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towards the mountain, forming a natural amphitheatre on which many thou-
sands could camp and distinctly view the mountain from its base to its summit.

Succotii (tiie Bootiis) (p. 84). — It is still called by its ancient name, pro-
nounced by the Arabs Sakut, and is believed to mark the place where Jacob
crossed the Jordan river, a few miles below Bethshan. The booths must have
been on the east side of the river, but the name has been transferred across, for
Sakut is now on the west side. Other names have passed over Jordan in th#



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 735

same manner, as " Jebel Musa," near Jericho, Moses' Mountain, meaning the
one from which he viewed the promised land, which was on the east side.

The vessels for Solomon's Temple were cast in the clay ground on the Jordan
banks, between Succoth and Zartan, and there are very fine and deep clay beds
there now, the clay from which is hard, almost slaty, easily softened and
moulded, and the best known for casting metals in to this day.

The whole vicinity of Succoth abounds in springs and brooks, and there is
" much water" now, as there was in the time of John's ministry (John hi. 22).

The " ford" (so called, for there is no passable place as a ford there) opposite
Jericho, near the Jews' castle, is one of the ' ' localities " of the monies.

Ford of the Jordan (p. 58). The view is of a place near Nimrim (the
Panthers), where there is a rather difficult ford in the season of low water, but
none at all in the winter. There are several fords, in the summer time, which
are used by travelers and the natives, as opposite Bethshan, near Succoth, just
north of Wady Yabes (Jabesh), which is supposed to be the same as the Betha-
bara (Beth- bara) of Judges vii. 24. There are several others north of the mouth
of the Jabbok. Ten miles south of that river there is a good one on the road from
Nablus (Sheohem) to Es Salt (Ramoth in Gilead), and there are ruins of a Roman
bridge there also. There are also fords both above and below the Pilgrim's
Bathing Place (Latin), opposite Jericho; the upper one is supposed to be the one
crossed by Joshua. The river below the " bathing place" is swift and deep, and
cannot be forded.

Carmel (p. 90). — The mountain is 1,800 feet at the east, and 500 feet high at
the west end, and is nearly eighteen miles long from the site of the sacrifice of
Baal's prophets to the convent overlooking the sea. It is the most picturesque
region in Palestine, in variety of hill-sides, mountain slopes, covered with the
most luxuriant vegetation, and carpeted with countless flowers. The forests
abound in wild game, such as partridge, quail, woodcock, hare, jackal, wolf,
hyena, boar, and bear.

The mountain has been famous from remote antiquity as a holy place, having
had among the visitors to its shrines the ancient philosopher Pythagoras and the
Emperor Vespasian.

The present building, standing on the west end near the Bea, was erected in
1830, over the ancient rums of the convent originally standing there, which was
founded by St. Louis of France, who named the order " The Barefoot Carmelite
Friars."

CAPERNAUM (p. 112), which had been so utterly destroyed as to leave
scarcely any trace of its site, has been restored to history, beyond a doubt, by
the researches and d - I w. M. Thomson {Land and Book), and the

Palestine Exploration < .1 < rnsul, m Recovered). 'I'lie ruins lie seat t end ever a hill

called Tell Hum, which rises from the water edge of the Sea of Galilee, and
which is .-in excellent site for a city, being high, commanding a wide prospect
across the sea south, over the plains and hills east, the plain OX I cet and



736 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

the hills of Galilee west, and the mountains around Safed, while snow-capped
Hermon is in view north-east. There is a ruin of the synagogue, which may have
been built or improved by the centurion mentioned in Matthew, who was in
command of Roman troops stationed there. The building was made of lime-
stone, brought from a distance, and there are a few pieces of sculptured orna-
ments, columns, cornices, lintels left, which indicate that the structure was mag-
nificent in size and workmanship. One of the lintels had sculptured on it a pot
of manna, as an ornament, among scrolls and other figures, which proves that
the building was a religious edifice built by Jews.

There was also a cemetery, with graves and regular tombs cut in the rock or
built above the surface. The ruins cover a space nearly as large as the town of
Tiberias, and the place may have contained, in its greatest prosperity, fifty thou-
sand inhabitants. The materials ' may have been earned away during the last
thousand years, to reappear in other cities, or have been burnt into lime, as has
been done at other places.

