Pounded 1898. Valuation of plant $5,000. Average of 20 men
employed in the shop. Open to residents of Indiana. Executive Sec-
retary, C. D. Ohadwick.
Indiana Association of Workers for th< Blind, Indianapolis. Organ-
ized Dec. 12. 1912. The purpose of this organization is to promote
the interests of the adult blind of Indiana, and to aid in the prevention
of blindness. Interest in the welfare of the blind and the payment
of annual dues admits to membership. Sessions are held biennially
in the summer, and the organization is maintained by membership dues
and private subscriptions. President, B. F. Smith, 135 West Fall
( 'reek Blvd., Indianapolis.
Libraries. Indianapolis, School for the Blind. 2.074 volumes; 690
Indianapolis, State Library. 639 volumes; 36G titles. New York
Poinl catalog available without charge. Books circulated throughoul
1 lie state.
College for the Blind, Vinton. Founded, 1853. Capacity. 140.
Valuation of plant. $250,000. Annual state appropriation, $41,600.
32 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
The school owns 40 acres of land, 10 of which are available for athletics.
There is a gymnasium and swimming pool. Fo'r requirements for ad-
mission, course, term and purpose of instruction, see Introduction to
this article. Superintendent, G. D. Eaton.
I\ nsions for tht Blind. In 1915 a law was passed permitting coun-
ties to contribute $150 per annum "from the poor fund'' toward the
support of male blind persons over 21 and female blind persons over
18 years of age whose income is less than $300 a year, who have
resided in the state continuously for five years and the county for one
The Iowa Home for Sightless Women, 1424-30th St., Des Moines,
I oira. Movement to establish the home began in 1907; it was opened
September, 1915. Capacity, 8. Valuation of plant, $9,000. Supported
by private contributions and donations from different clubs in the
state. Applicants are required to pass a medical examination, to be
free of contagious diseases or symptoms of insanity, and to pay an
admission fee of $300. Inmates of the Home assist with the housework
and do different kinds of fancy work. Sales are conducted to dispose
of the work of the women. Secretary, Board of Managers, Miss Eva
A. Whitcomb, 1424-30th St., Des Moines, Iowa.
Iowa Association for the Blind, Des Moines. Organized, 1901. The
society has done work in the interest of the blind of the state. Presi-
dent. .Mrs. J. B. Jordan, Vinton, Iowa.
Libraries for the Blind. Des Moines, Iowa Library Commission.
267 volumes; 165 titles. The books are circulated throughout the state.
Printed catalog free upon application.
Vinton, College for the Blind. 3786 volumes: 500 titles. Books are
circulated throughout the state.
School for tin Blind, Kansas City. Founded. 1867. Capacity, 100.
Valuation of plant, $160,000. Annual state appropriation, $36,000.
For requirements for admission, course, term, and purpose of instruc-
tion, see the Introduction to this section. The school owns six acres
of land, two of which are available for athletics. There is a gym-
Dasium. Superintendent, Miss Isa Gray.
Library for tht Blind. Kansas City, School for the Blind. 329
volumes; 24s titles. Books may be circulated throughout the stale.
Institution for th< Education of the Blind. Founded, 1842. Capa-
city, 150. Valuation of plant, $200,000. Annual state appropriation.
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND 33
$40,000. The school owns 25 acres of land, 10 of which are available
for athletics. There is a gymnasium. For requirements for admis-
sion, course, term, and purpose of instruction, see the Introduction to
this section. Superintendent, Susan B. Merwin.
Kentucky Workshop for the Blind, Louisville. Founded, 1913.
Capacity, 8. Uses rented quarters and has, as yet, no appropriation
from the state. Principal industries, broom- and mop-making. Appli-
cants must be over 18 years of age. Superintendent, Clifford B.
Kt ntucky Society for the l'r< r< ntion of Blindness, Lexington.
