The school owns 10 acres of land. There is a gymnasium. For re-
quirements for admission, course, term, and purpose of instruction, see
the Introduction to this section. Superintendent, John V. Armstrong.
Home for Blind Women, Nashville. Founded, 1903. Capacity, 20.
Supported by donations and state aid, the amount of the latter for
the past two years being $135.00 per capita, per annum. The women
help with the housework. Applicants must live in Tennessee, must be
of good moral character and have no contagious disease. If possessed
of any property, it must be given into the general funds. The Home
is under the auspices of the Fear Not Circle, King's Daughters.
Library for the Blind, Nashville, School for the Blind. Six thou-
sand volumes. Books are circulated throughout the state.
School for the Blind, Austin. Founded, 1856. Capacity, 260.
Valuation of plant, $300,000. Annual state appropriation, $85,000.
Recent appropriation of $300,000 for new buildings. The school owns
75 acres of land ; all that is needed is used for athletics. There are two
gymnasia and a swimming pool. For requirements for admission,
course, term, and purpose of instruction, see the Introduction to this
section. Superintendent, E. E. Bramlette.
Library for the Blind, Austin, School for the Blind. Seven thou-
sand, five hundred volumes; 600 to 800 titles. Books are circulated
throughout the state.
School for the Deaf and the Blind, Ogdcn. Founded, 1896. Capac-
ity, 50; attendance, 35 (blind). Valuation of plant. $300,000 (both
departments). Annual state appropriation, $50,000. When the state
of Utah was created the enabling act called for the creation and main-
tenance of a school for the deaf and the blind and presented 100,000
acres of land as auxiliary aid in the support of the institution. The
school owns 195 acres of land, 4 of which are available for athletics.
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND 99
There is a gymnasium and a swimming pool. For requirements for
admission, course, term, and purpose of instruction, see the Introduc-
tion to this section. Superintendent, Frank M. Driggs.
Commission for the Blind. Created in 1909. Four thousand dollars
was appropriated for the first two years. The activities of the Com-
mission were similar to those indicated under "Commissions for the
Blind" in the Introduction to this section. The Commission no longer
Libraries for the Blind, Ogden, School for the Blind. Five hundred
and fifty volumes; 400 titles. Books are circulated throughout the
Salt Lake City, Public Library. Auxiliary of the Reading Room for
the Blind. One hundred and eighty-seven volumes. Books are cir-
culated in Salt Lake City and community. A teacher is employed by
the Auxiliary to teach at the library.
Society for the Aid of the Sightless, Provo. Organized in 1904.
Helped to bring about the establishment .of the Commission for the
Blind. Since 1913, it publishes the "Messenger to the Sightless," a
monthly magazine in Braille.
The Austine Institution, Brattleboro. Incorporated, 1904; opened,
1912, as a result of the bequest of Col. William Austine, and of addi-
tional money appropriated by the state. The School receives a yearly
per capita allowance for the board and tuition of each pupil designated
by the state. All other expenses are paid by parents or guardians.
For paying pupils, the fee is $400 per year for board and tuition. This
school is intended for the education of wholly or partially deaf or
blind children. At present there are five blind pupils. The school
owns 212 acres of ground. Principal, Helen G. Throckmorton.
School for the Deaf and Blind, Staunton. Founded, 1839. Capac-
ity, 80. Valuation of plant, $200,000 (both departments). State ap-
propriation, $16,800 for the present fiscal year (both departments).
The school owns 96 acres of land, 4 of which are available for athletics.
There is a gymnasium. Requirements for admission, course, term and
purpose of instruction, see the Introduction to this section. Superin-
tendent, Wm. A. Bowles.
School for the Colored Deaf and Blind, Newport News. Founded,
1906. Capacity, 150. Valuation of plant, $125,000. Annual state ap-
100 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
propriation, $25,000. The school owns 88 acres of land, 3 of which are
available for athletics. Superintendent, Wm. C. Ritter.
Library for the Blind, Staunton, School for the Deaf and Blind.
One thousand titles. Books are circulated throughout the state.
School for the Blind, Vancouver. Founded. 1906. Capacity, 65.
