Charles Edward Buckland.

Dictionary of Indian biography; online

. (page 54 of 83)
Online LibraryCharles Edward BucklandDictionary of Indian biography; → online text (page 54 of 83)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

of Commons, who rejected his appeal by
a majority of 57 on July 4, 1871 : while
he resided for some years in England, his
affairs became greatly involved : a Com-
mission was appointed to arrange with
his creditors : on Nov. i, 1880, he abdicated
his position as Nawab Nazim of Bengal,
Bihar and Orissa, by executing an inden-
ture with Her Majesty's Secretary of
State for India : his eldest son, Hassan
Ali Mirza (q.v.), the present Nawab
Bahadur of Murshidabad, inherited all his
property : after staying in England
twelve years, the ex-Nawab Nazim,
Mansur Ali, returned to India in 1881, and
died of cholera, Nov. 4, 1884.


Known as Shekh Allahyar Usmani, or
Sani : employed, about 1729 to 1773, under
various nobles of India, and shared in
their engagements : introduced, about
1776, to Captain Jonathan Scott (q-v.),
Persian Secretary to Warren Hastings :
appointed one of his munshis : wrote the
Hadikat-ul-Akalim, an admirable work,
geographical and historical, exceedingly
valuable for events of the writer's own
period : died about 1795 : described by
Sir H. M. Elliot (q.v.) as " the accurate
Murtaza Husain."


D.D. (1843- )

Born April 20, 1843 : son of Major
Charles David Mylne, E. I. Co.'s Service:
educated at Merchiston Castle School,
Edinburgh, St. Andrew's University and
Corpus Christi College, Oxford : Assis-
tant Curate of North Morcton, Berks,
1867-70: Tutor of Keble College, Oxford,
1870-6: D.D., Oxford, 1876: Bishop of
Bombay, 1876-97 : Canon of Woodford
and Wilsford in Salisbury Cathedral,
1900-5 : Rural Dean of Marlborough,
1897-05 : Rector of Alvechurch, Worces-
tershire, 1905 : author of Sermons Preached
in Bombay, various Charges and Sennofis ;
articles in Church Quarterly Review, etc.,






Born in a branch of the ruling family of
Mysore : his adoption by Maharaja
Kristna Raj Wodyar (deposed 1831) in
June, 1S65, was eventually recognized by
Government : and, on Kristna Raj's
death on March 27, 1868, Chama Rajendra
succeeded, was installed Sep. 23, 1868,
and was invested with power at the age of
18 : he was carefully educated under a
British officer as guardian and became
an enlightened ruler, during whose reign
the resources of the State were greatly
developed : G. C.S.I. : died of diphtheria
during his visit to Calcutta, Dec. 27,

MAHARAJA OF (189&-1868)

A descendant of the old Hindu reigning
family of Mysore, who was restored to the
throne when a child, after the death of
Tippoo at the fall of Seringapatam, May 4,
1799 : in 1811 he dismissed his Diwan,
the famous Pumia {g.v.), and assumed
charge of the Government, which con-
tinually grew worse, imtil the people
rebelled in 1830 and the British Govern-
ment interposed and took over the admin-
istration on Oct. 3, 1 83 1. The Maharaja's
applications to be reinstated were never
accepted : after adopting an heir, he
died in 1868.


Son of a Kayasth, Ram Charan : bom
about 1732 in the vUlage of Gobindpur :
while he was still young his father died :
at 18 he was Persian munshi to Warren
Hastings : he early entered the service of
Lucki Kanta (alias Naku Dhur), banian of
Lord CUve : subsequently became a munshi
to Clive : in 1765 Clive procured from
Shah Alam the title of Raja Bahadur for
him, besides appointing him Political
Diwan to the Company : in 1766 he was
made Maharaja Bahadur and began to
preside over Caste Tribunals : his appoint-
ments were continued under Warren
Hastings, who, in 1780, appointed him
manager of the Burdwan zamindari :
died Nov. 22, 1797.



(1843- )

Succeeded his father, 1871 : served in
Afghan war, 1878-80 : Hon. Colonel in
British Army : G.C.I. E., 1903 : G.C.S.I.



