidency Colleges : in 1858 he was the
first native of India to take the B.A.
degree, Calcutta : at once appointed to be
a Deputy Magistrate, and became a
prominent member of the Provincial
service, acting for a time as Assistant
Secretary to the Bengal Government.
His reputation was made in literature,
as the Bengali novelist of his time : his
novels were numerous, and are said to be
still popular : he brought out a literary
magazine. 1872, and wrote the first Ben-
gali historical novel, under the title of
Diirges Nandini. This was followed by
Kapala Kandala, Mrinalini, and Bisha
Brikka, which was translated into English
and very favourably criticised by Pro-
fessor Darmesteter : Debi Chandurani,
Ananda Matha, and Krishna Kanter Will :
WTTote also on Hindu religion, Kirshna, the
Vedas. and Hindu literature : made Rai
Bahadur and CLE : retired from Govern-
ment service in 1891: died April 8, 1894.

EYRE (1863- )

Born July 22, 1863 : son of A. T. Chat-
terton : educated at Haileybury and
Dublin University: ordained 1887 : Head
of the Dublin University Mission to Chota-
Nagpur, 1891-1900 : Bishop of Nagpur,
Central Provmces, 1903 : D.D : author of
The Story of Fifty Years' Mission in
Chota-Nagpur : F.R.G.S.

Born Oct. 5, 1865, at Lyons : son of
Emile Chavannes, engineer : educated at
I'Ecole normale superieure : his work as a
scholar has dealt principally with Chinese
subjects, often in relation to India : en-
trusted with a scientific mission to China,
1889-93 : appointed Professor of the
Chinese Language and Literature at the
College de France, 1893 : Secretary of the
Societe Asiatique, 1895 : Member of the
Institute, 1903 : The following works by
him treat of the travels of Chinese Budd-
hist pilgrims in India : I-tsing, Les
religieux cminents, 1894 : Voyage de
Song Yun dans VUdyana et le Gandhara,
(a translation) in the Bulletin de VEcole
francaise d'Extreme Orient, 1903, etc. :
Documents sur les Tou-kine {Turks) occi-
dentaux, 1903, treats of several questions
relating to India. He has also written

largely in the Journal Asiatique, on the
Chinese inscriptions of Bodh Gaya in the
Revue de VHistoire des Religions, and in
other periodicals.


An officer of the E.I. Co.'s service, who
tried, with a companion, to explore the
route of the 10,000 Greeks, as described
in Xenophon's Atiabasis. They were
taken prisoners by a local chief near
Bagdad, but released on payment of
ransom. Chavasse died of fever there.

CHEAPE, SIR JOHN (1792-1875)
Son of John Cheape : born in 1792 :
educated at Woolwich and Addiscombe :
joined the Bengal Engineers in 1809,
rose to be Maj-General in 1854: was under
Lord Hastings in the Pindari war, in the
Nerbudda Field Force, 181 7 : at the siege
of Asirghar and in the Burmese war,
1824-6 : was Chief Engineer at the siege
of Multan, 1848, and at Gujarat in the
Panjab campaign : C.B. : in the second
Burmese war of 1852-3, was second
in command under General Godwin at
first, and later, in 1853, commanded, and
took Pegu : the provinces of Pegu and
Tenasserim were annexed : K.C.B : A.D.C.
to Queen Victoria : retired, 1857 : Colonel
Commandant of Engineers, 1862 : G.C.B.,
1865: General, 1866: died March 30,


Born May 31, 1827 : son of first Baron
(Lord Chancellor, 1838-9) : educated at
Eton : succeeded to title, 1879 : entered
the Army in the Grenadier Guards, 1844 :
served in the Crimea : Lt. -Colonel in the
95th regt. in the mutiny, in Central India :
Adjutant-General in the Abyssinian cam-
paign, 1867-8 : C.B. and A.D.C. to Queen
Victoria : Adjutant-General in India :
commanded the forces in the Kafir war,
1878 : succeeded his father, Oct. 1878 r
at Isandhwala, Gingilhovo, Uhmdi :
Lieutenant of the Tower, 1884-9 : General,
1888 : G.C.B. : G.C.V.O : died April 9,


