Charles Edward Buckland.

Dictionary of Indian biography; online

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Smith, D.D. of Old Macker, Aberdeen :
educated at Grammar School and King's
College and University, Aberdeen : M.D.
of Aberdeen : and L.R.C.S. Edinburgh :
entered the Madras Army, 1851 : served
in second Burma war, 1852-3, and in the
Indian mutiny, 1857-9 : Principal
medical officer with Indian Contingent
in Egyptian campaign, 1882 : C.B., 1882 :



present at Tehel-Kebir and Zagazig :
retired in 1884 : Honorary Surgeon to the
late Queen and to H.M. the present King :
K.C.B. in 1903.

FIRST VISCOUNT (1773-1865)

Field-Marshal : son of Sir R. S. Cotton,
fifth Baronet : M.P. : born Nov. 1773 '■
educated at Westminster, and at a private
Military Academy in Bayswater : entered
the Army in 1790, in the 23rd Fusiliers ;
served in Flanders : was Lt-Colonel of
a Cavalry regt. at the Cape on his way
to India, where he was engaged in 1799
against Tippoo, being at Malvailli and
Seringapatam : retiorned to England,
1800 : was M.P. for Newark, 1806-14 '■
as Maj -General he commanded, first a
Brigade in the Peninsula, from 1808, and
later the whole cavalry Division : suc-
ceeded as Baronet in 1809 : was at
Talavera and Salamanca : K.C.B. in
1812 : and at other engagements, including
the Pyrenees campaign and Toulouse :
was made Baron Combermere in May,
1814, and received a pension. He com-
manded the allied cavalry in France in
1815-6 : was Governor of Barbados
1817-20, and Commander-in-Chief in
Ireland, 1822-5 : as C. in C. in India,
1825-1830, he besieged and took Bhartpur
on Jan. 18, 1826, and was made Viscount
in 1827 : Constable of the Tower, 1852 :
Field-Marshal, 1855 : he was G.C.B. in
1815: G.C.H. in i8i7:D.C.L. in 1830:
Privy Councillor, 1843 : K.C.S.I., 1861 :
died Feb. 21, 1865.

DRAPER (1770-1846)
Son of Walter Abingdon Compton :
entered the E.I. Co.'s Army as a private
soldier : went to India : bought himself
out of the Army : articled himself in an
office in Madras : returned home, and
wrote for newspapers in London : called
to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1808 :
joined the Madras bar, and became
Advocate-General there, and at Calcutta :
was knighted and made Chief Justice of
the Bombay Supreme Court, April 11, 1831:
retired in 1839, and died Jan. 14, 1846.


Son of the Rev. Thomas Comyn : born
Oct. 26, 1792 : educated at Merchant

Taylors' School and St. John's Colleger
Oxford : called to the bar at Lincoln's
Inn in 1814 : appointed a Puisne Judge
of the Calcutta Supreme Court in 1825 ;
knighted : Chief Justice of Madras from
July I, 1835, until March 11, 1842 : D.C.L.
Oxford : Bencher of the Middle Temple :
died May 23, 1853. He wrote on legal
and historical subjects.

FIRST BARON (1827-1902)

Governor: born June 11, 1827: son of
fifth Earl of Mayo, brother of sixth Earl
of Mayo {g.v.), Viceroy and Governor-
General : educated at Enniskillen and
Trinity College, Dublin : called to the
bar at the Inner Temple, 1852 : M.P. for
King's Lynn, 1868, 1874 : Under Secre-
tary for Foreign Affairs, 1874-80 : and
again 1885-6 : P.C, 1880 : Governor of
Madras, Dec. 8, 1886-Dec i, 1890:
G.C.I.E. : made a Peer, May 12, 1887 :
died Sep. 3, 1902.

CONOLLY, ARTHUR (1807-1842 ?)

