Charles Frederick Holder.

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by the old hunter and trapper, Seth
Kinman. And he told the story of
it, caressing it all the time : ' I crossed
the plains in '46, and me, the mule,
and my old violin was true compan-



768



CALIFORNIA AT THE WORLD'S FAIR.



ions; sometimes not seeing a human
face for a year. And when I'd get
the old fiddle out and commence to
play, that old mule would stick up
his ears, leave his feed, and putting
his head in the door of the tent or
cabin, would wag his ears as long as
I played, never leaving to feed. And/
I used to wonder if he wasn't musi-
cal. In '51 I rode him, a pioneer,
into Humboldt; and when he died of




:kty bell



>S ANGEI.E



old age I cut down a tree, split out
boards, and made the violin out of
the skull, in memory of the hardships
we endured together. ' Both are dead
now, man and mule, and the old
mule's-head fiddle is wanted for the
musical conservatory of Berlin, but I
have refused three hundred dollars
for it, thinking such things should
stay in America. This bear-skin



chair was also made by Seth Kinman
for Dom Pedro, and all the prelimi-
naries made for presentation, when
he overheard Dom Pedro say some-
thing detrimental to the American
Government. He returned to the
hotel, packed the chair, and returned
home, and Dom Pedro was out a^/
chair."

There, in the northeast corner of
the building, is the Grain Palace of
Butte, a structure dou-
ble-walled with glass
and filled in with a hun-
dred and eighty - four
varieties of grain. Curi-
ous are the pictures that
one finds inside. They
are made of grains and
grasses and are the work
of a skilful Spanish art-
ist. An odd idea, that
Butte display.

Shasta is proud of
her fruits, minerals, and
woods. She has no fruit
in jars: it is all fresh
and renewed from day
to day. Tehama is the
yoke-fellow of Shasta,
and glories in her wealth
of oranges and olives.
She has tons of tooth-
some nuts from the
almond orchards. By
the way, I've been a spy
upon that tree, and I
find it is

"The first to brag with
bloom, the last to bear."

We now seem to be
s county. entering a temple — it is

the county of Sacra-
mento. Here are grains and fruits
without end. So fine and perfect are
the grapes and peaches (the bloom is
yet upon them) that people from be-
nighted lands insist that the fruit is
made of wax.

We walk through the pavilions of
Alameda ; we glance at her fruits and
grains, but we weary of these riches
— peaches white and red, pillars of



CALIFORNIA AT THE WORLD'S FAIR.



769



fruit, sugar in crystalline cubes, pre-
serves in globes and Egyptian jars,
brown wheat and white barley, tea-
plants and tall corn, grapes from' roll-
ing hills, oranges from sheltered can-
yons. There is a moment left to
glance at the relief map of the county.
It strikes the imagination. You will
enjoy, also, the relief maps of Cali-
fornia and of San Francisco.

We are now in the southern wing
of the building, by the bronze statue
of Marshall, the discoverer of our
gold. He stands in the centre of the
mining display of the State. Here
is free gold from the Delhi ; gold in
white quartz from Siskiyou; crystals
of quartz and leaf gold from Plumas ;
big nuggets from Nevada; diamonds
found in the gold-dust of old river-
beds; wire-gold from Green Moun-
tain; marbles from the quarries of
Inyo; serpentine from Amador; ru
bellite (red tourmaline) from San
Diego; aluminium from San Bernar-
dino; asphaltum and petroleum from
Kern and Ventura; softly colored
onyx from San Luis Obispo. Look
into these slabs of polished onyx:
there are clouds there that stir not
and mountain ranges that never heard
the noise of cow-bells.