Bom June 30, 1836 : son of Capt.
Alexander Naime : educated at Addis-
combe : entered the Bengal ArtiDery,
1855 : was in the Indian mutiny : in the
Yusafzai expedition, 1863 : commanded
a battery in the Afghan war : in the
Peshawar Field Force, 1879-80 : in Egypt
in 1882, commanded the Horse Artillery
at Kassassin and Tel-el- Kebir : C.B.,
1882 : Commandant at Shoeburyness,
1884 : Inspr-General of Ordnance in India,
1887-92, and effected a remarkable im-
provement in Artillery shooting : Maj-
General, 1890 : C. in C, Bombay-, 1893 :
Lt-General, 1895 : K.C.B., 1899 : acted
as C. in C. in India, March to Nov. 1898 :
died Feb. 19, 1899.

NANA, FARNAVIS (1741-1800)

The famous Mahratta Brahman minister:
his real name was Balaji Janadhan: he
was present at, and fled from, the battle
of Panipat, 1761. When Madho Rao I
became Peshwa in 1761, his vmcle, the
Regent, Raghunath Rao, gave Nana
Farnavis the office of Fardnavisi (record-
wTiting). He became the intimate friend
of his sovereign, Madho Rao, who died in
1772, and was succeeded by his brother,
Narayan Rao. Nana Farnavis became
head of the Civil Department, and chief
director of all Poona political movements
until Madho Rao II died. Narayan
Rao was murdered in 1773 by his imcle
Raghvmath, who usurped the Peshwaship,
until Narayan's widow, Gunga Bai, had
a chUd named Madho Rao Narayan. A
Regency, consisting of Nana Farnavis,
Sakaram Bapu, and the widow, ruled the
State until Nana Farnavis became virtu-
ally supreme ruler of Poona. In March,
1776, the treaty of Purandhar was con-
cluded between the Mahrattas and the
English : this treaty Nana Farnavis
obstructed, and he was believed to have
made a secret engagement with the
French. He and Sakaram quarrelled :
the latter, striving for the restoration of



Raghunath, sought help from the Bombay
Government : Nana Farnavis, being the
paramour of Gunga Bai, supported Madho
Rao the Peshwa : further hostihties oc-
curred, the English supporting Raghunath :
the Convention of Wargaum, made in
i77g, was disavowed : eventually peace
was restored by the treaty of Salbai of
May 17, 1782, which Nana Farnavis
ratified. Raghunath's cause failed, and he
soon died. Sakaram was made over to
Nana Farnavis by Sindia, confined in a
fort, and died there. Madho Rao's title
as Peshwa and Nana Furnavis' Regency
were recognized. The latter was then
the real head of affairs at Poona. Lord
Cornwallis received from him a contingent
of Mahrattas against Tippoo in 1791.
Antagonism arose between Nana Farnavis
and'Madhava Rao Sindia (q.v), each having
claims against the other. Sindia died in
1794, leaving Nana Farnavis without a
rival among the Mahrattas. They made
great demands on the Nizam and defeated
his army at Kurdla in March, 1795.
Nana Farnavis was then at the height of
his prosperity as minister, when the
Peshwa, Madho Rao, committed suicide.
Raghunath's son, Baji Rao, became
Peshwa. Nana fled, was seized at Poona
and imprisoned : became reconciled to
Baji Rao : they evaded alliance with the
British Government : Nana Farnavis
died on March 13, 1800.

NANA SAHIB (1820 P-1859 ?)
The chief rebel leader in the mutiny,
whose barbarous cruelty and treachery
have never been forgotten : his real name
was Dundupant, of Bithur, near Cawnpur :
the adopted son of Baji Rao {q.v.), the
ex-Peshwa, who died in Dec. 1852. His
claim to the continuation of Baji Rao's
annual pension of 8 lakhs was fully con-
sidered and rejected, but he maintained
friendly relations with, and showed
hospitality to, the English residents at
Cawnpur. He was allowed a retinue of all
arms. He aimed at restoring the Mahratta
Empire and proclaimed himself Peshwa.
In the mutiny he attacked Sir Hugh
Wheeler's entrenchments at Cawnpur,
and, on the latter's surrender, treacher-
ously ordered the massarce of Europeans,
men, women and children, on the Ganges,
on June 27, and again on July 15. He
was defeated at Bithur by Havelock on
July 16, 1857, when he fled. He was in

action again later, and continued to
instigate hostilities : until Sir Colin
Campbell drove him into Nipal at the
end of 1858. Government offered a
reward of a lakh of rupees for his capture,
but he escaped, probably in the Nipal
jungles, and was never caught. He is
supposed to have died about 1859.


