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as arrow-heads, pieces of matting, string, corncobs, and sticks with balls of
pitch on the end for torches.

The symbol of the hand is one of the most ancient known to archaeolo-
gists, and is as widely spread as the symbols of the Swastika and the ser-
pent; it appears in the walls of ancient temples and palaces of Assyria, it is




found in Yucatan and in the length
and breadth of the Mississippi Valley.
Civilized nations and barbaric races
of the past used it, and it is still pre-
served in our legal documents in the
words "witness our hand and seal."
Though the origin of it is lost in the
mists of the past, it was the most nat-

by numerous pictographs of animals
and inanimate objects. In almost all
cases they are located in such inac-
cessible places or are so indefinite
that it is quite impossible to secure

" The rear walls of each of the fif-
teen chambers of th<


ural symbol for primitive man to
make use of to represent possession,
strength, and authority. The impres-
sions on the walls and over the doors
of the buildings in which the ancient
cliff-dwellers lived were probably the
marks of ownership used by succes-
sive possessors during many genera-
tions of a family ; but the symbol was
put to different uses by different peo-
ples. With regard to its prevalence
in the buildings and cave-shelters
of the cliff-dwellers, an anonymous
writer in the Illustrated American of
August 13th, 1892, makes these re-

" The hand is, of all pictographs,
the symbol of most frequent occur-
rence. It is cut into the rock or
painted upon it in red, yellow, or
black. Sometimes it stands alone
over the entrance to a dwelling, and
sometimes on the walls surrounded

se\ erui

{sic) cavern are stamped with s
hands of ordinary si
them is cut into the rock ; i
case the owner or dweller seen:
have dipped his hand into red paint,
and then firmly pressed his palm and
fingers against a smooth portion of
the wall. wSince it seems incredible
that so light a paint could have 1.
through the thousands of yt
probable that the color was thickened
by the laying on of more paint over
the lines of the first made. It is ob-
servable that the right hand pre<:
inates, and by actual count we found
the average to be an excess of over
seventy per cent."

The Casa del Eco is a famous relic
ot the cliff-dwellers. It was discov-
ered and named by the Hayden
survey expedition, and both Mr.
Holmes and Mr. Jackson have given
descriptions of it. Mr. Jackson thus



writes of it: "The opening of the
cave is almost perfectly circular, two
hundred feet in diameter, divided
equally between the two kinds of
rocks (light-colored sandstone and a
dark red variety), reaching, within a
few feet, the top of the bluff above
and the level of the valley below.
It- runs back in a semicircular sweep
to a depth of one hundred feet ; the
top is a perfect half-dome, and the
lower half only less so from the
accumulation of ddbris and the thick,
brushy foliage, the cool dampness
of its shadowed interior, where the
sun never touches, favoring a luxu-
rious growth."

After describing the buildings that
extend along this semicircular floor
he remarks: " The whole appearance
of the place and its surroundings in-
dicates that the family or little com-
munity who inhabited it were in good
circumstances and the lords of the
surrounding country. Looking out
from one of their houses, with a great
dome of rock overhead, that echoed
and re-echoed every word uttered
with marvellous distinctness, and all
about a steep descent of one hundred
feet down to the broad fertile val-
leys, covered with waving fields of
maize, the scattered groves of the ma-
jestic cottonwood, and the meander-
ings of the Rio San Juan, these old
people, whom even the imagination
can hardly clothe with reality, must
have felt a sense of security that even
the incursions of their barbarous foes
could hardly have disturbed."

A favorite resort of the cliff-inhab-
iting people was the canyon of the
Rio Mancos, and traces of their in-
dustry may be found everywhere, on
river bottom, cliff, and table-land.
A special feature of the relics in this
canyon are the ruins of round towers,
which occupied positions of different
elevations, some being on high pro-
montories, others on the edges of
cliffs and erected immediately above
cave-dwellings, and others again
quite low, within twenty or thirty feet
of the river-bed. Some of these

