Tin Cincinnati Association for th Welfare of tin Blind. Work-
shop, 1506-1508 Bremen Street. Established, 1911. Capacity. 30.
The Association occupies rented quarters, and the principal industries
are broom and basket-making. Some mops are also made This shop
was established as a result of the efforts of the Cincinnati Association
for the Welfare of the Blind. Director. Charles p. Kuhn.
Cleveland Society for tfu Blind, 612 St. Clair Avenue. Found-. 1.
1906. This society endeavors to assist the blind along the general lines
indicated in the Introduction to this section, under '"typical commis-
sions and associations for the blind." It is supported entirely by vol-
untary contributions. The Society operates a broom shop, which
gives employment to 25 blind men. There is also a small amount of
weaving carried on by blind women. The Society cooperates effectively
with the State Commission for the Blind in an effort to create as large
a market as possible for the sale of the work of the blind. Through
active sub-committees it does many helpful things for the blind chil-
dren who are receiving instruction in the public schools; it has also
organized clubs for the adult blind Secretary. Mrs. Eva B. Palmer.
Howe Publishing Society for the Blind. Founded in 1911. The
purpose of this organization is to provide the blind with current litera-
ture. Most of the work is done by totally blind workers. The books
produced by this Society are sold to libraries, institutions for the
blind and individuals- throughout the entire country. President and
director of the work, R. B. Irwin, University Club. Cleveland. Ohio.
Dayton Association for tlu Blind. Founded. 1907. Its purpose is
similar to that of associations for the blind described in the Introduc-
tion to this section. For a time, this organization operated a shop in
which broom-making was carried on. and it is a particularly note-
worthy fact that as a result of its efforts, quite a number of positions
have been secured for Hie blind in factories where the seeing are regu-
larly employed. The most notable example of this phase of the
'work is the employment of three blind girls in the factory of the
National Cash Register Company, who have been on the pay roll of.
that concern for the past seven years. Positions for men in several
other concerns have also been found.
The Association took an active part, in conjunction with the Cleve-
land Society for the Blind, in bringing about the establishment of
the Ohio State Commission for the Blind. As soon as the work of
the Commission was well organized the Association became less active,
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND 89
but has cooperated very closely with the Commission in work for the
blind in Dayton. President, Mrs. Eugene F. Barney.
Libraries for the Blind, Cincinnati. Library for the Blind, 2,200
volumes. Books are circulated throughout the United States and
Canada. A New York Point catalog is available at ten cents a copy.
Cleveland, Public Library. Six hundred eighty-nine volumes; 436
titles. Books may be circulated throughout the United States.
Columbus, State School for the Blind. Has on hand all the books
published by the American Printing House in New York Point. Books
may be circulated throughout the state.
Srhool for the Blind. Muskogee. Founded, 1908. Capacity, 120.
Valuation of plant, $150,000. Annual state appropriation, $40,000.
The school owns 25 acres of land, 2 of which are used for athletics.
For requirements for admission, course, term, and purpose of instruc-
tion, see the Introduction to this section. Superintendent, O. W.
Library for the Blind, Muskogee, School for the Blind. Two thou-
sand volumes. Books may be circulated throughout the state.
School for the Blind, Salem. Founded, 1874. Capacity, 50. Valua-
tion of plant, $30,000. Annual state appropriation, $12,000. The
school owns ten acres of land, one of which is available for athletics.
There is a gymnasium. For requirements for admission, course, term,
and purpose of instruction, see the Introduction to this section. Su-
perintendent, E. T. Moores.
â– Workshop for the Adult Blind, Portland, 11th and Davis streets. Es-
tablished, 1913. Capacity, 20. Instruction is given in hammock-mak-
ing, piano-tuning, and chair-caning. At the present time, the Shop is
maintained by the Educational Department, City of Portland, in con-
nection with its trade school for the seeing. The work is in charge of
J. F. Meyers, who is himself blind.
Libraries for the Blind, Portland, Library Association. One hun-
dred and fifty-four volumes ; 73 titles. Books may be circulated
throughout the state.
Salem, School for the Blind. Six hundred volumes; 240 titles.
Books may be circulated throughout the state.
Institution for the Instruction of the Blind, OverbrooJc, Philadelphia.
