i)unilar\ Line nt l'einis\ Ivaiiia 64
C'll VI'TI N \'li.
I'enn'- Will. HenjaTiiin |-ranklin jy
111 M'IKK \ I I 1.
l-'rencli an5 i 14
L'w \i'ri:K Xl I.
I'assage nf the Declaration nf Independi-nce 126
C'll Al'TKU .\ I I I.
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Cn\i-n;K W I.
War .if iSi J 179
ClIAPIKU .\\ II.
TIk' r.cncli and tlic I'.ar 192
Theatres ami Street Sceiie.s 199
Music, Medicine and .\rt 21 r
I'll \iti:k .\.\'.
IntrLidiictic m ni Railroads 219
Cii.\i'ri:i< .\.\ 1,
Election (if .Vndrcw jacksnn 229
C'll AI'TKN XXll.
Philadelphia. A Literary Centre 241
en M'TI'R XXll I.
Slavery and l\ace Rints 240
CllAIMI'.K XX 1\.
.\ct of Consolidation 256
C 1 1 .\ ri ICK XX\'.
Agitation of Slasei'y (jueslion 2()(^
l'ii\ni;K XX \ 1.
( )penini^ of the t'i\-il War 2".^
Cm \vr\M XX\ 11.
Development after the W ar 2X3
Cii \iTi:i; XX\ 111.
Peace Jnliilee Celehratioii 291
C 11. \ I' IKK XXIX.
.Manufacluriiii; and l''diicalional lnterest> 2Q5
In Menioriani 430
Index to History 4,V'i
Index to r.iographic> 438
11 \i;i.i-> ]■. \\ \K\\ i( K
Tins is licit a liistiiry (if dee]) rcsearcli. M\ ])li\>ioal roii.litiDii
lia^ liccn ^lU'li that ilnriii;^" its C(iiii|n i^it ii m I h:[\c \>cv\\ cnii
tiiU'cl til ni\ riiiiiii. imlccd imicli uf llic time tn iiu linl. ami
conseinK-iitU ha\c been imalik- to \isit tlic lilirarios and iitliiT
in>til utii Ills, til ik'Kc in and di;^ up uri^inal matter, and tn fcad and
slndx iiri.i;iiial letters. maiinsrri|it s and di iriiinent s.
Mv work has nut lie(.'n Imrilened with schedules and slatisties, lor
ni\" |iiir|iiise has lieeii tu .L;i\e tu the readef a liistnrx uf principal e\ei;ts.
and tu take him as it were, iiitu the \ei'\- atiiiusphere uf the times de-
scriheil. drawiiiL; pen purtraits uf ]iruminent men and ]iictiires uf past
incidents, shuwini^ the xueatiuns uf the peu|ile. tlieir amiiseiiiont s. their
habits, ciistiiiiis. attire. e\er\ ila\ street scenes and inaimer uf liviiiL;. and
at the same time shuwint; the i^radiial L;ruwtli and de\ e]u|)nieiit uf the
citN' and stati- and huw tlie\ lia\e been allected b\- natiuiial cunditiuiis.
In accumplisliiiiL; this task 1 lia\e iiseil a mass uf material which I
lia\e culleeled frum time tu lime in years i^une by; I lia\e alsu drawn
extensively fmm nuti's. ])ri\ate letters ami inemiiramia and ha\e cun-
suite. 1 such works as: 'riiuinas Pnnid's llistury uf I'ennsyh ania ; Wat-
son's Annals: 'l"hum|)sun W'esteutl's llistury of Philadelphia: lolin Kns-
sell Nonn.Li's ['liiladelphia : The Makin.L; of rennsylvaiiia. ami the Penn
sylvaiiia Colony and C"ommoiiw ealtli liy Sydney ( ieori:;e l'"isher: Dr.
Ellis P. Oberholtzer's Historv of I'hiladelphia : Peiin's Letters in the
W \R\\ ICK S KEN'SrOXI''. I i IM M (l\ WKALTII.
[•".Nf iiiiiL; ISiilloliii ; and the main sketches i>n ilu- Iii^titi'x nf our citv ami
state from the pens of lion. Samuel W . Penn \paeker and Hon. Hamp-
ton L. (arson.
The readei' will not hiid a profouml work. InU I trust that it will
be of interest. The disaihanta^es nniler which the hook has heen
written must ser\ e as a ])artial excuse foi- my lailnre to more faithfulK
co\ ei- the suhject.
