the State Board of Education to provide suitable care, maintenance
and instruction for blind babies and children under school age in
any institute in Arizona, or any other state, at the rate of $1.00 a day.
This care and training shall continue until the child attains the age
of six years, and at the discretion of the board of education it may
continue until the child reaches the age of twelve years.
E<1 n rut ion of lilind youth. At present. Arizona has no state school
for the blind, hut it sends blind children of school age to schools for
the blind in neighboring states.
School for the Blind, hitll, Hock. Founded. 1859. Capacity, 120
pupils. Valuation of plant. $350,000. Annual state appropriation.
$45,000. For requirements for admission, course, term, and purpose
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND 19
of instruction, see the Introduction to this section. The school owns
about 12 acres of land, four of which are available for athletics. There
is a gymnasium. Superintendent, John H. Hinemon.
Library for the Blind, Little Rock, School for the Blind, 1,770
volumes, 407 titles.
Institution for the Deaf and the Blind, Berkeley. Founded, 1860.
Capacity, 100 (blind) pupils. Valuation of plant, $1,319,443.88; an-
nual state appropriation, $107,500 (both departments). For require-
ments for admission, course, term, and purpose of instruction, see the
Introduction to this section. The school occupies a tract of 130 acres.
Playground- space covers 3 acres. Magnificent new gymnasiu m and
s wimminpi pool completed in 191 5. Principal, L. E. Milligan.
/ nd ust rial II nun of Mechanical Trades for the Adult Blind, Oakland.
Founded, 1885. Capacity, 140. Valuation of plant, $200,000. An-
nual state appropriation, $31,500. Needy, blind adult residents of
( 'alifornia are eligible for admission when vacancies occur. There is
usually a waiting list. The principal trade for the men is broom-
making. A few devote their time to hammock-, broom-, bag- and
mattress-making, and chair-caning, and the women confine themselves
to fancy work. When the men reach the time of life when they are
unable to work in the shops, they are allowed to spend their declining
years in the institution. This was the second institution to be estab-
lished in America, not connected with a school for the blind, for the
industrial employment of the adult blind, and largely as the result of
the efforts of a blind man, Joseph Sanders. Superintendent, Joseph
San Francisco Association for the Blind, 1526 California Street.
Work for the adult blind in San Francisco started as a reading room
and library for the blind in 1902 by Mrs. Andrew Rowan, the free
public library giving the use of a basement room in one of its branches.
Patrons of the reading room are read to, and monthly entertainments
are planned for recreation purposes. In 1906 fire destroyed all of
the books and property of the association, and since that time re-
construction and expansion have gone on effectively, industrial training
and employment having been added to its activities. The organization
aims to assist any adult blind citizen of San Francisco who may need
it. Its present home was purchased in 1913. The organization is
supported entirely by voluntary contributions. Principal industries
are basket- and broom-making. The activities of the organization are
20 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
carried on practically throughout the year. Fifteen men are employed
regularly, and 100 helped. President, Mrs. Myer Friedman.
Staii paid rani, rs for blind students. The Legislature in 1915
passed a law whereby blind graduates of the State School for the
J Wind in Berkeley, attending the University of California, or any of
the state normal schools, shall be provided with funds necessary to
employ seeing persons to read to them from text-books required for the
course taken by the student; provided, however, thai not more than
$300, per annum, per individual, be expended. This fund is under the
control of the Board of Directors of the State School for the Blind.
Stait paid home teaching. In 1913 provision was made that the
state Library employ a home teacher for the blind. At the present
time one blind home teacher is employed, and confines most of her
efforts to Southern California.
California Society for thi Prevention of Blindness. The purpose
of the organization is embodied in the title of the society. President,
C. S. G. Nagel, M. I).. Head Bldg., San Francisco, Cal.
Libraries for tin blind. Berkeley. School for the Blind, 1,500
volumes. 400 titles. The school does not circulate its books.