Founded, 1910. Maintained by private subscriptions. The purpose
of this organization is to do anything that will assist in the prevention
of blindness. Trachoma has made fearful ravages throughout the
stale. In spile of the fact that the National Government lias seen fit
to establish hospitals in the mountain sections (See p. 1156, Vol. II
of this Encyclopedia), stale funds have not, as yet, been appropriated
to help in this work, and the above society is doing everything possible
to stimulate greater interest in the need fur state aid for the cam-
paign to prevent unnecessary blindness. In the meantime its ex-
ecutive secretary uses the money of the mountain fund to help those
who need medical attention for their eyes. Executive secretary. Miss
Linda Neville. 722 W. .Main St.. Lexington. Ky.
The Mountain Fund. This is a private organization supported by
voluntary contributions. Ms purpose is to enable eye sufferers who
are needy and live remote From occulists to have expert treatment in
the medical centers of Kentucky. Miss Linda Neville began trying to
secure adequate medical attention for eye diseases with the support.
of the so-called Mountain Fund before the Society for the Prevention
of Blindness was established. Miss Neville is the guiding spirit in
both organizations. Manager, Miss Linda Neville, Lexington.
American Printing House for tin Blind, Louisville. This is a
National printing house for institutions for the blind throughout the
United States. For full particulars, see the end of this section.
Libraries. Louisville, Free Public Library, 293 volumes; 268 titles.
The books are circulated throughout Kentucky.
Louisville. Institution for the Blind. 400 titles; 2423 volumes. Books
are circulated only among pupils of the school.
See, also, Alphabets and Literature for the Blind, p. 257, Vol. I of
School for the Blind, Baton llouge. Founded, 1856. Capacity, 60.
Valuation of plant, $100,000. Annual state appropriation, $15,000.
34 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
The school owns 10 acres of land, 3 acres of which are used for athletics.
For requirements for admission, course, term, and purpose of instruc-
tion, see the Introduction to this section. Superintendent, G. C.
Louisiana Statt Commission for tht Blind. Organized 1916. Volun-
tary assoi iation interested in the prevention of blindness and industrial
occupation for the blind. Secretary. Rev. A. Oscar Browne, M. D.
St. Beatrix circle of St. Margaret's Daughters, New Orleans. A
voluntary organization which gives assistance to the blind of New
Orleans. The activities of this organization are to some extent similar
to those of the Associated Charities. Where necessary, assistance is
furnished in the form of groceries, clothing and money for board.
Social entertainments are given several times a year, to which all
the blind of the city are invited. Home teaching is carried on among
the blind, hut all the work is done by volunteers, and no salaries are
paid. President of the organization. Mrs. Finley D. Ross, 917 "Wash-
ington Ave.. New Orleans. La.
Library for the Blind. Baton Rouge, School for the Blind. 794
volumes: 460 titles. The hooks are circulated throughout the state. A
printed catalog will he furnished upon application.
Maim Institution for Un Blind. 201 Park Ave.. Portland. Founded,
1906. Capacity, 46 men and 11 women. Valuation of plant. $75,000.
Annual state appropriation, $15,000. Applicants must he between
the ages of 18 and 50, and too blind to earn their living by ordinary
means. The men board in the vicinity ; the women all live at the
Institution. The trades followed are broom-making, chair-making,
basketry, mattress-making, upholstery, sewing, weaving rugs. Super-
intendent. M. \V. Baldwin.
State Aid for Blind Infants and Youths. Maine makes provision of
$1.00 a day for the care, medical treatment, maintenance and educa-
tion of blind infants and children under school age whose parents
are unable to care for them properly. These infants may be sent
to a nursery for blind babies outside of the state. When blind children
are old enough to go to a school for the blind, the state will pay for
their tuition while attending such institution in a neighboring state.
I'< nsions for the Blind. In 1915 the legislature of Maine passed a
law empowering the governor and council to authorize the state treas-
urer to pay $200 a year, quarterly, to all blind persons over the age
of 21 who are not charges upon any charitable or penal institution.
They must have less than $300 a year, must have resided in the state
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND 35
continuously for 10 consecutive years, and in their respective counties
for at least one year immediately prior to applying for the benefit.
School for the Blind, OverUa. Founded in 1653. Capacity, 130.
Valuation of plant, $500,000. Annual state appropriation, $45,000.
There is, also, an income receivable from an endowment fund. 'The
school owns 100 acres of land, 10 of which are available for athletics.
There is a gymnasium.