Born Sep. 4, 1825 : son of a Parsi
priest : educated at Elphinstone School
and College, Bombay : Professor there
of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy,
1854 : took part in the public movements
of the time, and in the associations for the
amelioration of the natives : established
the Rast Goftar newspaper : came to
England as partner in the Parsi firm of
Cama & Co. in London, 1855 : Professor
of Gujarati, University College, London :
worked for the East India Association :
advocated admission of Indians to
the Civil Service, 1870 : Prime Minister,
Baroda, 1874 ; Member of the Bombay
Corporation and Town Council, 1875-6 :
and of the Legislative Council, Bombay,
1885 : M.P. for Central Finsbury, 1892-5 =
President, Indian National Congress, 1886
and 1893 : Member of Royal Commission
on Indian Expenditure, 1895 : author of
numerous papers and books on Indian
grievances, including Poverty and un-
British Rule in India, 1901 ; England's
Duties to India, Financial Administration
of India, etc., etc.: J. P.


(1822- )

A Parsi : born near Broach in Gujarat,
1822 : educated at the Rev. Dr. J. Wil-
son's school, 1835 : converted May, i,
1839 : was the subject of a writ of Habeas
Corpus issued to Dr. Wilson : accompan-
ied him to England in 1843, travelling
on the way in Egypt, Syria and the Con-
tinent : after 3 years' theological study at
Edinburgh, was ordained in 1846 by the
Free Presbytery of Edinburgh : returned
to India, 1847 : Missionary at Surat for
9 years, at Bombay from 1856, at Poona,
1873-7, labouring in the native churches,
schools and the Press till after 1899.


Born Aug. 10, 1782 : son of Col. the
Hon. George Napier : entered the 33rd


regt., 1794 : educated at Celbridgc :
A.D.C. to Sir James Duff, I799 ■ and to
I'lonoral H. E. Fox, 1803, both in Ireland:
commanded the 30th under Moore in
Spain. 1808: taken prisoner at Corunna
in the Peninsula : engaged against the
United States, 1813 : against Napoleon.
1815 : C.B. : studied at the Military College
Farnham, 1815-7 : resident of Cephalonia.
1822-30 : friend of Byron : declined to bo
Commander of the Greeks : Maj-C.encral.
1S37 : K.C.B., 1838 : commanded the
X. district, 1839: kept Chartism under :
to India in 1841 : advised EUenborough
on the military policy, 1842 : took com-
mand in Sind in 1842 : offered the Amirs
a fresh treaty : occupied their fortress
of Imamghar in Dec. 1842 : fought and
won the battle of Miani on Feb. 17, 1843,
with 2,200 men against 22,000 : and beat
Shir Muhammad, the Lion of Mirpur, at
Dubba, near Hyderabad, March 24, 1843,
finally at Shahdulpur, on June 14, routing
him to the hills : controversy arose be-
tween Napier and (Sir James) Outram
(q.v.) about the necessity for the conquest
of Sind and the question of the treatment
of the Amirs : Napier organized the new
government of the province, and received
the submission of the Chiefs in 1844 :
G.C.B., 1843 : defeated the hill tribes on
the N. frontier of Sind, 1844-5 : assembled
an Arniy at Rohri, 1846, but was not
engaged in the Satlaj campaign of 1845-6:
Lt-General, 1846 : resigned the govern-
ment of Sind, 1847 : named by Welling-
ton for the military command in India
after Chilianwala : the Court of Directors
objected, but yielded to the public demand
for Napier : he arrived in India after the
conclusion of the Panjab campaign,
1849 : C. in C. in India, May 7, 1849, to
Dec. 6, 1850 : suppressed a mutiny in a
native regiment : he suspended, on his
own responsibility, a Government Regu-
lation on the subject of compensation
allowance to the Native Army : the Gover-
nor-General, Lord Dalhousie, expressing
his disapprobation, Napier resigned and
went home: died Aug. 29, 1853: on his
statue in St. Paul's Cathedral are the
words " A prescient general, a beneficent
governor, a just man " : another statue is
in Trafalgar Square, London : wrote on the
Defects, Civil and Military, of the Indian
Government, and various papers on military
subjects, the colonies and miscellaneous
literature : his despatches and civil work