Son of Valentine Conolly : born July
2, 1807 : educated at Rugby and Addis-
combe : went to India in the same ship
as Bishop Heber : joined the Bengal
Cavalry, 1823 : at Bhartpur, 1826 :
from leave in England he returned to
India through Central Asia, vid St. Peters-
burg, Tiflis, Teheran, Astrabad : nearly
killed by the Turcomans on his way to
Khiva : from Astrabad to Mashad, Herat,
Kandahar, Sind : wrote an account of his
journey : was in the Political Department
in Rajputana, 1834-8 : Captain : made
another journey vid Vienna, Constanti-
nople, Bagdad, Teheran and Herat : joined
Macnaghten's Staff at Kabul, 1840 :
in Sep. he was sent as Envoy to Khiva,
vid Merv, and to Khokand, and, on the
invitation of the Amir Nasirulla of Bok-
hara, sent through Stoddart, went on
there, but was treacherously imprisoned,
in Oct. or Dec. 1841 : he and Stoddart
were executed in captivity, probably on
June 17, 1842. His few letters described
their sufferings in their dungeon : his
prayer-book, full of his writing, was
delivered to his sister in London in 1862.



Brother of .A.rthur Conolly iq.v.) : was
Captain in the Bengal Cavalry and Com-



mandant of Sir W. Macnaghten's escort
at Kabul, when he was killed, fighting in
the Kohistan under Sir R. Sale, on Sep.
29, 1840: he had written papers for the
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.



I.C.S.: brother of Arthur Conolly
{q-v.): educated at Rugby, went to Madras,
1824 : served in Bellary, and for manv
years as District Officer of the Malabar
district : he was murdered in his ov\ti
house by Moplah fanatics on Sep. 11,
1855 : he had been nominated to be
provisional Member of Coimcil, Madras.

CONRAN, HENRY (1738-1810)
Major : served in the American war,
1755-6 : under Wolfe, at Quebec, in 1759 "•
returned to England and retired as Major
about 1780 : went to India by way of Aleppo
and the desert with a packet from the
Court of Directors to the Bengal Govern-
ment : appointed to the Staff of Warren
Hastings, on whose retirement, in 1785,
Conran remained in Calcutta and died
there. May 15, iSio.

SET ( ?-183-)
Brig-General entered the E. I. Co.'s
military service in 1793 = reached Madras,
1795 : in the expedition to Ceylon, 1796 :
in that to Manilla, 1797 : in several
campaigns : in Mysore, 1799 : in the
Ceded Districts, 1801-2 : Mahratta war,
1803-6 : under Sir T. Hislop, 1815 : in
the Pindari war, 1S17-8 : Adjutant-
General of the Madras Army, from 1809 :
C.B., 1819 : employed on a military mission
to Bengal, 1828-30 : appointed to com-
mand the Hyderabad Subsidiary Force :
died of cholera. May 14, 1837.


OF (1862- )

Bom Oct. 4, 1862 : succeeded his father
in 1863, the State being under official
management during his minority : edu-
taced at the Wards' Institute, Benares,
and at Bankipur, Patna : Maharaja
Bahadiur, 1880 : installed in 1883 as a
Ruling Chief : G.C.I.E., 1887 : Hony.
Lt-Colonel of the 6th Bengal Cavalry :
through the Tirah campaign on the Staff of

General Yeatman-Briggs : present at Dargai
and Samana : C.B., 1898 : Hony. A.D.C.
to H.M. the King : married in 1878 the
daughter of Keshab Chandra Sen (q-v.).
The Maharaja has visited England
several times : he is a keen sportsman
and has excelled in polo, tennis, and other
games. The Maharani Sunity Devi has
been a Member of the Imperial Order of
the Crown of India since 1887.

COOKE, EDWARD (1772-1799)

Son of Colonel Cooke : became a
Captain in the Royal Navy : appointed to
the Sybille in 1795, served in her at the
Cape, and in the East Indies : off the
Sandheads, in the Bay of Bengal, the
Sybille fought between 9 p.m. on Feb.
28, 1799, and 2.30 a.m. on March i, the
French ship Forte, a much larger and better
armed frigate, and captured her in the
Balasore roads, 150 of the Forte's men
being killed and wounded. Cooke re-
ceived very severe wounds, of which he
died at Calcutta, May 23, 1799. The
E.I. Co. erected a monument to him in the
South Park Street Cemetery, Calcutta.