The other claimants to the site of Capernaum do not present ruins which
answer the demand of the text, and Tell Hum does. The Evangelists did not
give topographical indications directly, for they were not writing a geography ;
while Josephus, as a soldier and engineer, was careful to notice localities, and his
description of Capernaum and other places is very complete.

The miracle of the feeding five thousand persons with food created for the
purpose, was considered by all the Evangelists of very great importance, and as
they have all mentioned Capernaum and Bethsaida in connection with the ac-
count, geographers have been so perplexed as to attempt to invent a second Beth-
saida at the head of the lake, west of Capernaum.

The preaching by the sea may be located somewhere along the coast between
Tell Hum and Tabigah, where there are several creeks and inlets in which the
boat (ship in the Gospel) could ride in safety only a few feet from the shore, and
where the multitude could be seated on the dry shore, where there are many
boulders of basalt, smooth and convenient for seats.

The first four of the Apostles were fishermen, and there are no more favorable
places for carrying on their business than this very shore, where their boats
could be kept in safety, and their nets mended on the hard shell-paved beach.
(See Tell Hum.)

Cana (p. 120). — There is a division of opinion among scholars on the question
of the site of the ancient Cana, one party holding that Kefr Kenna, a village
three miles north-west of Nazareth, is the true site, and another that what is
now called Kana-el-Jelil (Cana of Galilee), is the site of the village in which
the marriage -feast was held, at which it is said that the wine was created from
water.

Kana-el-Jelil was selected as the more beautiful of the two in a pictorial
sense, and besides the evidence seems to be greatly in its favor. It lies on the
end of a ridge, at the foot of Jebel Kaukab, just at the border of the plain of
Buttauf (plain of Issachar), eight miles north of Nazareth. The site is very
favorable for fine views, overlooking the plain, and including distant glimpses of



LIST OF ILLUSTKATIONS. 737

several mountains well known in Bible narrative, as Hermon, Tabor, Gilboa,
Carmel, and Lebanon.

The ancient writers (Antoninus Martyr, A.D. 590; St. Willibald, A.D. 780;
Saswulf, A.D. 1103; Maurice Sanutus, A.D. 1321; Breydenbach. a.d. 1483;
Anselm, A.D. 1507; Adrichomis, A.D. 1575) unite in describing the site, as be-
lieved to have been correctly located in their day, at the foot of a high round
mountain on the north, a plain, broad and fertile on the south, and with Sep-
phoris between it and Nazareth, all of which particulars are found at Kana-el-
Jelil. These writers also described six water-pots and a triclinium where the
feast was held, the whole being in a cavern or grotto, underground, like that of
the Nativity at Bethlehem, and also of the Annunciation at Nazareth.

The water-pots shown there are not reliable as antiquities, because they are a
common article of domestic use, and are made when wanted, in every age, in
every year, and a few broken jars can always be had to lend their appearance in
aid of a popular tradition. It is therefore not surprising that water-pots are
shown at both sites of Cana, and both claimed as veritable antiquities.

The general truth of the event, the Galilean village, the custom of the people
keeping water and wine in jars of pottery, can be proven beyond question ; but
the house in which the feast was held, and the jars that held the water made
wine, have passed away into their original dust.

John's Prison, Maci^erus (p. 148). — Herod the Great built a palace and a
prison, and probably bath-houses also, at the hot springs of Callirrhoe, on the
river Main, about eight miles from the Dead Sea. Josephus describes it \ Wars,
vi., c. 1) as "a veiy rocky hill, elevated to a great height, ditched about with
Talleys on all sides to such a depth that the eye cannot reach their bottoms, that
on the west reaching to the Lake Asphaltitis ; and on that same side the castle
had the tallest top of its hill." The cliffs are 200 feet high, about 150 apart, and
the stream from the hot springs is six to ten inches deep, 50 to 100 feet wide,
and runs four or five miles an hour. The ruins of the castle or palace, and per-
haps other houses, are scattered over several acres of the ridge, nearly half a
mile from the ravine. The finest view is had by moonlight, when the almost
daylight of the full moon gives a wild and strange character to the scene. There
has as yet been no exploration on the east of the Dead Sea, except at a few
points, and it is believed that the richest results would follow from the examina-
tion of certain well-known ruins, such as these at Machajrus, and at Iloshbou,
Itabbath-Ammon, by scientific men, properly provided with instruments and
assistants.