For requirements for admission, course, term, and purpose of in-
struction sÂ«v the (introduction to this section.
Until 1911 the Maryland School for the Blind had been located in
the city of Baltimore; now a magnificenl new plant has been erected
in one of the suburbs of the city, known as Overlea. Upon the same
extensive trad of land is located the school for the colored deaf and
blind. The new institution for while children is built upon the cottage
plan. The school and administration building is in the center of the
group of buildings. To the easl are two cottages for girls with a capa-
city of 30 each, and at the west are two cottages of the same capacity
for boys, h, addition to conducting in this school the general work
""ilined iii tins section under the caption "Residential Schools for the
.Blind," it should he mentioned thai one of the practical results of the
cottage plan makes it possible for blind young women actually to
lake part in preparing some of the tnealfi under the supervision of the
domestic science teacher. With such a recently built plant, the equip-
ment ail(l i,]| the appointments are up-to-date, and Maryland may
justly consider herself as having one of Hie model institutions in this
country. Superintendent, John V. Bledsoe.
Workshop for tht Blind, Baltimore. As mentioned in the general
introduction to this section, the earlier schools for the blind soon
recognized the need of some shop in which to carry on the trades
the pupils had already learned and; in 1871, Maryland may be said
to have definitely made a start to do something for the adult blind,
under the auspices, however, of the School for the Education of Blind
Youth. A workshop in which broom-making is the chief industry,
although mattresses and baskets are also made, was opened in Balti-
more, and later this shop was moved to a building upon the school
In 1906 the legislature appointed a Commission to investigate the
condition of the adult blind and gave $1,500 for its work, and the
outcome of this investigation was a legislative enactment, in 1908,
creating a Workshop for the Blind, the management of which Avas to
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
be under a board of directors, two to be appointed by the Maryland
School for ilic Blind, and three by the Governor. The nucleus of
this organization was the well organized shop of the school which was
stalled in L874. Prom the appointment of the Commission to the
final appropriation of state funds for the partial support of a work-
shop for the blind, greal interest was aroused throughout Baltimore
and vicinity in behalf of this institution. The blind themselves were
Photo from the School for the Blind. Baltimore, Md.
Every Blind Child Should be Encouraged to Learn to Use a
A irw .-an cam their living l>y writing shorthand upon a specially
arranged machine or by transcribing from a phonograph. Almost all
blind people have at some time to communicate with the seeing, heme
the value of learning to use a typewriter.
most active in helping- to raise funds, and today there is a tine four
story factory building as a monument to this campaign.
One hundred and seveiily-seven blind men and women arc employed
in the shop. The planl is valued at $70,000. The state and city have
contributed jointly $20,000 annually during the past two years toward
the maintenance of the institution. Private subscriptions have also
been received. The principal trades are broom- and basket-making,
re-seating of chairs, and piano-tuning. .Mattresses, rugs, hammocks
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
and mops are also made. The school and workshop train switch-
hoard operators. Superintendent, George W. Conner.
Home Teaching. During the vigorous campaign to establish firmly
the above mentioned workship, effective home teaching has been car-
ried on. Today the headquarters of this work are in the workshop,
where a sales-room is maintained for the disposal of the products of
home workers. Instruction is given in sewing, knitting, crocheting,
Photo from tho School for the Blind, Pittsburgh, Pa.
All Blind People Must Learn to Use Their Hands as Effectively as Possible.
One of the most practical methods of helping hoys to use their hands is by
giving them a thorough course in manual training.
weaving and basket- making. The school supports two home teachers,
the workshop one home teacher and the Maryland Association of
Workers for the Blind one county home teacher. Supervisor, Miss
Maryland Association of Workers for the Blind, Associated Blind
Men of Maryland, Associated Blind Women of Maryland, 501 W.
Fayette St., Baltimore. These three voluntary organizations are made
up of the most intelligent blind men and women of the state, with their
friends. Each has taken a very active part in helping to raise funds
38 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
to carry forward the work for the adult blind. The cooperation and
unanimity of workers for the blind in Baltimore has been very strik-
Maryland Association for the Prevention of Blindness. Established
L909. Rrincipally active in furthering legislation. Secretary, Dr.
James â€¢!. ( 'arroll.