The education of blind children in Philadelphia was begun in 1832
90 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
when Julius Friedlander taught at his own residence and at his own
expense Sarah and Abraham Marsh, two Philadelphia children. Hav-
ing thus demonstrated the possibilities in educating the blind, a meet-
ing of the citizens of Philadelphia w y as held, a committee was
appointed, a constitution was soon adopted, and a Board of Managers
appointed, which held its first meeting March 5th, 1833. At this meet-
ing, Mr. Friedlander was appointed "Principal Instructor," and on
the 25th of March, 1833, the Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruc-
tion of the Blind was opened on Twelfth Street, above Race, with four
Philadelphia pupils. It is significant that in that early day, the man-
agers should anticipate so accurately the character of the work to
be done in the Institution as to designate it as an "Institution for the
Instruction of the Blind." "The system of instruction adopted was
that which the celebrated and benevolent Valentin Haiiy so success-
fully carried into effect in several establishments of a similar character
On Jan. 27th, 1834, the Legislature granted the necessary articles
In April, 1834, the Institution was removed to two large buildings
on 13th street, above Race.
The cornerstone of the building at 20th and Race Streets, which
housed the school for 63 years, was laid September 10th, 1835, Andrew
Jackson then being President. This building was opened on Oct.. 27th,
1836, with an exhibition and concert by the pupils.
In January, 1899, the school was moved to its present site at Over-
brook, within the limits of the City of Philadelphia. Subsequent pur-
chases have increased the original 27 acres to about 30 acres. The site
has been acquired at an approximate cost of $200,000; the buildings
and furnishings have cost about $300,000; the present (1915) valua-
tion of plant and equipment is $679,868.93. The buildings are in the
Spanish Mission style of architecture so common in Southern Cali-
fornia. This construction provides buildings unusually free from
danger from fire, while they admit a maximum of light and air. A
tuition fee of $350 is charged those who are able to pay it, although in
practice but little is realized from this source. The school is supported
from the income of endowment funds and by a per capita appropria-
tion of $300 for pupils from the state of Pennsylvania. Pupils from
Delaware and southern New Jersey are also educated here at the
expense of their respective states.
We have given this full account of the beginnings of the Pennsyl-
vania Institution because the Philadelphia, New York and Boston
schools were the first three to be established in America. Furthermore,
Photos from the Home for the Blind. St. Louis. Mo.
"Homes" for the homeless are as much a necessity for the sightless as for
the seeing. In states where "pensions" are given to the "needy blind" accom-
modation can often be found with some private family in the community. A small
well-regulated home is one of the best methods of caring for the homeless, the aged,
or the infirm blind.
92 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
the Pennsylvania Institution was the first to give up its congested city
quarters and move out to the suburbs. Since the removal of the Phila-
delphia [nstitutiou in 1899, the schools in Baltimore and Boston have
also given up their eity buildings and haw re-built in the suburbs.
The New York City I list il ul ion is likewise preparing to make a similar
The ( )\ erhrook school is able to house nearly 200 students. Although
located within the limits of the city of Philadelphia, the school pos-
hes ample grounds for recreation purposes, approximately eleven
acres being given over to athletics, and fully two to gardens for the use
of the school children. Historically, it is important to note that in
addition to a well-equipped gymnasium, this- school was the first in the
United States to install a fine swimming pool and bowling alley, which
were opened in 1899. The requirements for admission, course, term,
and purpose of instruction are outlined in the Introduction to this
section. In addition to furnishing everything required by a typical
school for the blind, this school lays considerable emphasis upon the
training of pupils who are qualified to become teachers, and it is inter-
esting to note that graduates from this institution are serving as teach-
ers in quite a number of other American institutions for the blind.
Another interesting effort of the school is the maintenance of what
has been called a ' ' field officer. ' ' Liborio Delfino, who is himself blind,
was the pioneer in this form of activity in America. He has visited
many former pupils of the institution in their own homes and has
called upon almost every blind man and woman in the state. He is
constantly visiting prospective pupils and helping graduates who need
friendly advice and encouragement in establishing themselves.
Superintendent. Olin H. Burritt.