Born 1836 : son of Rev. John Cooke,
Rector of Ardinan, Co. Tipperary :
educated at Dublin University, highly
distinguished : went to India as Engineer
of the Bombay-Baroda Une, i860 :
erected the Bassein bridge, 1865 : Princi-
pal of Civil Engineering CoUege at Poona,
1865 : acted as Director of Public Instruc-
tion in Bombay : Director of Botanical
Survey of Western India, and Director of
Agricultvure : Fellow of the Bombay
University : retired in 1893, and was
Sub-Director of the Imperial Institute :
author of Manital of Heat, Manual of
Geology, Flora of Bombay Presidency :
CLE. in 1891.


Born Sep. 15, 1845 : educated at Sir
Jamsetji Jijibhai's Institution and the
Elphinstone College, Bombay : head-
master of the Fort High School, Bombay,
for nearly 20 years : the pioneer of higher
education by private non-missionary enter-
prise in Western India. Sir W. W.
Hunter, President of the Education
Commission of 1882, stated that had there


been others like Cooper in the chief
centres of India, the Commission would
never have been appointed, because his
work had solved the problem of the Com-
mission : the first Parsi schoolmaster to
visit England, 1875, to study the educa-
tional systems of the West and apply them
to his work in India. He was a house-
hold word among Bombay students :
was popularly known as Manackji Master :
his High School officially bore the highest
reputation : he edited Pope's Homer's
Iliad : died Aug. 4, 1904.


Traveller : son of John J. Cooper :
born Sep. 13, 1839 : educated at Bishop-
wearmouth. When he was on a voyage
to Australia for his health, the crew
mutinied : he went to India, 1859: joined
the firm of Arbuthnot & Co. at Madras :
travelled to Rangoon and on to Shanghai :
fought against the TaipLng rebels : in
1868, he tried to travel from Hankow,
through Tibet, to India, was stopped at
Batang and near Weisi and imprisoned,
and, vid the Yangtsze, reached Hankow
in Nov. 1868: in 1869, trj^ing to reach China
from Sadiya in Assam was stopped at Prun.
The India Office employed him with the
Panthay mission to London : he was then
made Political Agent at Bhamo : returned
home for his health : attached to the India
Of&ce : reappointed in 1876 to Bhamo,
and was murdered there by one of his own
guards, April 24, 1878. He wrote Travels
of a Pioneer of Commerce in Pigtail and
Petticoats, 1871 : and Mishmee Hilh, 1873.

COOTE, SIR EYRE (172G-1783)'

Born in 1726: fourth son of the Rev.
Dr. Chidley Coote : entered the Army
in 1745 : went to India in 1754 with the
39th regt. and became Captain on June
18, 1755. Part of this regiment was
included in the force dispatched from
Madras to Bengal in 1756 against the
Nawab Surajuddaula, after his capture
of Calcutta. Coote was present at its
recapture, at the taking of Chander-
nagore, and at the victory of Plassey, on
June 23, 1757 : Clive, it is said, acted
on his advice among others to give im-
mediate battle. In Jan. 1759, he was
gazetted Lt-Colonel of the 84th regt.,
and to command the troops in Madras.
In the war with the French, under


Lally, he took Wandiwash, Nov. 30,
1759. and the fort of Carangooly, relieved
Trichinopoly, defeated the French at
Wandiwash, Jan. 22, 1760, and took
Arcot. He besieged Lally in Pondicherry,
while a naval force attacked it by sea. On
its surrender in Jan., 1761, the French
power in India completely collapsed :
Coote returned to England in 1762, and
was received with honour : became a
Colonel on April 4, 1765, and M.P. for
Leicester. In 1769 he was reappointed
to command the troops in Madras, but
resigned and returned to England in
Oct. 1770, where he was made K.B.
.^.ug. 31, 1771 : Maj-General Sep. 29,.
1775 : Lt-General on Aug. 29, 1777: and
Commander-in-Chief in India, on April 17,
1777- He succeeded General Clavering
as Member of the Supreme Council at
Calcutta on March 24, 1779. When
Hyder Ali of Mysore declared war, invaded
the Carnatic in 1780 and defeated Colonel
Baillie at Perambakam, Warren Hastings
despatched Coote to JIadras, which he
reached on Nov. 5, 1780. Early in 1781
Coote took the field against Hyder, raised
the siege of Wandiwash, marched on
Cuddalore, attacked Chelambakam and
won a decided victory at Porto Novo, July
I, 1 78 1, besides defeating Hyder at
Perambakam, Aug. 27, effecting the
relief of Vellore and the capture of Chittore.
His last encounter with Hyder was the
indecisive skirmish at Arnee, June 2, 1782.
Coote's failing health compelled him to
resign the command in Madras and take
a change to Calcutta. Only partially
recovered, he returned to Madras early
in 1783, but on the voyage was chased by
the French. The anxiety and exposure
produced a relapse, which proved fatal on
April 28, 1783, two days after his arrival
at Madras. His body was taken to
England and interred at Rockburne, in
Hampshire. A monument in Westmin-
ster Abbey was erected to him by the East
India Company. His military capacity
has been highly praised, as also his patience,
temper, activity and energy, valour and
coolness. His enforcement of discipline
was tempered by kindness, which endeared
him to his soldiers.