Siifxiiem (p. 149).— The village lies between two hills, Ebal and Geri/.im,
which are on the great dividing ridge between the Jordan and the Mediterranean
Sea. It is now called Nablus, a corruption of Neapolis, the Greek name giveu
to it by Vespasian. John speaks of it as Syehar, and Pliny called it Dfabortha.

The valley is about 1,500 feet wide, between the two mountains, and in
general level is 1,800 above the sea. The valley is full of springs of good wat«.»,
the people counting as many as eighty. Some of these springs seud the waters
47



738 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

into the Jordan, and others into the Mediterranean. The soil is rich, and very
productive in orchards, gardens, and fields, and is not equalled in Palestine for its
glory of fruit and verdure, running brooks, and singing birds.

Abraham pitched his tent under the oak of Moreh, and there first set up the
worship of the living God, near to Shechem. In this vicinity was also most
probably the residence of Melchizedek, the King of Salem, in or near that little
modern village of Salim. The Samaritans also claim that the Moriah on which
Abraham laid out Isaac ready for the sacrifice was Mount Gerizim.

Shechem also was the residence of the grandson of Abraham, Jacob, who
bought a field and dug a well. (See Jacob's Well.)

It is probably on account of these well-known facts in the history of the place
that Moses regarded it as the most sacred spot in Canaan, and the only one con-
secrated to the worship of the living God, and that accordingly he ordered the
great assembly of the people there.

The experiment has been made of two readers stationed on opposite sides of
the valley, on Ebal and Gerizim, who read the blessings and the curses in a loud
voice, and were distinctly heard by each other.

The bones of Joseph were also brought from Egypt by the children of Israel,
and buried, as tradition says, in the level spot close under the foot of Mount
Ebal.

Jacou's Well (p. 153). — The remarkable work called Jacob's Well is in the
plain of Mukna, a mile and a half from the village of- Nablus (Shechem).
Joseph's Tomb is in plain view, nearer Mount Ebal.

There are none who dispute the identity of this well as having been the work
of Jacob and his servants. The most surprising thing about it is that a well
should have been dug at all in a place which abounds in natural springs of
bright, sweet water, and sufficient in quantity to supply several brooks. The
visitor now first descends into a chamber about ten feet, in the floor of which is
the mouth of the well, only large enough to admit the body of a man. This
opening is broken through an arch which has been not very long ago built over
the well. The shaft is seven feet six inches in diameter, and seventy-five feet
deep down to the rubbish, wbich is supposed to be fifty to seventy-five feet
deeper. It is lined with rough masonry, having been dug through alluvial soil.

There are ruins of the church, which once stood over the well, scattered
about, but no signs of any curb or inclosing wall of any kind around the mouth
(John iv. 1).

Tl lis is one of the few places in Palestine that is not "honored" by some
edifice or monument "locating" the Bible narrative; but it is said that the
Greeks (Russians) have lately bought the place, with the intention of building a
church over the well.

The valley of Mukna, the ancient Moreh, is one of the richest in the produc-
tion of grain, fruit, and vegetables in all the land ; — vines, figs, oranges, lemono,
pomegranates, in short, every fruitful tree, and all growing beside never-failing
Btreams of pure water. The valley extends for about seven miles, and is the
fairest expanse of cultivated soil in all the land.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 739

Samaritan priest (p. 130). The Assyrians carried away to the Euphrates
the Jews of Samaria, and sent their own people to occupy the cities and the land.
From these emigrants the modern Samaritans are descended. They have kept a
copy of the law as it was on their day, 500 b. c. , and still celebrate the ancient form
of worship, although there are only about one hundred of them left. The dress of
the priest may be, and probably is, a correct following of the ancient style, and its
description answers the requirements of the text in Exodus very closely. The
enmity between the Jews and Samaritans began when they were refused to have
a share in rebuilding the Temple at Jerusalem, after the return from the captivity
in Babylon, when they built a temple for themselves on Mount Gerizim, at She-
chem, in the time of Alexander. This was destroyed by John Hyrcanus, B.C. 129.
In the fifth century A.D. there was a Christian Church on Gerizim, but only a few
stones of the foundation are left.