Now we go to the gallery above.
Here is the work of the schools and the
colleges. Berkeley and Palo Alto
show photographs of their universi-
ties. Here is some crayon work, fig-
ures from life, from the Mark Hopkins
Institute of Art. These studies are
perhaps the best work in this de-
partment. Mills College shows views
of her buildings and grounds. The
work of the Cogswell Polytechnic
compares favorably with anything in
the Department of Liberal Arts. A
fine showing of manual-training work
comes from the San Jose" Normal
School. The manager of the depart-
ment, Miss Katherine M. Casey, goes
with us. " Quote me as saying," she
says, "that the Oakland exhibit is
more complete and satisfactory than
any other public-school exhibit. Also
that the work of the little school at



Temescal is my pet display." Santa
Clara, San Diego, Los Angeles, Ala-
meda, and Humboldt counties make
excellent showings. There is no




MULE-HEAD Viol IN AND \\ HA1.K-BONE SEAT-
HUMBOLDT COUN I Y



time for the pictorial exhibit of the
churches; for the good work of the
Blind Asylum and the School for
the Feeble-Minded.

In the west wing is the historical
exhibit, under the management of
Mrs. Mary E. Hart, of Los Angeles.
Here are things without end to de-
light the eye and warm the heart of
the antiquary. Our three eras are
represented — the aboriginal, the mis-
sion, and the pioneer. First we come
to an Indian tepee or wigwam, made
of untanned deer-skin, ornamented
with figures of strange beings mov-
ing wildly in procession. Look at
these old musical instruments, faded
garments, odd implements for gas
crude primitive machinery for pre-
paring food. There is no time to
examine these vases, these reliqua-
ries. Now we come to a later day —
to rude pictures painted by the early
Indian converts, a series of pictures,
fourteen in number, representing
the fourteen "stations of the cross."
These were recently discovered
walled up in San Fernando Mission.



77°



CALIFORNIA AT THE WORLD'S FAIR.



They look like old Egyptian paint-
ings ; some of the faces and figures
seem identical with those upon the
walls of the Egyptian temples in
Cairo. Here, also, is a model of the
San Luis Rey Mission; also, a curi-
ously carved bench of Indian work-
manship; also, an old worm-eaten
door from Mission. San Gabriel and
a crumbling chime-wheel from San
Juan Capistrano. An old clumsy
plough used by the early Mexican in-
habitants of the State takes us back to
the crooked stick of the ancients. It
was made from the bough of a tree,
a branch of which forms the single
handle of this strange implement.
The place where the hand held is worn
smooth. What a tragic interest hangs
round this homely relic! Think of the
men who have staggered behind it;
and now it is the one witness of their
anxious efforts, the one thing left on
earth to tell the story of their days.

Of the Wells-Fargo display vol-
umes could be written, for every
corner and cranny of their room has
some reminder of the life of desper-
ate men. Everywhere are trophies
that recall the masked men at the
sharp turn in the road, the " hold-up, "
the mountain trail, the hunted tramp.
Much, too, could be written of the
Art Gallery. Among the important
paintings are five Keiths and two
Matthews. The gallery has many
visitors. No other State has a sepa-
rate collection of paintings.

Now the work of the women of
California! They have a just pride
in what they have done. Notice the
grace and beauty of that circular col-
onnade below us. It was erected for
San Mateo, but is a part of women's
work. Also the Pampas Palace that
we passed. Yonder, too, are a thou-
sand dainty things from Southern
California — silk embroideries, dec-
orated china, Mexican drawn-work,
oil-paintings, souvenirs. Also a dis-
play of wild-flowers painted on na-
tive woods, from Mendocino ; carved
easels from Alameda ; sea-weed and
shells from Monterey and Santa Cruz.



To the women we owe also the at-
tractive and restful San Francisco
room. It contains the exhibit of our
literature and music. The former is
in charge of the well-known writer,
Mrs. Ella Sterling Cummins; the
latter was arranged by Mrs. John
Vance Cheney, the president of the
Century Club. This room, designed
by Mr. Edmund Russell, is made of
fragrant redwood; a dull copper is
the prevailing tone. On one hand
are portraits of Emma Nevada, Sybil
Sanderson, Karl Formes. In corners
are panels hung with strange instru-
ments of music — Chinese, Japanese,
Indian, and Hawaiian. Literature
is yonder on the west wall. There
we can get a taste of literary Cal-
ifornia — Joaquin Miller, Ambrose
Bierce, John Vance Cheney, Charles
Warren Stoddard; Miss Ina Cool-
brith, Mrs. Gertrude Atherton, and
the rest. Fine fire-etchings of some
of these are hung upon the walls.