STEPHEN (1845- )
Son of Rev. R. E. Copleston : educated
at Merton College, Oxford : married a



daughter of the late Archbishop Trench :
Fellow and Tutor of St. John's College,
Oxford : was appointed Bishop of Colombo
in 1875 : translated to Calcutta and became
Metropohtan of India in 1902. Author
of Buddhism : Primitive and Present.

Commanded the 25th N.I. in the Pan-
jab campaign of 1848-9, at Sadulapur,
Chilianwala and Gujarat : C.B. : in the
mutiny was Brig-General commanding
at Mianmir : co-operated boldly and
successfully with the civil authorities in
totally disarming the native troops there
on parade, May 13, 1857, seizing the Fort
at Lahore, and sending English troops
to secure Umritsar : K.C.B. : died at
Naini Tal, Aug. i, 1865.


I.C.S. : educated at Rugby and Balliol
College, Oxford : went out to the Panjab
in 1856 : whUe at Peshawar, he translated
the Iliad into English verse : served in
Berar : was D.P.I, in the Panjab in 1872 :
Commissioner of Peshawar : Resident at
Hyderabad, 1883 : C.S.I. : retired, 18S8 :
translated the Odyssey : died April 8, 1900.

CORNISH, HUBERT (1757-1823)

Son of James Cornish of Teignmouth :
"born 1757 : was Private Secretary (1793-8)
to his brother-in-law, Sir John Shore
(Lord Teignmouth), during the whole
term of his Governor-Generalship (a
younger brother, George Cornish, being
at the same time A.D.C.) : they both re-
turned to England with Sir J. Shore in
1798 : Hubert settled at Exeter : a
lawyer by profession and an accomplished
artist and musician : died 1823.

CORNISH, HUBERT (1776-1832)

Son of James Cornish, M.D. : bom
1776 : a nephew of Sir John Shore {q.v.) :
went to India in the Civil Service, 1797 :
was stationed at Benares in 1797, when
Cherry (q.v.) the A.G.G., and other officers
and Europeans were murdered treacher-
ously by the orders of Wazir Ali [q.v.) : he
jumped upon a horse which Sir J. Shore
had given him, and was one of the few
civilians who escaped : became a Judge
in Bengal : retired about 1830 to his estate
near Totnes : died Aug. 25, 1832.

Educated at St. George's Hospital :
entered the Madras Army as Assistant
Surgeon, 1854 : Secretary to the Director-
General, Medical Department, 1860-70 :
Sanitary Commissioner to Madras Govern-
ment, 1870-80 : did good ser^'ice during
the famine of 1877 : CLE. : Surgeon-
General in 1880 : retired, 1885 : Member
of the Legislative Council, Madras, 1883 :
Fellow of the Madras University, 1867 :
wrote on medical subjects : died Oct.
19, 1897 : F.R.C.S.