Valuation of plant. $110,000. Annual state appropriation, $61,000.
The school owns 6 acres of land, three quarters of an acre being used
for athletics. There is a gymnasium. For requirements for admis-
sion, course, term, and purpose of instruction, see the Introduction to
this section. Superintendent, Mrs. W. B. Hall.
Seattle Association for the Blind. Secretary, M. Callaghan. Mem-
Libraries for the Blind, Seattle, Public Library. Six hundred and
thirty volumes; 376 titles. Books may be sent anywhere. A typewrit-
ten catalog available without charge.
Spokane, Public Library. Fifty-six volumes < 18 titles. Books may
be circulated only in Spokane.
Vancouver, School for the Blind. Seven hundred and fifty volumes;
165 titles. Books may be circulated throughout the state.
School for the Deaf and the Blind, liomney. Founded. 1870.
Capacity, 85 blind. Valuation of plant, $350,000. Annual state appro-
priation. $65,000 for current support (both departments). Ten
thousand dollars for betterments. School owns 150 acres of land, 4
of which are used for athletics. There is a gymnasium in the basement
of the school building. For requirements for admission, course ; term
and purpose of instruction, see the Introduction of this section. Super-
intendent, Parley De Berry.
Library for the Blind, Romney, School for the Blind. One thou-
sand, five hundred volumes. Books are circulated throughout the
The education of blind youth is provided at state expense by send-
ing pupils to schools for the blind in neighboring states.
School for ih< Blind, Janesville. Founded, 1849. Capacity, 150.
Valuation of plant, $300,000. Annual state appropriation, operation,
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND 101
$50,000; repairs and maintenance,, $10,000; new buildings, $15,000.
The school owns 65 acres of land, 5 of which are available for athletics.
There is a gymnasium. For requirements for admission, course, term
and purpose of instruction, see the Introduction to this section. Su-
perintendent, J. T. Hooper.
Co-education of the Blind and the Seeing in the Public Schools of
Milwaukee. Classes for blind children were opened in November, 1907.
There are four centers for children in the various grades, and three
high schools that admit pupils. The enrollment is 57. The youngest
pupil, 5 years old, attends the kindergarten, and the oldest, 20 years, is
studying in high school. For details of the public school method of
educating the blind, see the Introduction to this section. Teacher in
charge, Miss Carrie B. Levy.
Co-education of the Wind and the Seeing, in the Public Schools of
Racine. One center was opened in February, 1909. Enrollment, 6.
The youngest pupil is 12, and the oldest 14. Details of this method of
instruction will be found in the Introduction to this section. Teacher
in charge, Catherine M. Light.
Workshop for the Blind. Milwaukee. Established, 1903. Number
of blind employees, 35. They occupy rented quarters. Annual state
appropriation, $8,455 for operation of the workshop, rent, power, light,
salary of superintendent, and instructors; $600 annually for purchase
of machinery and equipment, furniture, furnishings, and other per-
manent improvements. Allowance for labor to blind workmen in
1915 was $11,706.31, representing profit above the cost of material.
All men are paid by piece work. Indigent blind are allowed the dif-
ference between their earnings and their board and lodging while
learning a trade ; the allowance not to exceed $75.00 in any one case.
Superintendent, Oscar Kustermann.
P< usions far the Blind. The sum of $25.00 is paid quarterly to blind
males over 21 and females over 18 years of age, and not inmates of
any institution and having an income of less than $250.00 per annum.
Applicant must have been a resident of the state for 10 years and
county three years. Payment of this relief is at the discretion of the
County Board. The law has been in operation since 1907.
Wisconsin Association for the Blind. Incorporated, May, 1912.
Its purpose is to "promote the interests of the blind and to secure suf-
ficient legislation towards prevention of blindness." It is supported
by membership fees. In addition to the charter members any person
may become a member by paying the annual dues. Headquarters are
located at the place of business of the secretary. Secretary. Carrie
B. Levy, Board of Education, Milwaukee.
102 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
Libraries for the Blind. Janesville, School for the Blind. Six thou-
sand two hundred and eighty-five volumes ; 519 titles. The books are
circulated throughout the United States.