Libraries for tin Blind. Baltimore, Enoch Pratt Free Library; 685
titles; 1757 volumes. Books maj^ be circulated throughout Maryland.
Overlea School for tin Blind; 700 titles; :>.(>75 volumes. The books
may be circulated throughout the state. Catalogs in New York point
are supplied free of charge.
Perkms Institution and Massachusetts School for the Blind, Water-
town. Founded; 1829; opened, 1832; resident capacity, 300 and a full
staff of officers, teachers and servants ; valuation of plant, $1,000,000 :
annual state contribution, $30,000. The Institution receives its chief
income from endowments, subscriptions, and fees. The legislatures of
Maine, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New Hampshire pay $300 per
annum for each child sent to the Perkins Institution by these states.
The Perkins Institution, like many others of the older schools, was
established in a city and after some years became cramped for play-
grounds. The institution (except for the kindergarten and the cottages
for the girls' department) used a building which was originally
planned for a hotel. When the school left South Boston for Watertown
in 1912, it moved into the most complete and modern group of build-
ings arranged for the education of the blind in the United States.
Director Edward E. Allen, who was the principal of the School for the
Blind in Philadelphia when it moved from the city to the suburbs, also
supervised the re-building of the Perkins Institution.
It is interesting to note that there have been but two directors of
this school previous to the incumbency of Mr. Allen. Its first head
was Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe, who may be termed the father of the
education of the blind in the United States. (See p. 255, Vol. I, of this
Encyclopedia.) Those who have studied the early reports of this gnat
seer touching possibilities for the blind are amazed to find that his
observations regarding the education, training and care of the blind.
whether infant, youth or adult, although written more than half a
century ago, conform to and. in many cases, foreshadow the best
methods of the presenl lime. Dr. Howe was indeed a great originator
in all departments of this work. He was succeeded in 1876 by his
son-in-law, Michael Anagnos (See p. 336, Vol. I, of this Encyclopedia),
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND 39
who will be remembered as the great advocate of kindergartens for the
blind. It was as a result of his efforts that a large endowment fund
was raised to found and carry on the kindergarten department of
Perkins Institution, which, for 25 years, was conducted in a special
plant of its own at Jamaica Plain, a suburb of Boston. Mr. Anagnos
also advanced the educational methods of the older school in every way,
keeping well abreast of the times, and, by securing a splendid endow-
ment fund for the main institution, made possible its continued growth
and prosperity. He died in 1906. Mr. Allen became director in 1907
Old building occupied by the Perkins Institution from 1839 to 1912. Eere
Dr. Samuel <i. Howe began his pioneer work in teaching the blind and the
and is carrying out with better facilities the fundamental policies of
The presenl extrusive plant stands on 34 acres of land on the banks
of the Charles River, in Watertown. The central tower, which domi-
nates the otherwise low-spreading buildings, is meant to stand for the
aspiration of the Institution for its pupils. The illustrations of this
section show the general appearance of the buildings. Pupils and
staff live together in families of about 25. each group having its indi-
vidual dining-room, kitchen and complete equipment. The cottages
are grouped together about closes, much as in an English public
school. This arrangement of individual cottages makes it possible to
continue a policy inaugurated by Dr. Howe, namely, that of having
the young people take a large part in the actual household duties.
Mr. Allen is a firm believer in what he terms "contributory effort,"
40 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
and the boys as well as the girls not only take care of their rooms,
as is customary in many schools where no tuition is exacted, but do
the major part of the other housework, with the exception of cooking
and laundering. The hired domestic service is reduced to a minimum,
the young people being encouraged to do everything they can to help
in the running of their cottages. It seems hardly necessary to say
thai this plan is adopted not for the sake of economy alone but also
for its beneficial effed upon the pupils themselves. We have dwell
upon this plan of contributory effort, for it may truly be said to be
the school's unique feature, and. while sonic other institutions attempt
to do the same, as far as that is possible with their congregate form of
equipment, it is most earnestly hoped that, as other schools are re-
modeled from time to time, similar opportunity may be given to the
boys and girls.