towers were surrounded by a high
wall, the space being divided into
compartments, and near the mouth
of the Rio Mancos occurs a double
tower, the smaller one having a
diameter of fifteen feet, that of the
larger one tangent to it being forty
feet. They are built on the edge of
the cliff, the smaller and outside one
having been the tower proper. About
midway up the canyon on a narrow
strip of alluvial bottom is situated a
large circular ruin which has been
named the great tower of Mancos
Canyon. It represents the class of
towers that were protected by an
outer wall. This ruin is in an ad-
vanced vStage of decay, attesting to
its great antiquity. The inner wall,
however, can be traced throughout
the entire circle, being in places six
feet and eight feet high. A portion
of the outer wall is still standing and
is twelve feet in height. The diame-
ter of the outer wall is forty-three feet
and that of the inner twenty-five feet.
The space between the walls was di-
vided into compartments or cells, ten
in number according to geometrical
calculations made by Mr. Holmes
based upon four of the partition walls
which still remain in a fair state of
preservation. Each compartment
communicated with the central in-
closure by means of an entrance or
doorway six feet above the ground,
and measuring two feet in width and
three feet in height. " It may be
fairly presumed," says Mr. Holmes,
" that the outer wall had no doorway
or windows within reach of the
ground, and that entrance was ob-
tained, by means of ladders, through
high windows or by way of the roof."
Valuable as were the results of the
expedition sent out by the Illustrated
American Publishing Company with
respect to discoveries made and the
interest that will be aroused in these
ancient remains, another most im-
portant matter was accomplished, and
that was the securing for the Smith-
sonian Institution the great collection
of cliff-dwellers' relics that was in



the possession of Mr. Charles Mc-
Loyd, of Durango, Colorado. This
collection consists of 21,000 differ-
ent specimens and objects accumu-
lated during a period of many years
and under circumstances entailing
toil and danger. In itself it contains
the history of those ancient tribes,
and both ethnologist and archaeolo-
gist will have ample means of pursu-
ing their favorite studies to enable
them to penetrate the mysteries of
the past and read the records of an-
cient days. There are skulls and
mummies and skeletons to enable the
craniologist and scientist to tell us
about the mental and physical de-
velopment of the cliff-dweller; there
are his implements of war and indus-
try; pottery and household utensils;
there are specimens of his food, his
pipe, his dress, and his children's
playthings — silent recorders of his
-pursuits and industries, of the condi-
tions of his life and his domestic
habits. Surely, with such store of
relics the scientists will be able to
throw some light on the obscurity
which conceals from us alike his

origin and the cause of his extinc-

The relics found in these strange
ruins are for the most part unearthed
from a covering of fine dust and
rubbish, the accumulation of centu-
ries, work in which is very trying.
Indeed, the explorer is frequently
compelled to tie a damp sponge 1
his mouth and nostrils while engaged
in excavating.

At the end of May last a member
of the "II. J. Smith Exploring Com-
pany" passed through San 1-Yam
en route to Chicago. He
ing a consignment of cliff-dwell
relics to the World's Fair. Tin
bors of the exploring party to which
he was attached were best rewai
in the " Cliff Palace" city, in
Canyon, about six hundred and
miles southwest of Denver, the popu-
lation of which, judging from the
extent of the ruins, was estimated to
have been not less than one hundred
and fifty in number. Situated one
hundred and fifty feet below the c
of the bluff, this cliff village-
such it may be called — was live hun-





dred feet in length and one hundred
and twenty-five feet in depth. The
houses ranged from four to seven
stories in height, and the ground-floors
show one hundred and twenty-seven
rooms. The bed of the canyon lies
a thousand feet below.

The most interesting relics found
in this human eyrie were the remains
of the dead, many of them being in
mummy form. So dry is the atmos-
phere in that arid region that no
embalming process was necessary;
decomposition has no occupation
there — evaporation has usurped its
power over mortal remains, and the
corpse shrivels and dries. The
mummies were found in little closets
and hollow places in the walls, while
other remains were unearthed from
shallow graves. A noticeable par-
ticularity of the mummies is the hair,

which is fine and soft, varying
in color from blond to brown,
a convincing proof that the
cliff-dwellers were not of the
Indian race. A very perfect
specimen was found walled
up in a corner of one of the
ruins. It is the body of a tall
woman, about five feet ten
inches in stature, and from
the contorted attitude, the
doubled-up form, and the pro-
truding tongue there is some
reason to suppose that she
died in agony. The fact that
by her side was a little heap
of tiny bones suggests the
conjecture that her infant
perished with her, and that
they had been immured alive,
the punishment perhaps of a
priestess' broken vows or a
wife's infidelity.