MARQUIS (1738-180.5)

Governor-General : son of Charles,
first Earl : bom Dec. 31, 1738 : educated
at Eton : entered the Guards, 1756 :
studied at the Military Academy, Turin :
served in Germany, 1758-62 : at Minden :
M.P. for Eye : became Earl in June,
1762 : Lord of the Bedchamber : Con-
stable of the Tower, 1770 : Maj-General,
1775 : served in the American war, 1776 :
second in command in 1778 to Sir H.
Clinton : forced to capitulate at Yorktown
on Oct. 19, 1781, no blame attaching to
him : in 1782, and 1785, he refused to go
to India, but, against his will, accepted
the Governor-Generalship in 1786 : held
the appointment from Sep., 1786, being
also C. in C. : and K.G. : he reformed
both the civil and military services : in
Dec. 1790, he took the command m Madras
against Tippoo : captured Bangalore,
March 21, 1791 : defeated Tippoo near
Seringapatam : took Nandidrug, Oct. 19 :
Savandrug, Dec. 21 : besieged Seringapa-
tam, Feb. 1792, when Tippoo submitted,
and signed peace, ceding territory and
paying a large indemnity : CornwaUis
created a Marquis, Aug., 1792. He
then announced the permanent settlement
of the land revenue to be paid by the
zamindars in Bengal, 1793, acting against
the advice of Sir John Shore : he reformed
the Law Courts : he sailed for Madras to
attack Pondicherry, but it had surrendered
before his arrival : he left Madras, home-
wards, on Oct. 10, 1793. From England,
he was sent to military serWce on the
continent : was Master-General of the
Ordnance from 1795 : when military
questions caused anxiety in Bengal, Com-
wallis was re-appointed Governor-General



on Feb. i, 1797 : did not proceed to
India : his services were required as
Viceroy and C. in C, Ireland, to crush the
rebellion of 1798 : defeated the French
there under General Humbert : supported
the Act of Union, but resigned the Vice-
royalty in 1 801, when the King declined
to agree to Catholic Emancipation : de-
puted to negotiate the Peace of Amiens,
1802. In 1805 he was re-appointed
Governor-General and C. in C. in India,
and assumed charge on July 30 : sent
out to inaugurate a pacific regime instead
of the expansive policy of Lord Wellesley.
But it was too severe a tax on his age and
health. On his way up-country, in pursuit
of his pacific policy, he died at Ghazipur,
Oct. 5, 1805. Statues were erected in his
honour at Calcutta and Madras.


Son of Charles, first Earl Cornwallis :
entered the Navy, 1755 : engaged con-
stantly during his service, in N. .-America,
the Mediterranean, W. Indies, etc., until,
in 1789, he went out to India as naval C. in
C. : in 1791, when there was war against
Tippoo, he insisted on searching French
ships for contraband of war, and, when
war against France broke out, he seized
French ships, Chandernagore and Pondi-
cherry : returned to England, 1794, and
saw further service in the Channel and
the W. Indies : G.C.B. : died July 5. 1819.



Bishop : son of John Corrie : born
April, 1777 : educated privately, at Clare
Hall, and Trinity Hall, Cambridge (Ex-
hibitioner) : ordained, 1802 : went to Cal-
cutta as a Bengal chaplain, 1806 : appointed
to various chaplaincies up-country, and did
mission work also : was Senior Chaplain
in Calcutta, 1817 : Archdeacon in 1823 :
thrice, as Commissary, carried on the
administration of the diocese on the
deaths of Bishops : was the first Bishop
of Madras from 1835 to his deathon Feb.
5, 1837 : was LL.D. : Bishop Corrie's
Grammar School in Madras, and his
statue in the Cathedral there perpetuate
his memory. He was a friend of Charles
Simeon and Henry Martyn at Cambridge.

MONTAGU (1743-1822)

Son of Captain Alexander Cosby : born
in 1743 : was a volunteer at the capture
of Gheria, the fort of the pirate .\ngria,
in -1756 : was in Coote's attack on Pondi-
cherry, 1 760-1 : at the captures of \'eUore
and Madura, at Rajamundry, at the Chen-
gama Pass, Errore, Arlier, and Vellore
again : -Vdjutant-General : at the siege
of Tanjore in 1773 = served against the
Chitore Poligars, 1777 : commanded, in
1778, the Nawab of Arcot's cavalry, and
led it against Hyder Ali with success :
made prisoner at the Cape on his way to
England, 1782, but soon released : knight-
ed in 1782 : Brig-General in India, 17S4-6:
held commands at Trichinopolv and
Tinnivelly : to England, 1786 : Lt-
General : died Jan. 17, 1822.