Now we reach the Poppy and the
Wild-Flower rooms. Mrs. E. O.
Smith, president of the Board of
Women Managers, is here to meet us.
At the portal we pause to read Mrs.
Wagner's poppy poem, worked in
gold threads upon a white banner.
The Poppy room was made in honor
of the emblem flower of the State.
The divans and the decorations are
in white and yellow — white silk and
cloth of gold — and the walls are hung
with curtains of gold. On the ceil-
ing is the figure of a girl, golden-
haired and beautiful, throwing pop-
pies. Behind her are two cupids
sporting, and farther away are the
outlines of palms and gum-trees in a
rising rosy light. There is a golden
twilight always in the room. Now
push aside these portieres, and we
are in the Wild-Flower room. Here
everything is more simple and severe
in design. Long, delicate ferns hang
over a pedestal of green and yellow
marble. The walls are draped with
folds of olive-green silk; and against
these hang our wild-flowers in water-
colors.



CALIFORNIA AT THE WORLD'S FAIR.



At last we pass down through the long build-
ing to the open air. As we near the door a
man of Ventura rushes up to me: " For Heav-
en's sake, writer, don't forget to put in my
Bean Pagoda! It draws a bigger crowd than
anything in the house. Put it in: it will help
the magazine." Conscience-stricken, I take
my pencil and take down his words: "The
Ventura County bean pagoda is after the ideas
of Captain N. Blackstock, a leading attorney
of Ventura. I am giving you some important



77i





TOP OF CALIFORNIA BUILDING.



names. The architect was George C.
Power, of Ventura. Captain W. H. A.
Thompson, of West Saticoy, is man-
ager of the exhibit, and F. A. Foster,
of Ventura, arranged the beans. The
size of the pagoda is twenty-three
and a half feet, extreme height, and
twelve feet from side to side, with an
octagon base. It contains one ton of
beans; has six hundred and fifteen
apartments, faced with glass and
filled with beans. On its top are
beans growing in pots. All these
beans are from Ventura County. "

At the door I look back over it all.
I see the figure of California, looking
•down upon us, silent and satisfied.
Here are the products of the thrifty
tillers of the earth. Let them take
courage in their work, for, ages ago,



Zoroaster left his blessing upon them.
Open your Zend-Avesta and read :

" Not for the righteous —
Not for the thrifty tillers of the earth
Shall there be destruction together
With the wicked. "

But there is a touch of pathos in
the fact that this great structure,
built with so much anxious thought,
is only for a day. Yes, all this White
City that has come so suddenly is to
pass away as suddenly. It is only for
a day: a little while and all these
towers and domes, these white walls,
these colonnades, these sculptures,
these thronging forms, these voices,
this music — all this vast fabric that
touches the earth so lightly — will
suddenly break and disappear.




















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1 Ism


Bf 4


V j




l^m m 1 1 <<





U Music nou^' bub cold ^uueri^l S"oui|c
Kuno Forth, iifcup^ to pitfty tft .car,

J\]t Voic< thai wh«5p^3 fro ni khiimtyown sg
Of life and imortaritjj —
The soul's bnghticjeallfcuc .

Full oft somt Simple mcl&chj °^'W'

Or staling f^*| 5omegmtleVoiU ,h



■H- •■



|UIC



K'i



rvlroi



Or « >2n a

En thrills w'ifckecstasif th«j**$V
/\ncj l»K< ^fl^ttin^.p^antoiYi slk^Ji
7hcre corner a\(5ion % dim^hoj unci
ThaJrf ills the Soul with lon$i'n§ 1 <H<
AVa^u^, familiar foni) orface.,
Some dim-re numbered s eerier pU^e, -
Eritfpalling now th,e Soul's c^^ptur-ed ^2rc
With taq^ahViqo mi'mono of daip
Long Since departed with, tty VireSrmi mijl
ThtaLs^kingsurjojrjLj^^rd^ ha> Ki^yd,\>fi



^H



L





1-5 |t the Virion of the- s e daus returned
^Ons> but t^rvjeinVu of a dream 1
Whoje irripre^ on, die nfiqci had been unlearned

In brightened by thf muyc^m.as'c tymt,?