In the disposal of their
dead, the cliff-dwellers em-
ployed several methods and
displayed considerable care.
They had several different
kinds of sepulchre. One was
a shallow grave ; another was
a tomb erected above ground ;
in some instances, cells fash-
ioned in hollow walls were made
depositories of the departed; while
still another method was to appropri-
ate to the purpose an entire room the
entrance to which was hermetically
sealed with stone and adobe mortar.
The corpse was dressed in a feather
garment which was composed of a
texture of some fibrous plant into
which were interwoven the tips of
feathers so close together that the
robe had the appearance of being
made entirely of bird-skins. Around
this undergarment was wrapped a
piece of matting which was enveloped
in a layer of cotton, and lastly a cov-
ering of reeds was bound around the
corpse. Over the head was placed a
kind of wicker basket, very similar
in shape to the modern conical lamp-
shade. By the side of the dead have
been found earthenware bowls, jars,



culinary utensils, also flint knives
and arrow-heads and other objects,
presumedly those used by the de-
ceased when alive.

Hitherto all attempts to assign a
time when the cliff-dwellings were
abandoned have been mere conjec-
tures. Some theorists incline to the
opinion that they were inhabited
after the conquest of Mexico by
Cortes; others that they were ruins
many centuries before the discovery
of America, while the anonymous
writer quoted above, and who was
apparently a member of the expedi-
tion sent out by the Illustrated Ameri-
can Publishing Company, is bold
enough to carry back the date of
abandonment "thousands of years."
That the ruins are not all of the same
age is certain ; and it is not unreason-
able to conclude that the cliff-dwellers
survived during a long period of
time, various communities volun-
tarily abandoning their old homes
for more favorable positions long
before the final disappearance of the

Now that so many of these ancient
ruins are being explored, the archae-
ologist by comparative examinations
into improvements in architecture,
by a careful consideration of the con-
ditions and progress of decay, and by
studying the relics of earthenware
and the implements that are continu-
ally being found, will, it is hoped,
be able approximately to assign dif-
ferent periods of antiquity to differ-
ent ruins. In spite of the arid
climate and other favoring circum-
stances militating against decay, it
is difficult to believe that certain
relics, such as wood- work, matting,
etc. , have defied the destructive action
of time of any great length. It is
true that the cerements that infold
Egyptian mummies are thousands of
years old, but it must be remembered
they were smeared with preservative
unguents, that many of their lifeless

wearers were inclosed in air-tight
sarcophagi, and that none of them
were exposed to weathering influ-

What an extraordinary life those
ancient peoples led! What curious
households they presented, living
homes perched in holes and ni
and wide-yawning caverns in
cliffs at heights varying from
hundred to two thousai
the bottoms of the cany, as! With
muscular limbs and steady m :
the cliff-dweller day !>;■ fOttld

sally from his doorway and descend
the bald rock a thousand feet wit:
a tremor — with no more feeliaj
trepidation than had the eagle which
soared above him. Accnst< >med I
infancy to gaze from di. hts,

he skirted the precij q all

safety and looked unmoved into the
abyss below. Evening found him at
home again with his children around
him, perhaps smoking bis pi]
supper of roasted corn and flesh of
turkey.* And the babies, lik<
in their eyries! Imagine mothers
descending those steeps with their
infants on their backs and returning
with vessels of water or bundle
fire-fuel on their heads! No wonder
that the children learned to gaze inl-
awed into fearsome depths, and,
where facilities offered, played hide-
and-seek and tag-last among the
rocks, as soon as they had discarded
their child-rattles and other play-
things. They were safer and a
free from danger of accident than
are the school-children of Sao 1
cisco and Oakland, where the trolley
and the cable-car, the railway and
the furiously driven deli very- wa
maim and kill.

♦There is every reason to suppose thai
the turkey was domesticated by the cliff-
dwellers, and in some localities the meat of
that bird seems to have been the only flesh
food ; in others the goat, sheep, and probably
deer furnished food.



T was one of those crisp,
clear mornings in early
autumn when nature's
wizard is busy tingeing
hill and valley with his
magic dyes. Into a lit-
tle cove that nestled
among the spurs of the
Cumberland Mountains
the sun was just finding
his way, chasing out the shadows that
still lingered here and there, gleam-
ing among the brilliant reds and
yellows where Jack Frost had done
his cleverest work, and smiling
brightly upon a merry little brook
that came leaping and tumbling down
the hillside.