B.C.S. : son of George Cherry : born 1761 1
entered the Bengal Civil Service, 1778 :


accompanied Lord Cornwallis as his
Persian Secretary to Madras, where, in
1792, peace was made with Tippoo at
Seringapatam : Cherry's picture of Tippoo
is at the India Office : appointed Resident
at Benares, 1793 : there murdered by
Wazir Ali, the reputed son of the late
Nawab Asaf-ud-daula of Oudh, on Jan.
14, 1799-


Born Sep. 1837 : entered the Bengal
Medical Service, 1859 : Deputy Surgeon-
General, 1889 : did excellent service at
Mian Mir and Umritsar in the cholera
epidemic of 1861 : in the Hazara Field
Force, 1868 : Black Mountain expedition :
Lushai expedition, 1 871-2 : Afghan war,
1878-80 : from Ali Masjid to Gandamak,
1878, to Kabul 1879 : in the Kabul-
Kandahar march : in the battleof Mazra,
near Kandahar : in the expedition against
the Marris : Deputy Surgeon - General,
Lahore, 1889-94 • when he retired : died
April 12, 1904.


Son of Capt. Charles Cornwallis Chesney
of the Bengal Artillery : born April 30,
1830 : educated at Blundell's school,
Tiverton, and Addiscombe : entered the
Bengal Engineers, 1848, and became
General in 1882 : went to India in 1850 :
in the P.W.D. until the mutiny : in the
Badli-ka-sarai action. June, 8, 1857 : at
the capture of the ridge at Delhi : Brig-
Major, R.E. at Delhi : in the assault on
Sep. 14 : was President of the Engineering
College at Calcutta, and head of the P.W.D.
Account Department in i860 : President
of the Royal Indian Civil Engineering
College at Cooper's Hill, 1871-80, of
which he had prepared the constitution,
etc. : Secretary to the Government of
India in the Military Department, 1880-
6 : Military Member of the Supreme
Council, July, 1886-April, 1891 : M.P. for
Oxford, 1892 : C.S.I. 1883 : CLE. 1886 :
C.B. 1887 : K.C.B. 1890 : died March 31,
1895. He wrote a number of books :
the principal were Indian Polity : The
Battle of Dorking, a military-political
Magazine article which made a great
sensation : The True Reformer, The
Dilemma, The Private Secretary, besides
other articles in Magazines and Reviews.


Son of an indigo merchant : joined his
father in trade and amassed a large
fortune at the time of the American war :
founded the Madras Native Association,
of which he was President : opposed the
proselytizing tendencies of the missionaries
and successfully resisted the attempt
made to introduce the Bible as a text-book
in Government Schools in 1843 : was
forward in the agitation carried on in
1853-5 regarding the grievances of the
natives, which led to the Torture Com-
mission : after incurring much odium as a
seditious person, in 1861 he was made a
C.S.I. : he next directed his attention to
the affairs of Mysore and the Tanjore
widows : lost most of his fortune and died
a poor man, leaving a name for patriotism
and self-sacrifice.

CHIBU, LAMA ( ? -1866)

Was sprung from an old and respectable
Sikhim family of Tibetan origin : dwelt
at Tunilong near the Raja of Sikhim :
was early a man of influence and mark,
learnt Hindustani, a qualification which
gave him much political importance.
When Sir Joseph Hooker and Dr. Campbell
were imprisoned by the Sikhim Court, he
befriended them throughout, and as a re-
ward obtained a very large estate of about
75,000 acres near Darjeeling, on the
annexation of Sikhim territory. In 1864
he accompanied Sir Ashley Eden through
out his mission to Bhutan and, with con-
siderable personal danger, exerted himself
to bring the negotiations to a successful
issue : died in 1866.

CHINNERY, GEORGE (176&-1852)
Artist : exhibited in the Royal Academy.
1790-1846 : painted in Dublin and London
and went to China, from which country he
visited India : he " made spirited sketches
of scenes in India" : was at Madras, 1802-7
or 8, and afterwards painted many pictures
at Calcutta : was at Canton in 1830 and
died at Macao in 1852 : references to his
works in India occur in Indian literature :
his name and his skill are remembered
there to this day.


(1863- )

Born 1863 : Hony. Magistrate : Presi-
dent of the Nagpur District Council since



1888: and of the Nagpur Municipality since
1894 : represented the Central Provinces
as Member of the Governor-General's
Legislative Council, 1893-5 : leader of
the Prabhu community : guest of the
nation, representing the Central Provinces,
at H.M. the King's Coronation, 1902:
CLE., 1895.