Ormau it b'c trai-Kcerjdent' memonj

Of preexi<jteqt life in, faint rehear^
A^ throb^ bV-je hidden chord of rm/5ter_y
That binck the^Sou/ with, ail tl-jf universe
Arujpulscs'unfch the l«'f f diVnif
Bejyond the Spirts mortal- shrine
Whe j K. >er the myotic melodies of earth

In tristful ^Knnphony or mellow mirth
5>\jk touch m tini^oi] the viral note
Unikino dickanfc worjd^ h°w« 'cr remote ?
Tor oft £h.« s °ul that ne'er before §a/e si^n
Of lift or love^ but ^lumberecj oq unKnoujq,
AwaKcj oqe d«3y within the t tjr^ II divinf
Of ^omc elecrrfc, ^ym pa the tic tone, ]
TMit thrill^ the latent joul with /if e S|
y glow with, wild, tc$tatj< strife*
As ^°CS ^ touch of nature's breath Unfola

Thf hidden ^arl/thou ? hsH'm.n^ c ^M^c-(;
Anc| bnnvs ^ofi^ht: ^ mystery ccmbm
A l.'fc ond beauty qor\l hac| e'er divrn'j




I i






/'



THE EARLY AMERICANS.



BY PROFESSOR GEORGE N. RICHARDSON.




V E R an im-
mense region,
including large
portions of Col-
orado, New
Mexico, Arizo-
na, and Utah,
are scattered
countless ruins
of edifices that
were once the
habitations of a by-gone people.
Who these people were, whence they
came, and what was the cause of their
disappearance — or almost total dis-
appearance, if the Zuni and Moqui
are remnants of them — the archaeolo-
gist cannot inform us; but it is cer-
tain that the whole of the great terri-
tory which they occupied was once as
densely populated as the most popu-
lous rural districts in the United
States at the present time. There
was no place on the wrinkled surface
of the land that they did not inhabit;
in deep canyons, fertile valleys, mid-
way up the faces of frowning cliffs,
on rolling mesas, and on the summits
of almost inaccessible rocks they con-
structed their abodes.

That those who inhabited the val-
leys and the lowlands were a peace-
ful agricultural race there can be no
•doubt; but what manner of people
were those who lived in the cave
dwellings and built those impregna-
ble fortresses, the cliff-houses? Who
were the enemies that compelled
them to find safety on inaccessible
crags? W T hy should the quiet settle-
ments on the banks of streams be left
unmolested, while the cave-dwellers
and builders of the cliff-houses were
made subject to attack? Were the
latter contemporaneous with the val-
ley tribes? These are questions un-
answered as yet by the ethnologist.



There are, however, theorists who
incline to the opinion that the teem-
ing population which originally in-
habited the mesas and valleys were
driven to make their homes in the
cliffs by the invasion of powerful
tribes from the north, and that phys-
ical changes which occurred at a
later epoch rendered the region un-
inhabitable, causing an exodus of
both conquerors and conquered.

Coronado was the first explorer to
enter the territory of the cliff-dwell-
ers and verify the rumors that had
reached the Spaniards of their exist-




CLIFF-DWELLING, MANCOS CANYON.



774



THE EARLY AMERICANS.