Born in Canada : daughter of Charles
Duncan, merchant : married Everard
Cotes, Press Correspondent with Govern-
ment of India, Simla : was on the staff of
Washington Post, Toronto Globe, and
Montreal Star, .\uthor of A Social
Departure (Letters from Japan), An
American Girl in London, The Simple
Adventures of a Mem-Sahib, The Story of
Sonny Sahib, On the other Side of the
Latch, Those Delightful Americans, His
Honour and a Lady, etc., etc.


Irrigation Engineer : son of Henry
Calverley Cotton : born May 15, 1803 :
educated at Addiscombe : entered the
Madras Engineers, arriving there 1821 :
in the first Burmese war, 1825-6 : led
storming parties : from 1828 employed
upon irrigation works in Southern India,
in the Cavery, Coleroon, Godavery and
Krishna rivers, making anicuts (dams)
on the Coleroon (1835-6), for the irriga-
tion of the Tanjore, Trichinopolv, .ind
South Arcot Districts : the anient on the
Godavery, below Rajamundry, for the
irrigation of the Godavery district, 1847-
52 : he projected the anient on the
Krishna, which other officers carried out.
These works have been found invaluable
in improving the condition of the people
and the food supply, and nvcrting f.imine,
besides being very successful financially :



other smaller works have followed them.
Chief Engineer, 1852 : Commandant of
Engineers, 1856 : he was knighted in

1861, made K. C.S.I, in 1866 : retired in

1862, and continued to advocate irrigation
and canals as preferable to railway com-
munication. He had a controversy with
Sir Proby Cautley {q-r.) about the latter's
Ganges Canal. He was admittedly the
greatest Indian authority of his age on the
subject of irrigation : he founded, it has
been said, a School of Indian Hydraulic
Engineering in the officers trained under
him : General in 1877 : died July 24,
1899 : \\Tote a book on Public Works in

COTTON, SIR GEORGE (1842-1905)

Born in Ireland, 1842 : educated in
England : went to Bombay in 1863, as
Manager of East Indian Cotton Agency.
In partnership with Mr. James Greaves
commenced the firm of Greaves, Cotton
& Co., Bombay, and James Greaves &
Co., IManchester : Fellow of the Bombay
University, Chairman of the Municipal
Corporation, and Sheriff of Bombay in
1897 : knighted in 1S97 : died Feb. 5,

EDWARD LYNCH (1813-1866)

Bishop of Calcutta and Metropolitan of
India and Ceylon : son of Captain T.
Cotton : born Oct. 29, 1813, his father
dying about the same time : educated at
Westminster, and Trinity College, Cam-
bridge : took his degree in 1836 as a Senior
Optime in mathematics, and eighth in the
Classical Tripos : appointed in 1837 by
Dr. Arnold to a mastership at Rugby :
became Fellow of Trinity : left Rugby in
1852 to become Head Master of Marl-
borough College, where he effected numer-
ous improvements : consecrated Bishop
of Calcutta on May 13, 1858 : reached
Calcutta that year. He acquired universal
confidence and respect besides influence
with the Government, so that he was able
to do much for the Church of England and
for Anglo-Indian education. He succeed-
ed in establishing schools at the chief hill-
stations for the education of Anglo-Indian
and Eurasian children, whose parents
could not afford to send them to England.
He maintained his position and principles
as Bishop of the Church of England, while

assisting missionary work and other
Christian developments. His capacity
as an administrator, organizer and educator
was acknowledged. He made the long
tours required by the size of his metropo-
litan charge and the paucity of Bishops.
Returning from one of them, he was
drowned at Kushtia on the Gorai River in
Bengal, on Oct. 6, 1866, while re-embark-
ing on a steamer. He lost his footing on
a badly constructed platform, fell into the
river and disappeared. His loss was
regarded as a public calamity, which the
Government officially announced.


MAN (1845- )

I.C.S. : son of J. J. Cotton, Madras
Civil Service : born Sep. 13, 1845 : edu-
cated at Magdalen College School, Brighton
College, and King's College, London :
entered the Bengal Civil Service, 1867 :
held numerous appointments until he be-
came Secretary to the Bengal Government,
Revenue Department, 18S8; Secretary in
the Financial Department, 1889 ; Chief
Secretary, 1 89 1-6 ; acting Home Secretary
to the Government of India, 1806 : Chief
Commissioner of Assam, 1 896-1902, when

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