Sacramento. State Library. ?,602 volumes. 1.752 titles. Books cir-
culated not only throughout California, but to neighboring states not
having libraries for the blind. A printed catalog may be had upon
San Francisco. Association for the Blind. 400 volumes.
School for the Deaf and tlu Blind, Colorado Springs. Department
for tin' blind founded in 1883. Capacity, 50 blind pupils. Valuation
of plants (both departments), $390,000. Annual state appropriation
(both departments). $89,000. For requirements for admission, course,
term, and purpose of instruction, see the Introduction to this section.
Poultry raising is given special attention. The school proper occupies
24 acres of land, while there are also available 200 acres on a ranch
three-quarters of a mile away. Ten acres are used for athletics.
There is a gymnasium. Superintendent, W. K. Argo.
Industrial Workshop for lh, Blind, 618 E. Arizona Avenue. Denver.
Founded in 1912; capacity, 20 workers; valuation of plant. $2,000:
annual state appropriation, $6,000. This shop is available for blind
persons who have been citizens of Colorado for at least three years,
and are over 21 years of age. The workshop and salesroom are open
throughout the year.
State home teachinc/. The Legislature fin 1913) made it possible
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22 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
for the State Superintendent of Public Instruction to employ a blind
person to give instruction to the adult blind in their own homes.
While this instruction is under the direction of the State Superin-
tendent of Public J nst ruction, close cooperation with the Industrial
Workshop and State School for the Blind is also maintained.
Library for tin Blind. Colorado Springs. School for the Blind.
1,100 volumes. 584 titles.
shih Board of Education for tfa. /Hind. Connecticut has the unique
distinction of being the only state in this country which attempts to
care for the blind of all ages under one board of management. As
the evolution of this effort is so different from that in other states, we
are giving a somewhat fuller sketch of it. There are. however, three
distinct and separate activities at work in this commonwealth â€” a
nursery, school, and trade training department situated in different
The incident which led to organized work for the blind in Connecti-
cut occurred in 18SS. when Mrs. Emily Wells Foster, in groping her
way through a dark passage in a Hartford tenement-house, stumbled
over a feeble, little blind Italian boy. On learning that the child was
receiving no care or training, Mrs. Foster took him to her own home.
where he remained for nearly a yea]-, and was then sent to the
Kindergarten for the Blind in Boston.
Mrs. Poster made some investigations into the condition of the blind
in Connecticut, with the result that a large number of children were
found who were being badly neglected. Up to thai time the state had
provided for only twenty blind children who had been sent to schools
for the blind in neighboring states, while for blind adults there existed
no provision whatever. Mrs. Poster saw that legislation was required,
ami she secured the cooperation of Frank E. Cleaveland, a blind
lawyer, with the result that the General Assembly of 1893 passed an
act creating a State Board of Education for the Blind, consisting of
the governor and chief justice. , x officio, with two other members to be
appointed by the governor. The Board was to take such measures
as it found necessary to secure the object of its existence. Three hun-
dred dollars a year were allowed for the instruction and training of all
such blind persons as the Board allowed to become state pupils, ami a
iretary was to be employed who should seek out all blind persons
needing care or instruction.
Before this legislation could be carried into effect, however, a nurs-
ery was opened in November, 1893, in a small house in Hartford, where
24 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
half a dozen needy blind children were cared for until October, 1894,
when a real kindergarten, numbering twenty pupils, was opened in a
large house on Asylum Avenue in Eartford.
In the meantime, Mr. Cleaveland had devoted himself to the care
and industrial training of a number of blind men. for which purpose
he gave the use of his own house until 1895, when the stale provided
a building on Wethersfield Avenue for the "Connecticut [nstitute and
Industrial Borne for the Blind." Ii also provided a new building in
the rear of the kindergarten, one story of which was devoted to the
temporary use of blind women until 1896, when their permanent
quarters on Wethersfield Avenue were completed.