Milwaukee, Public Library. Three hundred and fifty volumes ; 254
titles. Books are circulated in Milwaukee.
Halifax School for the Blind. Founded, 1867. Opened, 1871.
Capacity, 150. Valuation of plant, $160,000. Supported by annual
Government grant of $5,000, and income from endowments. The
grounds contain four acres, two of which are available for recreational
purposes. There are two gymnasia.
This School is a monument to the ability and devotion of a blind
man who has been superintendent of the institution since it was estab-
lished. In addition to the usual industries referred to in the Intro-
duction to this section the girls are given a course in shampooing.
Aside from the fact that this fits each girl to take the best personal
care of herself, it frequently happens that it becomes a source of in-
come after she returns to her home. While it is doubtless a fact that
many of the schools on this continent have admirable mottoes, our
most northeasterly outpost has one that might well be hung in every
school for the blind, and it should certainly be adopted by those who
want to help the sightless. It is, "Opportunity, Occupation, Optimism."
The superintendent, Sir Frederick Fraser, has won for himself such
recognition in the community as a valuable citizen that he had
the unique distinction of being called to the bar of the legislature and
publicly thanked forhis services. A similar event had not taken place
in the province for 84 years. In June, 1915, this splendid leader of
the blind was still further honored, having been knighted by King
George. It is noteworthy that the only two men working for the
benefit of the blind who have received such an honor at the hands of
the British sovereign are both blind, and both have virtually created
the schools over which they presided for 40 years. It is remarkable,
also, that they began their respective schools within 12 months of each
other. The first (to whom we have referred) is Sir Frederick Fraser.
of the School in Halifax, and the other is Sir Francis Campbell, of
the Royal Normal College for the Blind, London, England.
Home Teaching Society for the Blind. Headquarters at School for
the Blind, Halifax, N. S.
Maritime Association for the Blind. Founded, 1908. The organi-
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND 103
zation is maintained by subscriptions, and income from endowments.
There is an annual fee of $1.00. It is the purpose of the organization
to care for graduates and procure ready employment for them. Head-
quarters at Halifax School for the Blind. President, S. R. Hussey,
School for the Blind, Halifax, N. S.
Libraries for the Blind. Halifax, Circulating Library for the Blind.
Five hundred volumes, 350 titles. The books are circulated throughout
Canada and Newfoundland.
School for the Blind, Sherbrook St., West., Notre Dame de Grace.
Founded, 1912. Capacity, 40. Valuation of plant, $100,000. Sup-
ported by voluntary contributions. The school owns 10 acres of land,
5 of which are available for athletics. There is a gymnasium. For
requirements for admission, course, terms, and purpose of instruction,
see Introduction to this section. Director, P. E. Layton.
Montreal Association for the Blind. Founded, 1908. Supported by
voluntary contributions. A broom shop, giving employment to 14
men, is operated. Valuation of broom shop building, $35,000. The
Association for the Blind is entirely responsible for the ■ raising of
funds and founding of the school for the blind. At the present time
the school for the blind youtli and the workshop are located on the
same lot of land. The president of the association 4 is Lt. Col. E. B.
Busteed. Honorary Treasurer, Philip E. Layton; Honorary Secre-
tary, Mrs. Philip E. Layton.
The Nazareth Asylum, 95 St. Catherine St., W., Montreal. A
French Catholic institution. A school and home. One hundred French
blind in the institution. Supported by a government grant and private
The Mackay Institute for the Deaf and the Blind, 221 Boulevard De
Carie, Montreal. Began taking pupils in 1876. This is a protestant
institution for English-speaking deaf and blind. Supported by a gov-
ernment grant and private subscriptions. At present there are only
six blind children at the Mackay Institute.
Libraries for the Blind. Montreal, School for the Blind. Six hun-
dred volumes. Books loaned to the blind of the province of Quebec.
School for the Blind, Brantford. Founded, 1872. Capacity, 150.
Valuation of plant, $400,000. Annual cost to Provincial Government,
$47,749.66. The school grounds comprise 104 acres, of which about
half is cultivated, the remainder being lawn and shrubbery. Ten
104 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
acres are available for athletics. There is a gymnasium. For re-
quirements for admission, course, term, and purpose of instruction,
see the Introduction to this section. Superintendent, H. F. Gardiner.