Salesroom and Exchange for the Blind, 204 So. 13th St., Philadel-
phia. Opened, 1910. We mention this interesting establishment imme-
diately after the School for the Blind, for it is supported and carried
on by the Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the Blind;
It is at Ihis place that Mr. Liborio Delfino, who is in charge, has his
headquarters. In the salesroom are sold many articles made by the
blind: here also orders for Inning, chair-caning, etc.. are taken. In
this same building are housed the books of the Department for the
Blind of the Free Library of Philadelphia, and of the Pennsylvania
Home Teaching Society, which will be mentioned later.
Western Pennsylvania Institution for the Blind, Pittsburgh.
Founded. 1888. Opened in 1890. Capacity, 130 pupils. Valuation
of plant, $600,000. Annual state appropriation $360 per capita ; there
is also an income from endowments. The school owns five and one-half
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND 93
aires of land, two of which are available for recreational purposes.
There is a gymnasium and swimming- pool; also a special kinder-
garten building. This school is unique in respect of location in the
midst of what might be termed the intellectual center of Pittsburgh,
the pupils being within walking distance of the University of Pitts-
burgh, the Carnegie Institute of Technology, the Carnegie Library and
Museum, Soldiers Memorial Hall, and the largest and newest high
school of the city. For requirements for admission, course, term, and
purpose of instruction, see the Introduction to this section. Superin-
tendent, Thomas 8. McAloney.
State Aid for Blind Infants. The State Board of Education is
authorized, in virtue of a bill passed, May, 1913, to make provision
for the education of blind children under eight years of age residing
in Pennsylvania when the parents are unable to educate them prop-
erly. The board may contract to this end with any nonsectarian insti-
tution in Pennsylvania or elsewhere, established for the education of
the blind, at a cost not to exceed $1.00 a day, the money to be paid out
of tliÂ«> state school fund. The Act of 1913 was so amended by the
Legislature of 1915 as to permit the state Board of Education to
waive the aire limit of eight years in such rases as seem to warrant it
by reason of physical or mental defects.
The Pennsylvania Working Horn* for Blind Men, 3518 Lancaster
Aw. W.Philadelphia. Pounded, 1874. Capacity, 200. At the pres-
ent time, there are 117 beneficiaries, about half of whom live in the
institution. Valuation of plant, $202,000. Annual slate appropria-
tion, $17,500, and from the city of Philadelphia, $5,000. Applicants
must be at least 21 years of age. in good physical condition, and resi-
dents of the state of Pennsylvania for at least one year. The Home
prefers not to admit men over 45 years of age. The principal indus-
try is broom-making, although a small amount of ray carpel is made,
and a limited number of chairs are caned annually. About one-third
of the men live or hoard outside of the institution.
As its name implies, the institution maintains a hoarding home for
men who wish to live in the institution and receive board at a nominal
tic All inmates who have worked industriously at this institution
but who are no longer able to labor are provided with a permanent
home in the boarding department or "Retreat" until their death.
However, no part of the appropriation by the State or City is used
for the care of these individuals; these expenses being met by an in-
come from an endowment and by private subscriptions.
We call the readers' attention to this institution as the one to which
we referred in the Introduction to this section, since it was the first
94 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
extensive effort to establish a workshop for adult blind men entirely
independent of any of the older institutions for the training of blind
youth. It came into being as a result of industrial experiments made
by the Philadelphia school, and after long and persistent agitation b}'
Mr. Chapin and the management of the school. Hinmon II. Hall, a
man who lost his sight in adult life, was the superintendent of the
institution from its inception in 1874 until his death in 1890. He had
much to do with the early experiments and the success of the institu-
tion. Superintendent, Frederick H. Mills.
Pennsylvania Industrial Home for Blind Women, 3827 Powelton
Ave., W. Philadelphia, Founded, 1869. Capacity, 70. Valuation
of plant, $89,000. As we have before intimated, it is not easy to draw
a line between some so-called "homes" and "workshops." This in-
stitution is unquestionably more a Home than a Shop, which we have
previously pointed out more closely approximated a factory. In it
every inmate able to work is busily employed four and one-half hours
a day, some with various forms of fancy work, others with the re-seat-
ing of chairs or the weaving of rag carpet and rugs. As in the case
of the Working Home for Blind Men, those who have become aged
and infirm while in the institution are provided for. The Industrial
Home receives no state aid; it is supported entirely by interest from
endowment and by private subscriptions.