The year 1897 was a memorable one in the history of the blind, for
in that year a Little blind baby was brought to the Connecticut Kin-
dergarten for the Blind where it was cordially received. We believe
thai blind baity to have been the first one to whom any institution in
ibis country, excepl the almshouse, had opened its doors. Applications
for other babies soon followed, and philanthropists enabled the mana-
gers to receive and care for a number of them, until, in 1905, the Hart-
ford buildings being crowded, the babies, with their caretakers, were
moved to a small bouse in Farmington. There they remained until
1910, when a large fine home in Farmington was provided for them by
E. T. Stotesburg, a bountiful friend in Philadelphia. This work for
blind babies can only be appreciated by those who have witnessed the
deplorable consequences of neglecting; them.
The Kindergarten on Asylum Avenue grew steadily and classes for
older children were added. Besides the ordinary school branches, the
children made rapid progress in vocal and instrumental music, and
were able to enter advanced classes when sent to the Perkins Institu-
tion in Boston. Sloyd, carpentry, sewing, knitting, crocheting, and
chair-caning were also taught. Piano-tuning is now added to this list.
Larger quarters were soon urgently needed and many friends con-
tributed to the building fund, to which the state in 1909 added *:>0,000,
and in .May. 1911, the school was moved to its present fine quarters,
near Blue Hills Avenue. Eighteen acres of land surround the build-
ings, seven acres of which are under cultivation for garden vegetables.
A great part of the garden work is done by the boys, who enjoy it and
find such out-of-door work a source of income on leaving school. There
are now 46 pupils in the school.
The excellent Trades department, under the direction of Mr. and
Mrs. R. E. Colby, has 1 n much less fortunate than in the nursery and
the school, inasmuch as it has for a long time been urgently in need
of better quarters. A forty acre lot just south of the city has for
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND 25
three years been waiting for the needed buildings. These the trus-
tees are now hoping to see erected within a year, as the state has just
given $60,000 to the institution for that purpose.
The industries taught and carried on in this department are the
making of brooms, mattresses, rugs, and baskets, chair-seating, sew-
ing, crocheting, knitting, typewriting, and stenography. Farm work
proves as practical for the men as for the boys. There are today 42
blind, or partially blind, persons in the Trades department.
It will be seen, from what has been said, that the Connecticut Insti-
tute for the Blind is peculiarly comprehensive in its work, inasmuch
as it aids the blind of all ages to make the most of their lives.
Superintendent, Nursery tor Blind Babies. Miss Lillian Russell.
Superintendent, School Department, G. II. Marshall.
Superintendent, Trades Department, R. E. Colby.
Library for the Blind. Hartford. School Department Institute for
Commission for tJu Blind,Z05-l West 8th St.. Wilmington. In 1909
the Delaware Legislature created a Commission for the blind, the chief
function of which is to assist the adult blind. The work of the Com-
mission is divided into home instruction, carried on by means of home
teachers, and industrial training and employment given in a work-
shop for the blind where rugs, brooms, and baskets are made, chairs
are re-seated, and orders for piano-tuning are solicited. About 25
individuals receive direcl assistance from the shop. The articles made
by the blind both at home and in this shop are sold at the store located
in the Commission's headquarters. The blind children capable of bene-
fiting by training are sent to schools for the blind in the neighboring
states. Secretary, C. B. Van Trump.
Library for thi Blind. Wilmington Institute. Free Library. 772
volumes, 415 titles. An ink print catalog is provided without charge
for residents of the state to whom books are circulated.
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
Aid Association for the Blind, 3050 R Street, N. W., Washington,
D. C. Organized in 1897. This institution has a capacity of thirty
men and women ; the valuation of its plant is $50,000, and it is sup-
ported entirely -by voluntary contributions and income from endow-
ment. Contrary to what might be gathered from the title of this or-
ganization, the institution is a "Home" and today occupies a fine, spe-
cially constructed building with separate quarters for white and colored
26 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
of each sex. The basement, which is almost entirely above ground.
well Lighted and ventilated, serves as a work-room for men who wish
id be industrially occupied. The women confine themselves to fancy
work. Applicants are not required to pay an admission fee but must
have been residents of the District of Columbia.