attracted as high praise as his military
achievements : he had heroic qualities,
and was both loved and detested.



Governor : born 1819 : son of eighth
Baron : succeeded as Peer in 1834 :
educated privately, at Saxe Meiningen,
and Trinity College, Cambridge : entered
the diplomatic service, 1840 : served
as Attache and Secretary at several
places : Ambassador at St. Petersburg,
1860-4; Berlin, 1864-6: Governor of
Madras, March, 1866, to Feb. 1872 :
specially concerned himself with questions
affecting the public health, and public
works, including irrigation, and such
schemes as the Periyar project : on Lord
Mayo's assassination, he, as the Senior
Governor in India, officiated as Viceroy
and Governor-General from Feb. 23 to May
3, 1872 : created Baron Ettrick, 1872 :
worked for some years, presiding and
speaking at meetings and congresses, and
on the London School Board : presided
over the Royal Commission on the Scottish
Crofters, 1883 : LL.D. of Edinburgh,
Glasgow, Harvard : died Dec. 19, 1898.



BARON (1810-1890)

Field Marshal : son of Major Charles
Frederick Napier, R.A. : born in Ceylon,
Dec. 6, 1810 : educated at Addiscombe :
joined the Bengal Engineers at Calcutta,
1828 : employed on the E. Jumna Canal
irrigation works, 1831 : in Eiurope studied
engineering and railway works 1836-9 :
laid out the settlement of Darjeeling and
made the road thither, 1839-42 : laid out
the cantonment at Umbala, 1842 : in the
Satlaj campaign of 1845-6 : at Mudki
and Firozshahr : severely wounded :
at Sobraon : Major : took the hill fort
of Kangra, 1846 : Engineer to the Resident
at Lahore : directed the siege of Multan
in the Panjab campaign, 1848 : at its
capture : at Surajkund, Cheniote, the
pursuit of the Sikhs and Afghans : Brevet -
Lt-Colonel : Civil Engineer to the Panjab
Board of Administration, 1849 : executed
great public works, roads, canals, and
buildings, bridges, frontier defences :
served in frontier expeditions, 1 85 2-3:



Chief Engineer to the Chief Commissioner
of the Pan jab till 1856 : Lt-Colonel,
1856 : in 1857 was Chief of the Staff to
Outram (g.v.), at the relief of Lucknow,
Sep. 25, and the actions before and after :
severely wounded at the second relief
by Sir Colin Campbell : Brig-General at
the capture of Lucknow in March, 1858 :
C.B. : second in command to Sir Hugh
Rose at Gwalior : defeated Tantia Topi
at Jaora Alipur : routed Firozshah in
Dec. 1858 : destroyed the Parone forts,
and suppressed the mutiny in Central
India : K.C.B. : commanded a Division
in China, i860 : Maj-General, 1861 :
Military Member of the Supreme Council,
Feb. 1861, to March, 1865 : acted as
Viceroy and Governor-General, Nov. 21-
Dec. 2, 1863 : C. in C. at Bombay, 1865-9,
during which time he commanded the
Abyssinian expedition, 1867-8 : made a
Peer : G.C.B : G.C.S.I., 1868 : D.C.L.
of Oxford : F.R.S., 1869 : C. in C.
in India, April 1870-April 1876:
Governor of Gibraltar, 1876-83 : Field
Marshal, 1883 : Constable of the Tower,
1886 : he died Jan. 14, 1890 : buried at
St. Paul's Cathedral : statues of him are
in Calcutta and London : besides his
distinction as an engineer and a soldier,
he was highly cultured, with a knowledge
of art and poetry : and was remarkable
for his attractive personal qualities.