The Home receives adults only and without regard to their religious
denominations. It prefers not to admit women over 50 years of age.
Superintendent, Miss Ada V. Harry.
The Pennsylvania Home Teaching Society and Free Circulating
Library for the Blind. Headquarters, Witherspoon Bldg., Philadel-
phia. Founded, 1882, by the late William Moon, the blind inventor of
the Moon embossed type, and his daughter, Adelaide E. C. Moon.
The Society was reorganized in 1898 ; incorporated in 1901 ; received
state aid in 1905. It now receives $4,000 a year from the Legislature.
The organization also enjoys an income from an endowment fund and
from annual donations. The 3,764 volumes which the Society owns
are valued at $3,500. With the exception of 710 volumes, which are
in the Carnegie Library at Pittsburgh, all the books are deposited with
and circulated by the Free Library of Philadelphia. Until November,
1915, four home teachers only were employed in the work of the Society,
two of these confining their attention to Philadelphia, one to Pittsburgh,
and the third working in other parts of the state. Six additional teach-
ers have since been engaged. Seven of these are totally and three partly
blind. The books owned by the Free Library of Philadelphia are cir-
culated only in the city, those in the Home Teaching Society are
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND 95
utilized throughout the country. The Pennsylvania Society was the
first home teaching society to be established in America, and the son
of the founder, Dr. Robert C. Moon, served as the secretary of the
organization until his death in February, 1914. For further par-
ticulars of the Moon alphabet, see page 259, Vol. I of this Encyclopedia.
Secretary, Mrs. Isabel W. Kennedy.
Blind Relief Fund of Philadelphia, 617 Witherspoon Bldg. Founded
1908. There are no overhead expenses, no state or city aid, but the
fund is secured from voluntary contributions. The purpose of the
organization is to give an annual outing to the blind, and occasionally
financial assistance to the needy blind. Up to the present time, how-
ever, only a small fund has been realized.
CJiapin Memorial Hone for the Aged Blind, 6713 Woodland Ave.,
Philadelphia. Founded 1906. Capacity, 30. Valuation of plant,
$35,000. Endowment fund, $65,000. Supported entirely by dona-
tions and income from endowment. Applicants may be of either sex,
from Pennsylvania, New Jersey or Delaware, and elsewhere if there
are vacancies. An admission fee of $300 must be paid by those over
75 years of age, and $500 by those between 65 and 75; in every case
burial must be provided for. This Home was founded by 12 former
pupils of the Pennsylvania Institution for the Blind, because aged
blind persons were excluded from all nonsectarian homes for the
aged, as well as from nearly all sectarian homes. Matron, Mrs. Agnes
Pennsylvania Association for the Blind, Liberty and Second Ave-
nues, Pittsburgh. Founded, 1910. This organization does not own the
building in which it maintains its headquarters. Annual state appro-
priation, $2,500. The City of Pittsburgh gives $15,000 towards the
maintenance of the workshop. Membership dues and donations are
also received. This organization aims to carry on the activities out-
lined in the "typical Association for the Blind" referred to in the
Introduction to this section. Instruction is given at the homes of
blind women in sewing, knitting, and crocheting, and material is pro-
vided for the making of articles which the organization undertakes to
sell. The merchants in Pittsburgh have contributed space for the sale
of this work from time to time, although no permanent counter is used,
as in New York City and Ohio. In addition to this, club women give
substantial aid in the sales, and each year at the Pittsburgh Industrial
Exposition, which is held for six weeks in the autumn, the Associa-
tion finds a good market for the home work. Executive Secretary,
W. W. Stamm.
Pittsburgh Workshop for the Blind, Liberty and Second Avenues,
96 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
Pittsburgh. Founded, L910. Receives $15,000 from the city of Pitta-
burgh, and some contributions from private sources. The principal
industries are broom-making and chair-caning, and rug-weaving. This
shop is conducted under the supervision of the Pennsylvania Associa-
tion for the Blind, which lias its headquarters in Pittsburgh, and gives
employment to 40 men. Superintendent. Win. II. Long. â€¢
Blind Women's Progressivt club. Organized, 1912. Incorporated,
1!*14. Interested in establishing a home for indigent and aged blind
women. Funds secured from membership fees and contributions. The
active members are blind and there are one-half as many associate
members having sight. This organization is affiliated with the Con-
gress tit' Women's Clubs. President. .Miss Elizabeth Johnson.