Libraries for the Blind. Brantford, School for the Blind. Two
thousand volumes for circulation among the blind throughout the
province. The books used in the Ontario public schools are printed
in New York Point at the Brantford School for the use of the pupils,
also hymn and song books and music for piano and organ. It is very
interesting to note that Superintendent Gardiner has worked out a
practical set of instructions to enable relatives or friends (without
preliminary study, training, or instruction) to te.ach the blind at their
homes to read New York Point. The sheets are printed in ink-print
and in New York Point, and Mr. Gardiner is pleased to supply appli-
cants without charge no matter in what country they may live. The
system is particularly useful to men and women who lose their sight
when too old to attend school.
Library for the Blind. Toronto, Canadian Free Library for the
Blind. Four thousand two hundred and fifty-seven volumes; 1280
titles; 1500 musical selections. Books are circulated free throughout
Canada, and loaned occasionally to readers in the United States. The
library is supported partly by grants from several provincial govern-
ments but mainly by private contributions.
NATIONAL WORK FOR THE BLIND IN THE UNITED STATES.
American Association of Instructors of the Blind. On August 16,
1853, delegates from fourteen different institutions, representing as
many states, met in accordance with previous arrangements at the
New York Institution, and effected the organization of the body which
has since been so potent a factor in advancing the interests of the
blind. This was a notable event. It was the first meeting of the
kind ever held on the American continent. It was presided over by
Dr. Samuel G. Howe. The immediate object of this meeting was to
discuss the propriety of petitioning Congress to grant a subsidy for
a permanent printing fund for the use of the blind, and although
other questions were considered, they seem of small importance
in comparison with this. The agitation on this subject lie-
gun then did not cease until March, 1879, when an act was
passed by the Congress of the United States setting apart, as a
perpetual fund, $250,000, the interest of which is annually used
in providing books and apparatus suitable for instructing the blind.
This result alone justifies the existence of the association. Consider
for a moment, what was involved therein. It was the first recognition
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND 105
by the general government that the blind had any rights which de-
served its respect. It had made provision by grants of land to further
the education of seeing children, it had aided the deaf and dumb, it
had considered the Indian and the Negro, and it had not refused to
allow the alien participation in these privileges; but until this act
passed the children who live in continuous night had been neglected
and ignored. It was a triumph of human rights, and it germinated in
the first meeting of the association.
The second convention was not held until August, 1871. It met
at the Indiana Institution in Indianapolis, pursuant to a circular
issued by W. H. Churchman, superintendent, in which the immediate
object of the meeting was declared to be the adoption of a uniform
system of printing; for the blind. This convention approved the books
printed in the modified Roman lower case type, known as the Boston
letter, and also those printed in the combined system of the capital
and angular lower case letter. At the same time it was resolved that
the New York horizontal point alphabet, as arranged by Mr. Wait,
should be taught in all institutions for the blind. This was the begin-
ning of the agitation with reference to point print. There were also
discussions on the capacity of the blind to engage in commercial
and domestic pursuits, concerning the teaching of more manual arts
in the schools, with reference to the education of the deaf and dumb
and the blind in the same institution, and regarding musical educa-
tion, besides other minor questions.
Since 1871 the American Association of Instructors of the Blind
have met nearly every other year at various institutions throughout
the country. When the United* States Government set aside funds
for the production of books for the education of blind children, the
superintendents of schools were practically made an advisory commit-
tee of the American Printing House for the Blind, and this fact gave
a real reason for the actual coming together of the superintendents.
While the type question has been a fertile source of discussion from
the very foundation of this organization, helpful papers have been
presented upon all phases of work for and by the blind. Secretary,
George D. Eaton, superintendent, School for the Blind, Vinton, Iowa.
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF WORKERS FOR THE BLIND.
In the spring of 1895 some graduates of the Missouri School for
the Blind sent invitations to a number of persons believed to be inter-
ested in securing permanent provision for the higher education of
the blind, and a meeting was held in St. Louis in September of that
year which resulted in an organization entitled the Missouri National
106 INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND
College Association, the purpose of which was to secure from the
Federal Government an appropriation to establish a college for the
blind. The second convention was held in 1896, again in St. Louis, and
the special college idea was found to be unpopular and was abandoned.