Political : entered service in 1850 as
Superintendent of one of the first educa-
tional institutions in Central India : was,
later, head of the Gwalior office : Diwan
of the Bundelkund office : promoted to
the graded list of the Political Department
and CLE., in 1880 : was in 1883 an
Assistant to the Agent to the Governor-
General at Indore, and Political Agent in
Bhopawar : retired in 1884, and received
a special pension : died in 1903.


I.C.S. : educated at St. Peter's College,
Cambridge : called to the bar : went to
Bengal in the Civil Service, 1888 : served
as Under Secretary to the Government
of India in the Financial Department,
1895 : U. Secy, in the Home Department,
1897: Deputy Secretary, 1904 : Secretary
to India Universities Commission, 1902 :

CLE. : Private Secretsjry to H.E. the Vice-
roy, 1904-5 : author of Official History
of Plague in India, and of Progress of
Education in India, 1897-8 and 1901-2.



Born in Oct. 1832 : a member of the
Gujarati section of the Kapol Banian caste :
son of Seth Nathubhoy Ramdas : his
grandfather amassed a fortune, which he
inherited at the age of 11. He devoted
himself to social reforms, more especially
the suppression of the orgies at the Holi
festival, and the immoral practices of the
Vallabhacharya Maharajas : also took
a great interest in the education of girls
and boys, and assisted in founding the
Hindu Boys' School in Bombay : endowed
a travelling scholarship for Hindu gradu-
ates : founded a Dispensary at the cost
of Rs. 70,000 : and established a charit-
able fund for his own caste. In 1859 he
was appointed a Commissioner of the
Income Tax. In politics, he revived the
Bombay Association, and was, for some
periods, a non-official member of the
Legislative Council : was a member of
the Royal Asiatic and Geographical
Societies : C.S.I, in 1872 : knighted in
1875 : bequeathed, by will, a large sum
of money to charitable uses : died March
9, 1890.


Son of Colonel Stephen Nation, C.B, :
educated privately : entered the Bengal
Army, 1841 : became Colonel, 1872:
General, 1982 : in the Indian mutiny,
1857-8 : commanded Naga Hills expe-
dition and Eastern Frontier Brigade,
1879-82 : C.B., 1881 : K.C.B., 1900.


(1716 P-1795)

Born about 1716 : married about 1727
to Maharaja Ram Kant Rai of Natore :
in 1748 became a widow and succeeded
to the Natore estate : adopted Maharaja
Ram Krishna as son and managed the
extensive property during his minority :
in Benares alone she built 380 temples,
besides religious edifices in other parts of
the country : she annually paid 70 lakhs
of sicca rupees to Government, as revenue,
her gross income being about one crore
and a half of rupees : in her old age she



lived principally at Barnagore in iMur-
shidabail : died there in 1795 : her
extensive zaminiitin was spread over districts : she was devoted to
piety, and her name is still a household
word in Bengal.


Son of Colonel Neill : born May 27,
18 10 : educated at Ayr, and Glasgow
University : joined the E. I. Co.'s Madras
first European regt. in 1827 : D.A.A.G. in
1841 : wTOte the Historical Record of his
regt, : in the Burmese war in 1852 : in
the Crimean war, appointed second in
command of the Turkish contingent,
which he organized and reformed : in the
mutiny of 1857, sent off with his regt. to
Upper India : at the mutiny at Benares,
June 4, defeated the rebels : Brig-General :
reinforced Allahabad and the fort : A.D.C.
to Queen Victoria : superseded by Havelock
in the advance to Cawnpur, but appointed
his second in command : when command-
ing at Cawnpur, he punished, with great
severity the mutineers caught : had to
keep open communications with Havelock
on the latter's advance to Lucknow :
Neill showed for a time a want of loyal
subordination to Havelock : went with
him as Brig-General to the relief of Luck-
now in Sep. 1857 : was shot dead in the
street fighting on the day of the attack,
Sep. 25 : on his monument at Aw, the
inscription runs : " A brave, resolute, self-
reliant soldier, universally acknowledged
as the first who stemmed the torrent of
rebellion in Bengal. He fell gloriously
at the relief of Lucknow." He would have
been K.C.B. had he lived.