No sketch of the Perkins Institution would be complete without refer-
ring to the fad that it was Dr. Howe who first taught the possibility
of educating children who are not only blind but also deaf. Beginning
with Laura Bridgman, the school has always provided instruction for
a few deaf-blind pupils. Helen Keller, a well-known member of this
group of people who have been so well trained was educated by a grad-
uate of Perkins Institution and spent some years there.
Another unique feature of the Institution is its special reference
library of books relating to the blind, collected by Mr. Anagnos. No
other institution or library in the world has such a complete collection
of books in English about, for. and by the blind. While these books
cannot be taken from the library, anyone may consult them there or
may borrow the published catalog.
For requirements for admission, course, term, and purpose see the
Introduction to this section. Director, E. E. Allen.
limn Memorial Press, Perkins Institution. This printing establish-
incut is operated from the income of an endowment fund of $200,000
raised by Mr. Anagnos. It makes and publishes hooks and music in
the American Braille type (See p. 249, Vol. I of this Encyclopedia),
and sells, at cost, special appliances. Schools for the blind and libraries
may purchase its publications at 25 per cent less than cost price. Man-
ager, Frank C. Bryan.
Stat, Home-teaching for the Adult Wind. This activity is also
under the supervision of the Perkins Institution. Tn 1900 the Massa-
chusetts legislature appropriated $1,500 for the inauguration of home
teaching, being the first state in the Union to set aside public funds
for this purpose. The appropriation has since been increased to $5,000.
the supervision of the work being delegated to the State Board of Edu-
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND 41
cation, whose'plans have been carried out under the direction of the
Perkins Institution. Four blind instructors visit the adult blind in
their homes, to give them lessons in reading and to instruct them in
such other occupations as may be of service to them at home. After
the Massachusetts Commission for the Blind was established, the au-
thorities of the Perkins Institution and representatives of the Commis-
sion petitioned the legislature to place the direction of this work under
the Commission. In the spring of 1916 this transfer was made.
Principal teacher. John Vars.
Perkins Institution Workshop, 549 East 4th St., South Boston.
Founded 1848; capacity 24; valuation of plant, $8,000. Receives no
city or state appropriation but owns its building and hires (at a nomi-
nal figure) its salesroom at 383 Boylston St.. Boston. Mass.. one of
the best shopping localities in the city. The principal industries are
mattress-making and chair-caning. No boarding bouse is maintained,
the men and women living in the vicinity, or wherever they please.
Historically, this shop is of interest since it was the Mrs) to be estab-
lished in the United stales. As mentioned in the Introduction to Ibis
section, the directors of the first schools for blind youth in this country
soon realized thai something ought to be done for those who, after
leaving school, were unable to support themselves without supervisory
assistance, li was forthis reason thai Dr. Bowe opened his workshop
near the Perkins Institution, and followed it np by opening a salesroom
in the shopping district, where orders might be taken and samples of
the work displayed. As the work is charitable in nature, both the shop
and the salesroom (which i,s owned by the Kindergarten for the Blind)
are exempt from taxation, and the business is therefore not obliged to
pay much for its housing. This is mentioned because the shop has the
remarkable record of practically making ends meet, which is not true
of any industrial establishment for the blind in the United Slates.
and would nol be true of this one if it Inn! not indirect state aid
through tax exemption. It should he noted, further, that the shop
employs only those who are capable of doing good work. In other
words, only artisans are regularly employed (although apprentices
have sometimes been received I and the overhead charges are very
moderate which also helps to explain the unusual showing which this
shop has made. Manager. F. ('. Bryan.
The Massachusetts Association for Promoting the Interests of the
Adult Blind. This organization came into existence in 1903 with the
avowed purpose of securing the establishment of a State Commission
for the Blind. To do this it conducted the first series of illustrated
lectures on blindness and the blind systematically given in any state
44 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
in the union. The then executive secretary, (the writer of this sec-
tion) accepted invitations to give illustrated addresses to women's
and men's clubs and church organizations in all parts of the state, and
the public was aroused to the possibilities of the service which could
be rendered to the blind by the establishment of a commission. At
the same time that this publicity campaign was being carried on, the
Association opened an "experiment station" for the trade training of
the blind ami made a vigorous effort to find new industrial opportuni-
ties for the blind. It is of historical interest to note that in this ex-