Cll.VS. F. \\".\R\ATrK.
POLITICAL A.Vn RELIGUH'S l( I N 1 HTic ).\S OF l".l kl lI'K I.N rllM .SKVENTEliN'l' II AN'I)
PENNSYLX'AXIA. oiic unusuallv severe, and
they suffered great hardships, so that when Spring arrived half of the colony
were in their graves. When the ".M.-i} llow er," however, returned to h'.ngland in
May of l6ji. not one of the I'ilgrinr^ sailed with her. They had come to stay.
Thev were willing to suffer the discomforts and ])rivations of a new land rather
than subject themselves again to the tyranny and |)ersccution from which thev
The settlers that came to Xorth .Vmerica were brave and resolute men,
with the courage of their conviction>. They adhered to their faith in spite of
persecution: in fact. ])ersecution only intensified their loyalty and devotion. They
were imbued with the spirit of martyrs and they were willing to face the terrors
of an unknown deep and the jierils of a savage and an unex|)lored country in
order that thev might secure liberty of conscience.
The Piu-it.ans in Xew lMigl;ind, the f)uakers in i'ennsvl\;inia, the t'atholics
lo Warwick's kevstonk commonwealth.
in Maryland, the Cavaliers in \'ir,c;inia. and the Huguenots in the Carolinas were
mighty architects of a mighty empire.
The first English settlement planted in North America, was that of X'irginia,
at Jamestown, in I (107. The Dutch settled in New York in i()i4, then came the
settlement of Massachusetts by the I'uritans at Plymouth in i()-'o. New Hamp-
shire and .Maine were settled in 1623, New jersey in iii_'4, Delaware in if>-7,
Connecticut in 1633, Marylaml in if>34. Khoile Island in 103(1, North Carolina
about 1(140, and South Carolina about idjo. Pennsylvania wa^ permanently
settled bv the (Juakers in I(i8j and ( )gelthorpe planted his blngiisb colony in
Georgia in 1733.
These settlements were made mainly by the luiglish together with an admix-
ture of (iermans and Scotch Irish. New Jersey was settled by the Dulch, Swedes
aned over all boumls and men
under the influence of the reaction threw tiff not only the profession but every
semblance of virtue and piety. Alnrality was reviled and ridiculed as cant ami
In-pocrisw I\evelr\ and dnmkenness s|)read throughout the kingdom and men
held Continued orgies while drinking the health of the king. The "Merry AIku-
arch" himself set the example for the free and riotous living that pre\-ailed among
(shark's II. was succeeded liy James II.. who after a vain effort to establish.
the Roman Catholic Church in England was compelled to abdicate and in turn
was succeeded b\- William and Marv who effected what is known in hist(ir\- as the
•■(;ioriou> Revolution of l()S8."
Erance. under the reign of Eouis NIW. was the leading anil mosi inlluenlial
state on the continent of l-"urope. In the king centered all the power .-(ml dignity
of the state. There were no constitutional barriers between him and the peniile.
His declaration that he was the State, was not .'i mere idle boast, but an absohite
truth. "The go\'erinnent of Louis is a great fact," sa_\'s (iuizot, "a powerful and
brilliant f.act, but it was built upon sand." He was despotic, bigoted and intoler-
ant, ignored the rights of man and by his extravagance and the ])riisecution of
useless w.ars hurrieil the natii.m into bankruptcy. His reign was signalized by
the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, a liberal act pas.sed under Henry l\'. that
had given to the Huguenots reliej_f from persecution.
S])ain, under the rule of Philip II. had grown to vast dimensions but her
power suddenly dwindled and the sceptre ]),assed from her grasp. It was her
proud boast in the days of her glory that the sun never set upon her pos.sessions.
Macaulev, in commenting upon the importance and extent of Spain, says: "That
the empire of Phili|) II. was undoubte])ean politics in a great
measure had departed. The Spaniards made no settlements in the new world
to escape persecution. When they came they were actuated by other motives.