775



ence. That was in 1540, and in
August of that year, in his report
to the Viceroy of Mexico, he gave
a description of the " Seven Cities
of Cibola," the site of which has
not been accurately determined.
Hubert Howe Bancroft, in his
" Native Races," is of the opinion
that the evidence in favor of Old
Zuni being the ruins of Coronado's
celebrated " Seven Cities" is con-
clusive. Gallatin, Squier, Whip-
ple, Turner, Kern, and Simpson
are cf the same belief, but Ban-
croft supports his conclusion main-
ly on the statement made by Es-
pejo, who visited the locality some
years after Coronado's expedition,
and who distinctly says that the
place was called Zuni by the na-
tives and Cibola by the Spaniards.
Another opinion is that the ruins
of these ancient pueblos lie on the
Chaco River, an affluent of the
San Juan. These cliff-dwellings in
time were lost sight of, and it was
not until exploring expeditions
sent by the United States into the
region discovered ruins and archae-
ological remains of importance that
the interest of scientists was aroused.




.IFF-DWELLINO.



Various exploring parties visited the
locality, but nothing of importance
was gained until the Hayden survey




CUFF-DWELLING IN* MANCOS CANYON.



776



THE EARLY AMERICANS.



during 1874-76, when Mr. William
H. Holmes and Mr. W. H. Jackson
furnished valuable information with
respect to numerous ruins which they
examined.

Last year a scientific expedition
into the San Juan district was organ-
ized by The Illustrated American Pub-
lishing Company
of New York, un-
der the auspices of
the Smithsonian
Museum of Wash-
ington, the Amer-
ican Museum of
Natural History of
New York, and the
Peabody Museum
of Boston. The
members of the
party were select-
ed with care, and
the results have
been a grand addi-
tion to archaeologi-
cal knowledge, im-
portant discoveries
of ruins and of rel-
ics that reveal the
habits and cus-
toms, the indus-
tries and occupa-
tions of the ancient
inhabitants, and
the finding of new
fields for future
explorations.

The ground ex-
plored by the expe-
dition covers the
four corners where
the States of Col-
orado and Arizona
and the Territories
of Utah and New
Mexico join to-
gether. For several months canyon
after canyon was visited, cliff after
cliff was climbed at risk of life and
limb, while ever and anon dangerous
streams were descended and waterless
deserts were crossed. The first ruins
visited were those of the pueblos at
Aztec, New Mexico. The party then



proceeded northward to the valley of
the Rio de la Plata, and during their
future movements McElmo, Hoven-
weep, and Ruin Canyons were visited
and examined, as also Butler's Wash,
Comb Wash, Monarch Canyon, Allen
Canyon, and other places. Every-
where ruins were found pointing to




CLIFF-DWELLING, MANCOS CANYON.

the fact that the ancient population
of the region had been at one stage of
its existence very great.

In most of these ruins were found
fragments of pottery, and in some in-
stances unbroken specimens were un-
earthed displaying decorations and
designs that mutely spoke of the high



THE EARLY AMERICANS.



777



degree of skill and art to which the
ancient potter had attained. The
samples unearthed consisted princi-
pally of bowls, water-jugs, and jars
of various forms, and earthen vessels
of the shape of the modern frying-
pan. Arrow-heads, flint knives, and
stone axes were also found, and hu-
man skeletons, these latter being
found in the burial-mounds on the
mesas and in the valleys. Of the
manner in which the cliff-dwellers
disposed of their dead we shall speak
later.

In the McElmo and Hovenweep
Canyons were discovered numerous
picture-writings, the most interest-
ing of these being in Yellow Jacket
Canyon, about one mile to the east of
the junction of the Hovenweep and
McElmo Creeks, where there " is a
large cave-shelter with the remains
of a tower on top of the boulder. One
side of the rock was literally covered
with picture-writings and signs.
The human form, deer, goats, lizards,
snakes, bears, turkeys, and many
other birds and animals are plainly
distinguishable, while intermingled
with the figures are many hiero-
glyphics." The occurrence of the
Swastika cross, however, was re-
garded as the most important dis-
covery made in that group of picto-
graphs. This cross is a Mexican and
Central American symbol, and its
presence at this distant point would
seem to indicate that the inhabitants
of the cliffs were conversant to some
extent with the religious rites of the
nations in the south. The same
symbol has been found in the ruins
of the Mancos Canyon.