CROMBY (1816-1893)

Bom 1816 : educated at Sandhurst :
joined the 40th regt., 1835 : commissariat
officer in sole charge of the Bombay
force with Nott to Kandahar and in
Afghanistan 1841-2 : at Ghazni and
Kabul, and the engagements in the Khy-
ber on the return to India : with Sir
C. Napier in Sind : at Hyderabad, March
24, 1843 : at Maharajpur, Dec. 29,
1843, as A.D.C. to Sir Thomas Valiant :
served no more in India : Brig-General
at the suppression of the insurrection in
Jamaica, 1865 : Lieutenant-Governor of
Guernsey, 1870-83 : C.B., 1875 : Lt-

General, 1883 : K.C.B. , 1891 : died Sep.
28, 1893.


DUKE OF BRONTE (1758-1805)

Admiral : born Sep. 29, 1758 : Mid-
shipman in his 1 2th year : after sailing
to the W. Indies and on an expedition to
the N. Pole, he went to the E. Indies in
1773 in the Seahorse frigate, under
Captain George Farmer. He was there
for 2 years, visiting " every port in India
from Bengal to Bussora," when his
health broke down, and the Commodore,
Sir Edward Hughes, ordered him to
England in the Dolphin. There is evidence
that he was transferred from the Seahorse
to the Dolphin at Bombay on March 15,
1776. His service on the E. I. station
was uneventful, but he appears to have
felt the effects of the climate, probably
from that of the Persian Gulf, about
Bussora and Muscat. It is not recorded
that he was in India again. After the
battle of the Nile he wrote Aug. 9, 1798'
to the Governor of Bombay, to tell him
of the destruction of the French Fleet, and
the consequent preservation of India
from any attempt against it by the French.
The extraordinary expenses which would
have been incurred for the defence of
Bombay — which Nelson knew would have
been their first object — were thus pre-
vented. His autograph letter of July 3,
1799, is extant, thanking the E. I. Co.
for their present of £10,000 on the occasion
of his victory at Aboukir Bay. Nelson
was kiUed at Trafalgar on Oct. 21, 1805.


Governor : born 175 1 : son of Nicholas
Nepean : entered the Navy as a clerk :
Secretary to Lord Shuldham, 1782 :
Under Secretary of State in the Shelbume
Ministry : in 1794, Under Secretary for
War : Secretary of the Admiralty, 1795-
1804 : Baronet, 1802 : Chief Secretary
for Ireland, 1804 : Governor of Bombay,
1812-9 : died Oct. 2, 1822.

NEWAL KISHOR (1836-1895)

Known as Munshi : born at Bastoi : son of
Munshi Jamna Parshad, a Bhargava land
owner in the Alighar district : educated at
Agra College : became the most eminent of
the vernacular publishers in India : was
first editor and manager of the Koh-i-Niir,



the oldest paper in the Panjab : to Luck-
now in 1858, and, under official patronage,
founded a press there, which rose to be
the largest printing concern in India,
employing nearly 1,000 hands : opened
branches at Cawnpur and Lahore, and
agencies throughout and beyond India :
aimed at educating the people : for this
purpose he maintained an Urdu daily news-
paper, the Oudh Akhbar, and translated
into Urdu numerous standard works in
Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit and English :
published more than 4,000 different works.
The Oudh Akhbar was originally a weekly,
but in 1878 became a daUy publication,
and is stLU one of the leading vernacular
organs in N. India. Newal Kishor
attained to great wealth, and was very
liberal, especially in the cause of education :
helped to establish the JubUee High
School at Lucknow, and the Lyall Library
at Alighar : gave large collections of
books, numerous scholarships and medals,
to other institutions : did much for the
Dufferin Fund and his own community,
building and endowing a boarding-house
for Bhargava students at Agra : supported
all public movements in the United
Provinces, was always ready to help charit-
able institutions and schemes of all creeds :
founded the Lucknow Paper Mills, one
of the chief concerns in the United Pro-
vinces under Indian ownership and
management : Hony. Magte. : Municipal

Online LibraryCharles Edward BucklandDictionary of Indian biography; → online text (page 54 of 83)