Near this tiny brook, after it had
reached a comparative level and
flowed more decorously between a
protecting fringe of button-willows,
stood a rude, primitive cabin of
roughly hewn logs. From its tumble-
down rook's-nest of a chimney, built
of broken sticks, stones, and mud, a
thin curl of smoke was rising straight
up on the heavy morning air and
losing itself in the blue of heaven.


Presently out of the cabin came
a boy, rough, uncouth, ragged, and
yet a. boy that would seldom pass
unnoticed. He belonged to the
strange race found exclusively in
these coves and valleys. It is claimed
for them that they are descended
from the offscourings of the Old
World who were sent in penal servi-
tude to the New, and who fled to the
mountains to escape their task-mas-
ters, or, after the proverbial manner
of "birds of a feather," congregated
there when they had served their
time or been liberated. However
this may be, they are a queer, igno-
rant people, having little in common
with the outside world; their men
brawny and shiftless; their women
over- worked, listless, and slatternly;
with here and there a God-given ex-
ception in both sexes, to furnish forth
a hero for my story, which has the
unromantic virtue of being a true

He was a light-hearted, joyous-
seeming creature, who, whistling as




blithely as the mocking-bird in the
tree above him and rhythmically
swinging a large wooden bucket as
he walked, started toward a portion
of the brook over which hung two
graceful weeping-willows. A close
look at him would reveal what was
originally a "tow" head gradually
merging, under the influence of six-
teen summers, into a handsome shock
of brown sadly in need of comb and
brush ; a pleasing, freckled face, such
as is the rightful property of most
out-of-door boys ; a nose that would
have been pug but for an audacious
turn-up at the end; large hands and
clumsy feet; but withal a native
(though hardly hereditar) r ) honesty
written in the generous lines of his
big mouth, a genuineness in his broad
smile or hearty laugh, and a depth of
true blue in his great eyes that made
one pause and wonder if here were
not a soul misplaced.

"Jem! you Jem! Whur be you-
un er goin' ter?"

She was one of the typical, broken-
down-looking mountain women who

"poked" her head out of the hole
known as a " dore " and called after
Jem's retreating figure.

"Jes' down ter the spring, mam,
ter git you-un er bucket uv water."

Poor "mam!" It was such an un-
heard-of thing, until Jem unaccount-
ably developed the startling habit,
for anybody to voluntarily do any-
thing for her that she could never
get used to it. Even now tears rose
to her eyes — real tears: these untu-
tored people know no other kind,
and so seldom any that these shamed
her, and she forced them back.
Then, as if to atone for her momen-
tary weakness, she turned to the rude
shake-down in the corner, on which
a rough man lay sleeping. Giving
him no very gentle shove with her
foot, she said :

"Git up frum thar, Bill Smith!
Here be you-un er lazin' 'n' er lazin'
'roun', when me 'n' Jem's done bin
up fer 'n hour."

The man opened his heavy eyes,
swore a sleepy oath, turned over, and
resumed his snoring.




" Lazy lout," muttered the woman ;
"never wuz 'n' never will be wuth
shucks, 'n' killin's too good fer him!
Wonder I hedn't er hed better sense
'n' ter er married him. But he's my

Jem's dad " And the lines about

her mouth grew softer as she looked
upon the sleeping giant.

Meanwhile Jem lingered. He
heard the rumbling of a wagon com-
ing down the valley, and he wanted
to see it pass on the " big road" that
just skirted the spring. All his
pleasant, sunny life he had vaguely
fretted at his environment. As far
back as he could remember he had
watched the wagons on this same
"big road" come from he knew not
where and go he knew not whither.
An undefined longing to solve these
mysteries dwelt within him. Some-
times the wagons would stop, and
the men, attracted by his bright face,
would speak to him ; or, before he
had grown so large, the women, fol-
lowing a natural instinct of woman-
kind and much to his wonderment,
would kiss him. Occasionally they
would tell him of a great world out-
side of and far beyond his compre-
hension — a world of many people
grouped together in great cities upon
the banks of a mighty river. But
to Jem these things were names only ;
for how could he conceive that of
which he knew less than nothing?
Yet the longing grew within him to
see these wondrous things; and but
for the fact that he knew not where
to look for them save by following
the "big road," he would doubtless
have set forth upon a tour of explo-