The Society for the Promotion of Church Work Among the Blind.
Organized in Philadelphia in 1903. Has defrayed the expenses of
embossing parts of the Book of Common Prayer. Words and Music of
the Hymnal in Braille, Holy Communion in Moon. Cooperates with
churches, missionary societies, etc. Employs a blind visitor. Also
furnishes guides for those unable otherwise to attend church. Treas-
urer, Rev. W. Arthur Warner, 533 Arch Street, Philadelphia.
Libraries for the Blind, The Fret Library of Philadelphia. The Free
Library of Philadelphia and the Pennsylvania Institution for the In-
struction of the Blind jointly rent the building at 204 South 13th
Street, which is used for library purposes and provides a place for
the Salesroom and Exchange, a striking example of practical co-
operation. Five thousand, five hundred and sixty-nine volumes;
1,0(32 titles. Books purchased for the Free Library are circulated
only within the city limits, but those belonging to the Pennsylvania
Home Teaching Society (see reference to this organization above),
are sent anywhere in the United States, except where borrowers may
be supplied from a nearer source. Embossed lists of the books are
loaned free. Librarian-in-charge, -Mrs. Liborio Delfino.
Philadelphia, Overbrook, School for the Blind. Nineteen thousand,
nine hundred and forty-one volumes; 1,175 titles. Books are circu-
lated anywhere in the United States when they cannot be secured else-
where. A list of all publications in American Braille can be bought
for 9 cents.
Pittsburgh, Carnegie Library. Two thousand, six hundred and
twenty-seven volumes; 1,052 titles. Books are circulated through
Western Pennsylvania. Ink print catalog, 10c ; Braille and Moon lists
loaned to readers.
Pittsburgh, School for the Blind. One thousand volumes. Books
I o; i ned in Western Pennsylvania.
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND 97
Home Teaching for the Adult Blind. Home teaching at state ex-
pense was begun in Rhode Island in 1904, and is now conducted under
the direction of the State Board of Education. Two teachers are em-
ployed. The instruction given is similar to that provided by other
home teaching organizations generally.
State Aid for Blind Infants and Youths. Rhode Island makes pro-
vision of $1.00 a day for the care, medical treatment, maintenance,
and education of blind infants and children under school age whose
parents are unable properly to care for them. These infants may be
sent to a nursery for blind babies outside of the state. When blind
children are old enough to go to a school for the blind the state will
pay for their tuition while attending such institution in a neighbor-
School for the Deaf and Blind, Cedar Spring. Founded, 1849.
Capacity, 100 blind; valuation of plant, $155,000 (both departments).
Annual state appropriation. $35,000 (both departments). The school
owns 150 acres of land, 10 of which are available for athletics. There
is a gymnasium. For requirements for admission, course, term and
purpose of instruction, see the Introduction to this section. Superin-
tendent, N. F. Walker.
Library for the Blind, Cedar Spring, School for the Blind. One
thousand volumes; 400 titles. Books are circulated throughout the
School for the Blind, <!<inj. Founded, 1900. Capacity, 50. Valua-
tion of plant, $70,000. Annual state appropriation, $15,000. The
school owns 20 acres of land, 14 of which are available for athletics.
There is a gymnasium. Requirements for admission, course, term,
and purpose of instruction are similar to those outlined in the Intro-
duction to this section except that pupils are admitted up to 30 years
of age. This school has the unique feature in this country of having
always had a woman as superintendent. Superintendent, Mrs. Lelia
State Aid for Blind Infants. South Dakota makes provision of $1.00
a day for the care, medical treatment, maintenance and education of
blind infants and children under school age whose parents are unable
to properly care for them. These infants may be sent to a nursery
for blind babies outside of the state. When blind children are old
98 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
enough to go to a school for the blind, the state will pay for their tui-
tion while attending sueh institution in a neighboring state.
Libraries for tin Blind, Gary, School for the Blind. One thousand
three hundred and thirteen volumes. The books are circulated only
among pupils of the school.
School for the Blind, Nashville. Founded, 1844. Capacity, 225.
Valuation of plant, $230,000. Annual state appropriation, $35,000.