In San Juan County, Utah, is the
famous Ruin Canyon, with its circu-
lar, semi-circular, and square towers,
and its ruins of great buildings.
These remains the exploring party
examined carefully, and several very
curious facts presented themselves in

I connection with the existence of the
ancient inhabitants, namely, that the
ruins are a considerable distance



canyon is not tillable ; the buildings
were constructed for defensive pur-
poses, each one being a fortress in
itself; and that there could be found
no cemetery or burying-ground.
How did these people live, when in
Ruin Canyon there was no soil in
which to raise a crop? Tlfe numen ms
picture-writings on the cliffs reveal
the sources of subsistence. Tin
ures of goats and sheep appear wher-
ever these pictographs are Been, and
we know that the cliff-dweller
these animals and were thus supplied
with food, milk, and clothing.

The southeast corner of Utah is a
desolate land, cut and slashed and
torn in all directions by deep gorges
and wild canyons, and abounding in
precipitous cliffs pierced by g-
caves and caverns. In this uninviting
region the ancient cave-dweller found
refuge from his foes, and evidence
of his former presence is everywhere
visible. A number of these cave
shelters and dwellings in Butler's
Wash, Comb Wash, and Cottonwood
Gulch were visited by the expedition,
but the most picturesque group of
ruins yet discovered by them was in
a beautiful little box canyon running
about half a mile into the rocky divide
which separates Butler's Wash and
Comb Wash. In it shady cotton-
wood trees, green shrubbery, and
flowering plants greeted the toil-w< >rn
explorers and cool running water
quenched their thirst. At the far
end of this little paradise, in a des-
ert wilderness, a large cavern is
formed in the cliffs as they meet.
The ruins in this cave, which is
thirty-five feet high and over fifty-
seven feet deep, with their curved
fronts and numerous port-holes, give
them the appearance of a modern for-
tress. The cave is one hundred feet
above the floor of the canyon and can
only be reached by using the ancient
footholds cut in the steep surface of
the sandstone ledge. Mr. Lewis W.
Gunckel, geologist of the expedition,
thus describes this interesting cave-
dwelling:



77 8



THE EARLY AMERICANS.



" Judging from the
large number of port-
holes in these ruins, the
structure was evidently
intended for a fortifica-
tion. In one room we
counted twenty -five
port-holes. From these
the defenders could send
their deadly arrows in
every direction. The
front walls of the most
prominent rooms are
all rounded, so that by
means of the port-holes
the whole canyon below
could be commanded.
The entire aspect of the
cave is of defence and
protection rather than

Hf/A / :/ '"^- - comfort.

* f iJtl TliJF&- " The buildings in the

north end of the cave
give perfect illustrations
as to the methods of roof-
ing when the buildings
did not extend up to the roof of the
cave. Two heavy beams or rafters
were laid across the top of the
building, parallel with each other, as
the foundation for the roof. Then over
these brush and small sticks were laid
crosswise to a thickness of three inches, and upon
this was set a layer of adobe mud about three or
four inches thick, neatly plastered down. The
roofs in Monarch's Cave (thus named by the expe-
3 dition) still show the finger-marks of the ancient builders. Some of
these buildings are two stories in height, the upper story being in a
good state of preservation, although the floors have fallen through. In one
case, the entrance to the upper room is by a small door in the wall, which
is reached by means of a cedar log laid across to the next dwelling. The
log is a little lower than the sill of the door, and for convenience of enter-
ing a stone protrudes from the building, serving as a step from the log to
the door above. It is truly a unique way of entering one's residence, and it
is the only case which we have noticed."

On the walls of the cave representations of the human hand were found
in great numbers, colored red, white, and green. Rude picture-writings
were also seen both inside the cave and along the sides of the cliff, while in
some of the rooms neatty worked stone axes were found by digging, as well



Online LibraryCharles Frederick HolderThe Californian (Volume 4) → online text (page 104 of 120)