TELL Hum (p. 168).— In determining the antiquity of a name which ia
found attached to a certain locality, it is sometimes needful to follow it through
several changes it may have undergone in passing from one language to another.
In this archaeological skill Dr. Robinson was especially noted and successful, hav-
ing recovered hundreds of Bible names from the modern Arabic titles to places
noted in the Scriptures. W. M. Thomson was the first to discover the name of
Capernaum in the Arabic Tell Hum. He says: u Hum is the last syllable of
Kt/r-na-hitm, as it was anciently spelled, and it is a very common mode of cur-
tailing old names to retain only the final syllable. Thus we have Zib for Ach-
zib, and Fik for Aphcah, etc. In this instance Kefr has been changed to Tell —
why ? A deserted site is generally named Tdl, but not Kefr (which is applied to
a village) ; and when Capernaum became a heap of rubbish it would be quite
natural for the Arabs to drop the Kefr, and call it simply Tell Hum." (See
Capernaum. )

SCIUBES AND BOOKS (p. 180).

Cedars (p. 181). — There are few remains of the ancient forests on the moun-
tains of Syria, and the cedars are the most noble specimens now standing. On
the slopes of the Lebanon range there are several groves of the ancient cedars,
one of which is near the Beirut-Damascus carriage road, and is quite easy of
access to travelers, who have brought away thousands of the cones, which are
nearly three inches long by two inches diameter, and one especially, Robert Mor-
ris, LL.D., in 18G8, distributed several thousands among Sunday-school scholars
as incentives to a study of the natural history of Palestine. The largest oed irs
are found near the highest summit of Lebanon (Dhor el Khodib), close to the
limit of perpetual snow.

BOTTLES (p. 104). — There are several kinds of bottles used in the Bast, made

of skins, earth, glass, and of metaL The skins are of various sizes, as they «r.)
taken from rabbits, kids, sheep, cows, holding bom one gallon to thirty or forty.

are usually prepared with the hair turned inside, and SO are Likely to

the water or wine a peculiar flavor. These skin -but ties are the kind alluded 10
in the Scriptures, where ROtf bottles aro recommended for strength; and they
are also used in Spain now as well as in Palestine and other eastern countries.



740 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

The bottles of glass do not differ from ours, except that they are jf very sin
gular forms. Those found in tombs and in ancient rains are, without doubt,
veritable antiquities, and have the well-known appearance of old, time-worn,
decayed glass.

Earthen bottles, or jars and pitchers, are always finely formed, and often
elegantly ornamented with figures and colors. They are in constant use, as pails
are with us, and are seen in the hands or on the heads of the women, morning
and evening, at the wells, or on the way to and from.

Metals, especially copper and bronze, were used for bottles and cups, and
most of the smaller vessels, such as are made of tin or tinned iron with us, in
the East are made of copper or brass. The ancients did not make brass, but
bronze. The ancient pieces of money are bronze, as also many articles, such as
knives, swords, handles, dishes, bowls, etc., and this compound was of copper
and tin, the union of copper and zinc forming brass being a modern invention.

Ancient Bottles (p. 197).

Poor, op ITezekiaii (p. 199). — This pool is cut in the solid rock, and is of
great antiquity, and is the work of Ilezekiah, King of Judah, who "made a
pool, and a conduit, and brought water into the city ; " and also " stopped the
upper watercourse of Gihon, and brought it straight down to the west side of the
city of David."

Jerusalem is chiofiy dependent on the rains for its supply of water, and every
house has under it one or more cisterns.

The Hezekiah pool is 230 feet long, 150 wide, and capable of holding millions
of gallons of water, which is used to supply several bath-houses. The pool
is inclosed by houses on every side, one of which is a large hotel, kept by
Europeans.

The question of where the pool of Bethesda was, and which ruin or present
pool is the true site, if any now remains, is one of the unsettled problems in the
map of Jerusalem. Among the sites offered is the great pool or reservoir north
of the Temple site, and now called the Pool of Bethesda, near the St Stephen
Gate, and which has been lined with masonry and cemented for holding water,
although it is now dry; 300 feet long, 1;J0 wide, 7."> deep.

Another, called by Eusebius and the Bordeaux Pilgrim the twin pools, which
has been lately found at the north-west angle of the Temple area, a large reser-
voir. 1G5 feet long by 48 wide (with a dividing wall running lengthwise, and both
sides arched over, and now built over). The water is used by the Convent of the
Sisters of Siou. The Arch of Ecce Homo is near the place.

Mr. Williams {Holy City, p. 484) thinks the Bethesda pool was near the St.
Ann Church, and now almost completely destroyed.

Chancellor Crosby selects the Virgin Fountain, which is now outside of the
city walls, as the true Bethesda.

Our text offers the Ilezekiah pool, which answers many, if not all, of the
requirements of the case.