CHRISTIE, JOHN (1805-1869)

Entered the Indian Army, 1822, and
the 3rd Light Cavahry, 1823 : at the
capture of Bhartpiur, 1826 : was selected
by the C.in C.,Sir Henry Fane, to raise, for
Shah Shuja's force, the ist Irregular
Cavalry, later known as Christie's Horse,
which he commanded to the end of the
first Afghan war, 1839-42 : was at the
occupation of Kandahar and pursuit of
the Sirdars to the Helmimd under Sir
Robert Sale : at Ghazni, and Kabul in
1839 : accompanied Outram in pursuit of
the Amir Dost Muhammad across the
Hindu Kush : in the Kandahar Division
under Sir W. Nott in 1842 : at the occupa-
tion of Ghazni and Kabul, the taking of
Istalif, and the final march through the
Khyber to India: was at the battle of
Punniar, 1843 : in the Satlaj campaign
of 1845-6, at Mudki, Firozshahr and
Sobraon : Brevet-Major : throughout the
Panjab campaign, including ChiUanwala
and Gujarat, and the pursuit of the
Sikhs and Afghans, always in command
of his regiment : Brevet-Lt-Colonel :
returned from England to India on the
outbreak of the mutiny, commanded the
Dinapur Brigade, and kept Patna per-
fectly quiet : afterwards in command
at Barrackpur and Berhampur : com-
manded the 3rd Bengal Cavahry : Maj-
General, 1861 : joined the Bengal Staff
Corps, 1866: C.B., 1867: and A.D.C. to
Queen Victoria : received many medals and
the Order of the Durani for his services in
Afghanistan : died at San Remo, May 7,
1869 : buried there.

CHRISTIE, S. T. ( ? -1876)

Lt-General : entered the Army, 1836 :
served with the 80th regt. in the Burmese
war, 1852-3 : commanded the storming
party at Martaban : at the operations at
Rangoon : at the capture of Prome : in
the Indian mutiny commanded a mov-
able column : at Fatehpur : at the siege
of Lucknow : commanded a Field Force in

the Oudh campaign, wounded : C.B. : Lt-
General 1876 : died Oct. 5, 1876.

HENRY SPENCER (1849-1894)

Son of the sixth Duke of Marlborough :
born Feb. 13, 1849 : educated at Eton,
and Merton College, O.xford : M.P. for
Woodstock, 1874-1885; for South Padding-
ton, 1885 tohisdeath. The greater portion
of his career in politics and the Hbuse of
Commons had no connexion with India.
He made a tour in that country in the
cold weather of 1884-5, in which he
studied its administration, and gained
experience which was valuable to him
when he was Secretary of State for India
from June 24, 1885, to Feb. 5, 1886. In
that post he made a reputation for his
administrative capacity, his industry,
knowledge of details, and despatch of
business. He sanctioned the Burmese
war of 1885-6 and the annexation of Upper
Burma, and concluded the Russo-Afghan
Frontier negotiations. He also sanctioned
Mr. Colman Macaulay's visit to Pekin,
with a view to a subsequent mission
to Lhasa, which was afterwards stopped.
He was on a sea voyage round the world
for his health, when he had to leave Madras
and return to England, and died there,
Jan. 24, 1894.



Captain : Master-attendant at Cal-
cutta: went to sea in 1808 in the E. I. Co.'s
mercantile service : served in the expedi-
tions against the Isle of France and Java :
commanded merchant-ships to and from
Calcutta for years; "no man in the
country's service ever bore a higher
character." He safely rounded Cape
Horn, with a lascar crew, in 1822-3 =
having served as second and first Assistant,
he became Master-attendant, 1840-2, and
was confirmed in 1847, but died, Sep. 20.
He was at various times Judge Advocate
of the Marine Committee of Enquiry :
regarded as a tried and valuable officer
of the Company, and much esteemed in

EARL OF (1792-1851)

Governor : born June 10, 1792 : son of
the first Earl, Lord Chancellor of Ireland :



succeeded his father in 1902 : educated
at Christ Church, Oxford : Governor of
Bombay, March 21, 1831, till March 17,
1835 : Privy Councillor, 1830 : G.C.H.,
1835 : K.P., 1845 : died Aug. 18, 1851.