The wagon, drawn by two stout
mules, lumbered into sight. Jem rec-
ognized the driver as Buck Thomas,
to him a most wonderful man, who
had drifted into the valley two years

In truth, Buck Thomas was no
ordinary man. Broad of shoulder,
deep of chest, wide of girth, power-
fully limbed and magnificently mus-
cled — few would have cared to try

conclusions with him. His mind
suited his body — it was powerful in
its rude way and independent. He
was a man of strong prejudices and
fearless opinions, nor was he at all
backward in expressing them when
the occasion warranted. As an occa-
sional grower of tobacco, it was his
pet theory that the Government had
no right to tax what his land and his
labor produced. This he regarded
in the light of a personal outrage.
Whatever he could, by hook or by
crook, keep out of the avaricious
grasp of this same Government, he
considered as so much of his own
money judiciously saved. To evade
the internal revenue laws as they
then stood was, therefore, one of the
first articles of his faith. He prac-
tised it faithfully, with caution, but
without fear. It was a doctrine that
met with great favor among the
rough men of the valley, to whom it
was an open secret and in whose
esteem Buck held a high place.

To Jem, Buck Thomas, by his
hearty robustiousness and superior
knowledge of the marvellous outer
world and its ways, came as an in-
spiration — a blessing. They were
soon fast friends — "fer ever'body
tuck ter Jem," as his "mam" said;
and many a pleasant hour had the
boy beguiled, walking beside Buck's
plough while that worthy regaled him
from his inexhaustible store of knowl-
edge and adventure — much of the
latter, I fear me, and some, doubt-
less, of the former, having a " local
habitation" in Buck's fertile imagi-
nation only. Naturally enough his
political and revenue views never
entered into these conversations ; for,
after all, Jem was only a boy, and
a very ignorant boy thereat, upon
whom Buck thought it would be sheer
waste of breath to try to make him
understand the intricacies of govern-
mental injustice; for what knew he
of laws and governments, this simple
child of the valley?

As Buck drove past the spring he
nodded a cheerful "howdy" to the



boy, who returned the greeting. The
wagon continued on down the road
for a hundred yards or so, when Buck
suddenly pulled up and called back:

" Say, Jem, I want ter see yer."

Jem put down the bucket which
he had been holding and approached
the wagon. As he came up Buck

44 I've been thinkin' — yer know I've
got er lot er 'backer whut had ought
ter be sold, 'n' I'm goin' down coun-
try with it nex' week — how'd yer like
to go 'long?"

Jem's breath came short and quick.
Here was the impossible about to
happen at last.

44 Whut'll mam say?"

44 Oh, thet's all right. We won't
be gone more'n two 'r three weeks,
'n' yer'll see er heap sight uv things."

Buck evidently knew Jem's weak

"I'll tell mam, 'n' ef she-un'll le'
me I'll sho' go."

44 In cose she-un'll let yer. I'll
stop by this ev'nin' 'n' speaker good
word f er yer. "

With this Buck drove on. Jem
watched him until the 44 big road"
was swallowed up in a grove of cot-
tonwoods. He then turned slowly
away, walked to where he had left
his bucket, and carried it, full of
fresh spring water, to 44 mam," who
had begun to wonder what had be-
come of him.

The poor woman's consternation
can hardly be imagined when,
backed up by Buck, for whom he
had wisely waited, Jem spoke to her
of his proposed trip. There was
much coaxing on his part, many
44 good words" and assurances from
Buck, and innumerable protestations
on the part of "mam." She 44 didn't
see, nohow, whut the boy wanted ter
be er trapesin' erbout fer. He mus'
becrazyer 'n er betsey bug. Hedn't
she lived right here in the cove all
her borned days? — in cose she hed —
'n' whut wuz good 'nuff fer her hed
oughter be good 'nuff fer Jem." All
this she urged eloquently, and much

more to the same effect. But Bill,
the giant, came to the rescue, and
44 'lowed ez how it wuzn't er goin' ter
hurt the boy none; he wuzn't er
doin' no good roun' home; 'n' Buck
Thomas cud take keer uv him, he
reckoned." So 44 mam," seeing that

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