The Spanish soldiers and, adventurers of that period were undoubtedly brave
and daring explorers but cruel and inhuman masters. To be sure they carried the
cross in one hand but they wielded the sword in the other and ignored the influ-
ence of the former by the cruel and desperate use of the latter. The greed of
the Spaniards in America for gold, deadened every sentiment of humanity. There
was no desert too broad to cross, no mountain too high to climb, no river too
swift to ford, no wilderness too deep to penetrate in their desperate hunt for
wealth. They were lost to every impulse of human sympathy in their treatment
of the poor natives. They scourged and drove them under the lash and sword to
dig and delve in the mines in search of the precious metals. The only purpose of
the Spanish adventurer at that period was to discover a fountain of perennial
vouth or a mine of perpetual wealth.
Bartollomeo Las Casas, an earnest and a most devout Spanish priest who
undertook to carry the Christian faith into these benighted regions, soon began
to protest against the savage treatment of the natives at the hands of his fellow
countrymen. In his account of the Spaniards in the Island of Cuba he relates
that a certain Cacique named Hatbuey had unfortunately fallen into their hands
and was burned alive. While in the midst of flames, fastened to a stake, he wa^
promised eternal life if he would believe. "Hatbuey reflecting on the matter as
much as the place and condition in which lie was would ])erniit, asked the tnar
that instructed him. whether the gate of heaven was open to the Spaniards, and
being answered that such of them as were good men might hope for entrance
there, the Cacique without any further deliberation told him he had no mind to
go to heaven for fear of meeting so cruel and wicked a company as they were.
but would rather go to hell where he might be delivered from the troublesome
.sight of such kind of people." This is the testimony of a dev.ut and an earnest
priest who. making every sacrifice, carried to these simple peojile in the new
land the Gospel and the cross of Christ. It was fortunate that Spain .
Germany had passed through the horrors of the Thirty Years' War, a relig-
iiius strife that involved all luu-o|)e in a relentless and desperate fury. "The
whole land," savs Carlyle, "had been tortureil, torn to pieces, wrecked and
brayed as in a mortar." Prussia was Inu a spot on the map and without inllu-
ence until tlie (ireat I'rederick lifted her to a co-mmanding position.
The Dutch Re])ublic "powerful by its waters, its union and despair" after
passing through the terrors of Alva's rule and the cruel persecution of the in-
iquitous Inipiisition, attained great prominence and political importance and
became the most powerful maritime nation in the world, holding the position of
mistress of the seas for a centurv, which iMigland does to-day. Sweden under
the wise reign of Gustavus Adolphus and the able administration of Count I ).\en-
stiern, rose to the height of her power. Portugal \irtually was without iniluence
and ltal\- was divided into fragments, lier thrones occupied by foreign princes.
Purope had emerged slowly from the stu])or and darkness of the Middle
.\ges. The capture of Constantinople by the Turks in the I5tli century, dis-
perseil the learned men. of the Kast. and thus was re\-ived in Western luirope
the literature and culture of lireece and ivouie. The printing press too aided in
the dissemination of learning by the multiplication of Ijooks. The religious
Reformation preached by Wickliffe was in turn toUowed by that of John Huss.
Then came Martin Luther, who appeared one hundred >ears after the latter,
and whose famous ninety-five propositions aimed at indulgences and at what he
called the errors of the Roman Catholic Lburcli. L'nder the influence of these con-
ditions a revolution was created in the thinights of men, and their minds, released
from a long captivit\, demant have Ijcen peopled so soon nor with the classes
of immigrants that came. If there had not been oppression, these men, per-
haps, would not have left their old homes and the associations so dear to them
for a new land that at first was not inviting, whose shores were bleak, whose
forests were dense and whose inhabitants were savage. It was because of the
conditi()ns that prevailed in Europe that .\merica secured her freedom ; other-
wise, the country might have been settled by mere adventurers, bent only upon
the exploitation of the resources of a new land.
Tin-: UUTCM AND THE SWliUliS— AKK IV Al . i.K THK ENCLISII.
TIIF earliest settlers of Pennsylvania were the Untch. who, in the yeai"
,6,^ loeate.l on the shores of the Delaware. Here the> renianied
for 'a' period of fifteen years, when the Swedes established thein-
.elve. ni Pennsylvania and were in possession for seventeen years.
The Dnteh at the end of this time reenn,p,ered the country and retaine.l eontrol
untd the English, under the Duke of York, established dominion, an-l it was so
held until the advent of Penn and the Quakers in lOSj.
Henrv Hudson, an Englishman by birth, a hard) an.l venturesoiue sailor,
w^as originallv in the employment of the Museovy Company, a Russian eorpora-
tion organized for the purpose of extending eommeree and of hndmg a nr>rth-