Sea of Galilee (p. 218).— The sea is pear-shape 1, the large end at the
BOrth, six and three-quarters mile wide, and twelve and a quarter long. The



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. • 741

surface is between 600 and 700 feet below the ocean level. The shores are on
all sides quite regular in outline, but the hills are indented into many little bays
or hollows, some of which are small plains, filled with vegetation, and very
beautiful. The hills are almost always gently sloping, and might be cultivated
from bottom to top. The soil is rich, being formed on limestone. Basalt has
flowed over the tops of the hills from three sources, Kurun Hattin, El- Jish, beyond
Safed, and in the Jaulan. The beach is paved with minute white broken shells,
and skirted in many places with oleanders and other flowering shrubs.

The hills have a general tint of purplish brown, broken in some places by gray
rocks, or lines of foliage. The east shore is 2,000 feet high, quite uniform in
height along the summit of the ridge, but cut down by several deep ravines, with
very few scattering trees, and no forests. On the west the banks are about the
same height, but the uniform level is relieved by the outlines of Tabor and Hattin,
which rise into the sky in the distance.

Northward the outline is still more varied by the heights of Safed, the plain
of Gennesaret, and the snow-capped Hermon.

Towards the south the view is lost in the dim hazy heat of the Ghor, with
Mount Gilboa and Little Hermon on the west side of the Jordan, and Gilead on
the east. The locality of the Dead Sea can be made out by the level haze in
the distant horizon, in the morning or near sunset.

The Jordan river enters near the western shore of the north end, and colors
the water for nearly a mile with its muddy current, and passes out at the south
end, a pure blight stream.

The water of the sea is in some places 250 feet deep, and is clear, bright, and
sweet to the taste, except near salt springs.

The climate is almost tropical, ice or frost never appearing. Palms and all
kinds of trees and vegetables grow in luxuriance, and indigo is cultivated. The
Eummer heat is high, but the cool breezes of the morning and evening relieve its
oppressiveness.

The waters are well stocked with many kinds of fish, some of which are much
prized for their flavor.

Several warm springs pour their waters into the sea, which were increased in
volume and temperature by the earthquake of 1837. The most noted of the
hot springs are those near Tiberias, where there are bath-houses of 6tone, quite
well built Josephus speaks of this place as Emmaus, near Tiberias. It was an
ancient and fortified town of Naphtali, as mentioned in the book of Joshua (xix.
35).

In the time of Jesus there were nine cities, or cities and villages, around the
shores of this lake, only one or two of which now remain — Tiberias and BfagdaUk
All the others are in ruins, and even so far destroyed as to be almost entirely
lost.

The sea has had several names, as Galilee, from the district in the Roman
period; Chinnereth, from a city which stood at or near the present Tiberias;
Tiberias, from the city which was named in honor, of Tiberias, Emperor of
Rome ; and Gennesaret, from the plain of that name on its north-west border.



742 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Lamp-stand (p. 240). — The recent exploration in Palestine has found many
articles of domestic use, such as bottles, jugs, lamps of pottery, and some articles
of copper, as rings and ornaments, daggers, heads of gods and serpents, and this
lamp-stand, which was found in a chamber south of the Ilaram Area. Some of
these articles were finely wrought, beautifully enamelled, or delicately inlaid.
There were also a few articles of shell, ivory, and wood carvings, such as boxes
and cases for the toilet, and objects of luxury.

Mount of Beatitudes, Kurun Hattin (p. 242).— Almost unanimous con-
sent locates the Sermon on the Mount on this mountain, which rises high above
the plain of Buttauf (Issachar), a little more than half way between Nazareth
and the Sea of Galilee. Its Arabic name, Kurun Hattin, Horns of Hattin, de-
scribes its appearance from a distance, for it is marked by sharp peaks at each
end, especially as seen from the south. The view given in the engraving is from
the opposite side of the plain, on the north, where the horns, or peaks, are not
so apparent. The Hebrew word for horn, keren, is almost identical. It is the
most prominent height on the west of the Sea of Galilee, and the plain at its
northern foot is very easily reached from the coast towns, while from the plain
to the summit it is but a few minutes' walk. There is a level place on the top,
as described in the text, and also a higher standing-place on the horns. It is
distinctly "the mountain" of the whole region, no other being comparable to it
in prominence.

The last great battle between the Crusaders and the Saracens took place on



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