CLARKE, SIR ALURED (1745 ?-1832)

Field-Marshal: born about 1745: entered
the Army, 1759 '• served in Germany,
Ireland, America : was Lieutenant-Gover-
nor of Jamaica, 1782-90 : on the way
to India, in 1795, he co-operated with Lord
Keith in the capture of Cape Town from
the Dutch E. I. Co. : in India was C. in C.
in Madras, Jan., 1796 till March, 1797 :
Member of the Supreme Council and
provisional C. in C. Bengal from April, 17.97,
and confirmed in the Chief Command in
India in May, 1798, retaining it tiU July,
1801. He was in command of the force
with Sir John Shore when the latter, as
Governor-General, went to Lucknow to
depose Wazir Ali and set up Saadat Ali as
Nawab of Oudh in Jan. 1798. He acted as
Governor-General from the resignation of
Sir John Shore in March, 1798, till the
arrival of Lord Mornington in May, 1798.
He was K.B. in 1797: General in 1802 :
G.C.B., 1815 : Field-Marshal in 1830, and
died Sep. 16, 1832.

CLARKE, SIR ANDREW (1824-1902)

Son of Col. Andrew Clarke : born 1824 :
educated at King's School, Canterbury,
and Woolwich : entered the Royal
Engineers, 1844 : was A.D.C. to Sir W.
Denison, Governor of Tasmania, 1849-53 :
in the Maori war. New Zealand : on the
staff of Sir George Grey : Surveyor-
General of Victoria : Minister for Public
Lands in the Legislative Assembly at
Melbourne : nine years Director of Works
for the Navy : Governor and C. in C. of the
Straits Settlements, 1873-5 : P.W.D.
Member of the Supreme Council of the
Governor-General, 1875-80 : Comman-
dant of the School of Military Engineer-
ing at Chatham, 1880-2 : Inspr-General
of Fortifications, 1882-6 : retired in 1886
asLt-General : K.C.M.G., 1873 = G.C.M.G.,
1885 : Col. Commandant R.E. : unsuccess-
fully contested Chatham in 1886 and
1893-: Agent-General to the Colony of
Victoria for many years : died March 29,
1902 : also C.B. and CLE.


(18.S2- )
Born June 17, 1832 : son of Turner
Poulter Clarke : educated at King's
College, London, Trinity and Queen's
Colleges, Cambridge : third wrangler,
1856 : Mathematical Lecturer at Queen's
College, 1857-65 : joined the Education
Department in Bengal : Inspector of
Schools, 1866-87: retired 1887: F.R.S. :
an ardent Botanist : has written numerous
papers on Botany, also on Anthropology-,
Geography, and Music : and Speculations
from Political Economy, 1886.

BARONET (18:i9- )
General : son of Sir Charles Clarke,
second Batt. : born Dec. 13, 1839 :
entered the Army in 1856 : served in New
Zealand, South Africa, War Office, Ireland
and at Aldershot : commanded the Colonial
Forces at the Cape, 1880-2 : C. in C. in
Madras, 1893-8 : Q.M.G., 1899-1903 :
Governor of Malta since 1903 : G.C.B. in

For many years a prominent barrister
of the Supreme Court, Calcutta : where,
it is stated, he founded the Ice House,
the Bar Library, and the Metcalfe Hall.

CLARKE, TREDWAY (1764-1858)
General : entered the E. I. Co.'s military
service in 1780 : on arriving in Madras
was engaged in the war against Hyder
Ali : wounded at the storming of Chil-
lumbram : in command of the Artillery at
Fort St. George from 1783 : under General
Medows and Lord Cornwallis in the fight-
ing with Tippoo in 1790-2, including
Bangalore, Seringapatam, Pondicherry
and the hill-forts : from 1798, Head
Commissary of Ordnance at Fort St.
George: returned to England in 1811 :
offered the command of the .A.rtillory at
Madras in 1820 : prevented by ill-health
from accepting it : died in 1858.


Son of Lt-General Sir A. K. Clark-
Kennedy : born in 1817: entered the
Army in 1833 : served in China : at the
sieges of Multan in 1848, and the battle of
Gujarat : at the pursuit and surrender of
the Sikhs, and defeat of the Afghans :



with Colin Campbell (Lord Clyde) at the
occupation of Peshawar, March 21, 1849 :
served in the Crimea : Maj-General : died
at Cairo ou Dec. 18, 1S67.