District o) Columbia Association of Workers for thi Blind'. Organ-
ized 1914. Active members are blind and must be residents of the
Distrid one year. There is no restriction as to residence for associate
members but they cannot vote. Funds derived from membership pay
current expenses, while the money received from entertainments goes
to the benefit fund. President. French F. Hnfty. 1808 H St.
X. YY.. Washington.
Thi Columbia Polytechnic Institute for ilic Blind, 1808 H St.
X. \Y., Washington, was founded in 1900. Its capacity is 15; valua-
tion of plant, $18,000. It is supported entirely by voluntary contri-
butions and proceeds of work. This institution is virtually a job press
printing plant in which all the work that can be done by the blind is
given to them. The profits from the labor of the seeing helpers goes
towards the maintenance of the plant. A quarterly magazine in ink
print entitled "Voices from DarMand" is issued which is ''edited,
managed, folded, inserted, stitched, trimmed, wrapped and addressed
for the mail by the sightless." Any sightless man or woman (white)
who has need of employment and who is a resident of the District of
Columbia may apply and if possible assistance will be given. An
effort is made to find employment for tuning and piano instruction.
The workers do not reside in the institution. At present ten are
employed. Manager, R. W. Swann.
Tin Library of Congress, Department for tin Blind. For details
about this Library, see end of this section.
National Library for thi Blind, 1729 II. St. N. AY.. Washington.
for details about this organization, see end of this section.
School for lln Deaf and tin Blind, St. Augustine. Founded in
1885. Capacity, 40 (blind). Valuation of plant, $225,000 (both de-
partments). Annual state appropriation, $35,000 (both depart-
ments). For requirements for admission, course, term, and purpose
of instruction, see the Introduction to this section. The schools own
25 acres of bind. 8 of which are used for athletics. President, A. II.
Library for lln Blind. St. Augustine, School for the Blind, 175
28 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
Academy for tht Blind, Mar,,,,. Founded, L851. Capacity, L25
pupils. Valuation of plant, $150,000. Annual stale appropriation,
$30,000. For requirements for admission, course, term, and purpose
of instruction, see the [ntroduction to this section. The school owns
20 acres of land, (i of which arc available for athletics. There is a
gymnasium. This school has a fund of $10,000 known as the "pupils'
fund" the interest from which is used for assisting students after
they leave the school. Superintendent, George F. Oliphant.
Library for tht Blind. Macon. Academy for the Blind, 2500 vol-
umes. 409 titles. Books are not loaned outside of the school.
School for Ih, Deaf and Ih, Blind, "Gooding. Founded, 1906.
Capacity, 25 (blind). Valuation of plant, $70,000 (both depart-
ments). Annual state appropriation, $30,000 (both departments).
Originally located in Boise, destroyed by fire in 1908, moved to new
buildings in Gooding in September, 1910. For requirements for
admission, course, term, and purpose of instruction, see the Instruc-
tion to this section. Superintendent, W. E. Taylor.
Library for the Blind. Gooding, School for the Blind. 200 volumes,
150 titles. 750 volumes in ink print.
llliii, tis School far Ih, Blind. Jacksonville. Founded, 184!). Capac-
ity, 225. Valuation of plant, $312,000. Annual state appropriation,
$91, 300. School owns :!7 acres of land, 5 of which are available for
athletics. There is a gymnasium. This school operates a printing
plant which specializes in the production of Braille music. Catalogs
may he had upon application. For requirements for admission,
course, term, and purpose of instruction, see the Introduction to this
section. Superintendent, II. C Montgomery.
Go-education of lh< Blind and Ih, Seeing, Chicago Public Schools.