The local organization was then placed upon a national basis, and the
name changed to The American Blind Peoples' Higher Education
and General Improvement Association.
Other meetings were held from year to year and gradually this
organization interested itself in all phases of work for the blind. At
the eighth convention, which met at the Michigan Employment Insti-
tution for the Blind in 1905, a revised constitution was adopted and
the name changed to The American Association of Workers for the
Blind and, by receiving most of the workers present into member-
ship, one of the ideals of the early promoters was realized — a perfect
union of the blind and those actively engaged in work for the blind.
From that time to the present meetings of this Association have been
held during the odd years so that there would be no conflict with the
meetings of the A. A. I. B. which holds its meetings during the even
years. The A. A. W. B., like that of the older organization, soon
became interested in the difficult type question and appointed a com-
mittee of blind men and women which has been known as the ' ' Uniform
Type Committee" which has worked for ten years upon this compli-
The A. A. "W. B., like the A. A. I. B., has held discussions relative
to all phases of work for the blind. The only difference between
the two organizations is that the older association confines its mem-
bership to those concerned with the education of blind youth, while
the A. A. W. B. includes not only these but all others who are inter-
ested in any work for the blind. It may be said that the greatest
work accomplished by the younger society is that it has brought about
a better understanding between the blind and all workers for the
blind. Secretary. Charles F. F. Campbell, superintendent, School for
the Blind, Columbus, Ohio.
UNIFORM TYPE COMMISSION
In 1915 the A. A. I. B. and the A. A. W. B. (just referred to) held
their conferences in California. The final report of the Uniform Type
Committee, of the A. A. W. B., was presented and accepted. This
report recommended, among other things, the establishment of a Uni-
form Type Commission which should represent both organizations
and have the power to confer with a similar commission in England.
This Commission was composed of a representative from each organiza-
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND 107
tion and a third chosen by these two, together with the presidents of
both organizations as members ex-officio and one honorary member.
This Commission presented its report at the 1916 convention of the
American Association of Instructors of the Blind and the following
resolutions were adopted :
Fi rs t — That the American Association of Instructors of the Blind
in convention assembled adopt officially and urge upon the blind of
America and those interested in the work for the blind to adopt indi-
vidually and officially "Revised Braille," Grades I and II, as now
authorized in Great Britain, Provided however, that the duly au-
thorized English Committee on Uniform Type come to a full agree-
ment with our American Commission on Uniform Type for the Blind
concerning such modifications in "Revised Braille" as have been
proposed by the American Commission or as may be proposed by
either the American Commission on Uniform Type or the English
Committee on Uniform Type.
Second — That the Commission on Uniform Type be continued and
that it be expanded to include representatives of residential schools,
public schools having classes for the blind, home teachers, embossed
printing presses and libraries for the blind, these representatives to
he named by the President of the American Association of Instructors
of the Blind after due consultation witli the President of the American
Association of Workers for the Blind. Executive Secretary, H. Ran-
dolph Latimer, 222:} North Charles Street, Baltimore, Md.
AMERICAN PRINTING HOUSE FOR THE BLIND. LOUISVILLE, KY.
Established, 1858, by an act of the general assembly of Kentucky.
At first, its resources were derived from a concession of the state of
Kentucky of $5.00 a year for each blind person in the state. In 1879
the U. S. Government set aside a fund providing an annual subsidy
for this National printing house of $10,000. The books produced
from this national grant are divided upon a per capita basis to all
of the schools throughout the country. In 1883 a fund of $40,000 had
accumulated from the state of Kentucky with which a building Avas
erected. Unfortunately the national subsidy has not been increased
to keep pace with the increase in the blind population of the country,
and, at the present time, a much larger fund could profitably be used.
Superintendent, B. B. Huntoon. See, also. Alphabets and literature
for the blind.
THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, READING ROOM FOR THE BLIND.
In 1897 there was opened in the Library of Congress a "Room for
the Blind." This room serves as a repository for books used by the