Son of Sir J ames Clavering : born in
1722 : entered the Guards, was Brig-
General in the attack on Guadaloupe in
1759 '■ Horace Walpole wrote " Clavering
was the real hero of Guadaloupe. He
has come home covered with more lavurels
than a boar's head " : he was sent to
Hesse-Cassel in 1760: became Lt-General
in 1770 : in 1774 went to India : C. in C. in
India and one of the four Members of the
Supreme Council under the Regulating Act
of 1773 : lived at Calcutta in Mission Row :
he, Francis, and Monson opposed Warren
Hastings and Barwell in the Supreme
Council. He was made K.B. on Nov.
9, 1776 : he fought, in April, 1775, a duel
with Barwell : he supported Nuncomar
in his charges against Warren Hastings.
When Warren Hastings' resignation
was tendered by his agent in England
— but repudiated in India by Hastings —
Clavering claimed to be Governor-General,
but his claim was rejected by the Supreme
Court. Clavering died Aug. 30, 1777.

CLARKE (1820-1895)

Born 1820 : his father was Adminis-
trator-General in the Supreme Court,
Madras : educated at Edinbiu'gh and St.
Andrew's : went to Madras in the medical
service, 1842 : Professor of Botany in the
Madras University, 1852 : entrusted by
the Governor of Madras, Lord Harris, to
form a Government Forest Department :
became Inspr-General of Forests and
established an excellent system of con-
servancy and management : retired,
1869 : for many years he selected the
candidates for the Indian Forest Service :
died May 16, 1895 : LL.D. : F.R.S.E.


Son of John Cleghorn : born 1841 :
educated at Edinburgh University and
Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh :
M.D. St. Andrew's : entered Indian
Medical Service, 1865 : served in the
Bhutan campaign, 1864-5 : and rose to
be Director-General of the I. M.S. and
Sanitary Commissioner, 1895 : Fellow of

the Allahabad University : retired, 1898 '
published various medical papers : Hony.
Surgeon to H.M. the King : C.S.I.



I.C.S. : son of John Clerk : educated
at HaUeybury: entered the Service as
" WTiter " in 1817 : after holding some
unimportant appointments in Bengal, he
entered the Political Department : was in
the Secretariat, in Rajputana, at Delhi,
Political Agent at Umbala and Ludiana :
Envoy at Lahore, 1842 : Agent to the
Governor-General on the North-Western
Frontier during the first Afghan war,
in which capacity he pushed forward rein-
forcements with energy, and, after the
massacre of the Army, urged a policy of
retribution. He was Lieutenant-Governor
of the N.W.P., Jime to Dec. 1843 :
Provisional Member of the Supreme
CouncU, 1844: twice Governor of Bombay,
from 1847 to 1848 : K.C.B. : and from
1860-2. He refused the government of
the Cape, but served there on boundary
and political work, 1853-4 : was Under
Secretary and Secretary to the Board of
Control in 1856-8, and permanent Under
Secretary of State for India, 1858-60.
He was a Member of the CouncU of India,
1863-76 : K.C.S.I., 1861 : G.C.S.I., 1866 :
died July 25, 1889.


General : son of Sir George RusseU
Clerk (q-v.), the Governor of Bombay :
born Oct. 25, 1835 : entered the Army,
1851 : served with the Rifie Brigade in
the Indian mutiny and N.W. Frontier
campaign : Adjutant-General of the Mad-
ras Army, 1880-5 = Assistant Military
Secretary at Headquarters," 1886-7 = D.A.G.
to the Forces, 1887-92': commanding Bel-
fast District, 1892-3 : Lieutenant of the
Tower of London, 1897-1900 : Groom in
Waiting to Queen Victoria, and to H.M
the King : C.B. : K.C.V.O. in 1902.


Of the Bengal Civil Service : said to
have been a cousin of Lord Teignmouth
{q.v.) : was Collector and Judge of the
Diwani Adalat (CivU Court) of the dis-
tricts of Bhagalpur, Mongh^T and'Raj-
mahal : proceeding in the Atlas Indiaman,
to the Cape for his health, he died at sea.



Jan. 12 or 13, 1784 : his remains were
brought back to Calcutta, and interred in
the South Park Street Cemetery. Warren
Hastings had a monument erected to him
with a lengthy inscription : another
monument was put up by his native subor-
dinates and others at Bhagalpur. The
inscription on the latter runs : " Who,

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