Classes for blind children were established in the public schools of
Chicago in September, 1900. There are three centers for children
in the elementary grades, as well as three high schools attended by
other blind students. Historically, the Chicago work is of great
interest, as it was in this city that the first attempt in America was
made to educate blind children by the side of those who see. The
general policy followed in this method of education is described in
the Introduction 1o this section. It should be added that Chicago and
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND 29
Northwestern Universities both give scholarships to every student
capable of entering these universities and who has been recommended
to them from the public schools. It is also gratifying to state that all
those who have availed themselves of this education have done satis-
factory work. Three of those who have graduated are now paid
teachers, one at the State School for the Blind, Jacksonville, and two
in the Department of Instruction for the Adult Blind. Supervisor,
John B. Curtis.
Visitation and Instruction of the Ad nit Blind, 5618 Drexel Ave.,
Chicago. Established in 1911 and operated under the State Board
of Administration. For five years previous to this the work was con-
ducted along similar lines by the Chicago Women's Club. Five teach-
ers are employed. About 200 blind people were visited in 1915, to 85
of whom instruction was given in reading, writing, typewriting,
operating a dictaphone machine, embossed shorthand) sewing, knit-
ting, crocheting, basketry, hammock-making, chair-caning, broom-
making, and piano-tuning. As far as possible, an effort is made to sell
the work of the pupils through bazaars and exhibits. Superintendent,
Chas. E. Comstock.
Industrial Home for tin Blind, Marshall Boulevard, Chicago.
Founded 1894. Capacity, 100. Valuation of plant, $100,000. Annual
slate appropriation, $35,000. 68 men; 26 women. Applicants must
be residents of Illinois. The principal trade is broom-making. The
women do some I'ancv-work. and those who can help with the house-
work. Forty-one men live outside of the institution, and come to work
daily. Superintendent, William F. Schultz.
Pensions for the Blind. In 1903 a law was passed permitting coun-
ties to provide financial relief for blind men over 21 years of age and
women over 18 years having an income of less than $250 a year, who
are not inmates of charitable institutions, and who have resided in
the state continuously for 10 consecutive years, and in their respective
counties for 3 years. The amount of annual benefit is $150, payable
quarterly. Although this law was passed in 1903, it was not mandatory,
upon the counties: therefore it was not generally observed. In June,
1915, however, the law was amended so that furnishing this form of
relief is now obligatory.
Illinois Association for thi Prt r, ntion of Blindness, :>iÂ» North Mich-
igan Boulevard, Chicago. Organized 1911. Employed an executive
secretary 1916. Executive Secretary. Miss Carolyn C. Van Blareom.
Libraries for the Blind. Chicago, Public Library. 1149 volumes.
The books are circulated throughout the state. Both printed and em-
bossed catalogs are available without charge.
30 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
././â– I, s<>, trill, , School for the Blind. 4500 volumes; 1800 titles in the
circulating library. 3000 volumes, 500 titles in pupils' library. Books
in circulating library are sent throughout the state
Indiana School for tin Blind, Indianapolis. Founded 1847, Capac-
ity, 160. Valuation of plant, $772,567.65. Annual state appropria-
tion. $45,500. The school owns eight acres, of which three are available
for athletics. There is a gymnasium and swiraing pool. For require-
ments for admission, course, term and purpose of instruction, see the
â€¢ Introduction to this section. Superintendent. George S. Wilson.
Board of Industrial Aid for the Blind, Indianapolis. Founded 1915.
This organization, although operating under a different name, is, for
all intents and purposes, similar to other State Commissions for the
Blind. The purpose and general scheme of work is like that mentioned
under commissions in the Introduction to this section. Although the
law creating this hoard makes it entirely independent of the School
for the Blind, so far as its duties and powers are concerned, the law
directs that the same group of men who form the Board of Trustees
of the State School for the Blind shall manage the affairs of the Board
of Industrial Aid for the Blind. On Sept. 25, 1915, the Board of
Industrial Aid acquired by a lease the plant, formerly known as the
Industrial Home for Blind Men, and it is now known as Shop No. 1.