Charles Frederick Holder.

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is a thing of rare occurrence.

In the afternoon and throughout
the evenings a breeze blows con-
stantly from the Gulf, taking away
the heat, absorbed by the earth, and
leaving the inhabitants to begin the
new day entirely refreshed and ready
for its labor. There are no extremes
of heat or cold, such as are feared by
invalids. The low humidity obviates
the heat and the mountains to the
north break off the cold, while the
Gulf breeze assists in moderating, and
gives Yuma the appearance of a coun-
try more than half tropical.

The local government of Yuma
County is administered about the
same as similar governments in the
Eastern States. The county officers
are the probate judge, who is ex-officio
county school superintendent; the
sheriff, tax assessor and collector,
treasurer, recorder, county attorney
and surveyor.



The city of Yuma has a municipal
government, and its affairs are con-
ducted in a very progressive manner.
The mayor and board of aldermen
are Hon. A. Frank, S. S. Gillespie,
Charles Baker, F. Fredley, andW. T.
Gondor. The city attorney is Judge
J. L. Vanderwerker. In politics the
county is divided, as is the city, both
Republicans and Democrats electing
members of their respective parties.

The council has inaugurated a
system of government conducive to
the welfare of the city, and by which
progress and enterprise are insured.
The land on which the city stands
was granted to it by the Government,
and at the beginning of the present
municipal administration the corpora-
tion owned 1,100 lots, some of which
have been sold and the money devoted
to improvements. There are several
thousand dollars in the city treasury,
and the amount is continually increas-
ing, so that in a short time there will
be enough to grade streets and drive-
ways, placing Yuma far ahead of any
other town in Arizona in the matter
of public improvements.

The city attorney, Judge J. L. Van-
derwerker, who has been of valu-
able assistance in all the progressive
measures of the city, is one of her
best citizens and a lawyer known
throughout the Territory. Judge
Vanderwerker was born in New York,
August 1 8th, 1852, received his liter-
ary education at Albany, and took the
degree of B. L. in the University of
Michigan in 1876, since which time
he has been actively engaged in the
practice of his profession. Some time
ago he located in Yuma and at once
took his place in the front rank of
Arizona attorneys. He was twice
appointed city attorney, which office
he now holds, is attorney for the
Southern Pacific Railway Company,
the Colorado River Irrigation Com-
pany of California, the Farmer's
Canal of Arizona, and other wealthy
corporations. In addition he is vice-
president of the Building and Loan
Association and secretary of the



Commercial Club, which in Yuma
corresponds to a board of trade.

The city of Yuma is the county-
seat and has a population of about
2,000. It is situated south of the
Gila at its junction with the Colorado,
therefore in the territory covered by
the Gadsden purchase, and dates its
origin among the early mission set-
tlements.

In 1700 Father Kino established a
mission on the California side of the
river where the post of Fort Yuma
now stands. It was soon destroyed
by the natives, but was rebuilt by
Father Garces, who also founded an-



partment stand on the Arizona side
and are now unoccupied. Large,
dark, and dreary, with bats at dusk
whisking hither and thither in
swarms, they present an appearance
of loneliness that moves one to
thoughts of " banquet halls deserted, "
and he can almost hear the tread of
martial feet in the vaulted halls and
corridors.

The city rudely dashes aside the
visionary's dream, for it presents an
entirely opposite appearance. Activ-
it)'and bustle are noticeable on every
hand. New and handsome stone
and. brick business houses are being




YUMA.



other nine miles above on the same
bank. In 1781 they were both de-
stroyed and the Spanish settlement
of 170 people massacred. It was not
till Gen. Phil Kearny passed down
the Gila with his command in 1847
that Americans began to know any-
thing about this locality. In 1852
Fort Yuma was occupied by Heint-
zelman and Stoneman with six mili-
tary companies, and after the Gads-
den purchase the post was maintained
for some time, but with the subjuga-
tion of the Indians it was abandoned
and the buildings turned over to the
Sisters of St. Joseph, who are now
conducting a government Indian
school. But the atmosphere of the
arm}' and its memories and records
will ever cling about Yuma. The
buildings of the quartermaster's de-



erected in place of the Mexican
adobes, which are rapidly being torn
down. The noise of the railroad, the
activity on the street and at the
river brink, the loading and sailing
of steamers with cargoes of supplies
for the towns and mining camps as
far north as Utah, present a scene
that would startle the stranger, who is
most likely imbued with the one idea
that Arizona is a waste of sandy
desert, inhabited only by lethargic
half-breed Indians and Mexicans.

At one time Yuma was the distrib-
uting-point for the army in Arizona,
and in fact for everybody, the sup-
plies being brought around Cape San
Lucas and up the river by steamers.
But with the completion of the South-
ern Pacific Railway, which passes
through the city, the steamer line



878



YUMA, ARIZONA.



was discontinued between that point
and the Gulf, though the Mojave,
Gila, Aztec, and Electric constantly ply
up the river as far as Eldora Canyon
in Utah, carrying supplies and bring-
ing out ores. Yuma's river com-
merce is no small matter, and when
little towns will have sprung up all
along the Colorado it will be one of
her greatest trade resources.

Many of Yuma's citizens are of
Spanish and Mexican descent, both
the English and Spanish languages
being spoken by almost every one.
The style of the buildings, around
which are gardens luxuriant with
oranges, lemons, and pomegranates,
and the liquid accents of the southern
language, suggest to a romantic fancy
cities of the South far removed from
American activity; but here Ameri-
can activity and the languor of the
tropics are combined and united.

Everybody seems to have the in-
terest of Yuma at heart, and it is
manifested in a general spirit of pub-
lic improvement. Educational facil-
ities are becoming more extensive,
and the city has recently completed
a public-school building which is a
great credit. The public schools of
the town and county are conducted
much as they are in the States, and
the system is on a good substantial
financial basis. There are also pri-
vate schools possessing all the advan-
tages of those of other localities, open
to all who do not wish to patronize
the free institutions. In the matter
of churches, the Catholic and also
various branches of the Protestant
faiths are represented. They all have
very good buildings, and services are
held regularly and are well attended.

The only first-class hotel in the
city stands on the bank of the river,
and is kept by S. S. Gillespie. The
building is large and commodious,
and surrounded by verandas, a style
of architecture especially suited to
southern countries. On the upper
gallery one can always get a cool
breeze, though it may be hot below.

The Southern Pacific Railway



Company is at present making sur-
veys and preparing to erect a hotel
worth $60,000 on a hill overlooking
the city, river, and valley. Dr. C. L.
Gregory, a physician from Yreka,
Cal., has recently purchased a piece
of land on Yuma Heights, and will
erect a sanitarium, the most extensive
thing of the kind in Arizona. Work
will begin on this structure at an
early date, and it is expected to be
complete by midwinter. This will
give Yuma all the advantages neces-
sary for a health and winter resort,
and will soon bring into prominence
the many attractions that it possesses.
Excursions up the Colorado River
from Yuma are sometimes arranged
with any of the steamers. The
scenery is both weird and beautiful.
First, the forests of willows stretching
back over the valley, fresh and green
as an oasis, watered by the rushing
river, then rising cone upon cone the
Castle Dome Mountains, the Picachos
and the Harqua Halas, great rugged
mountains of lava, basalt, and trap
spewed out in ages past by mighty
volcanos. Blended here are the great
antitheses of nature, the strong,
mighty, and rugged with the gentle,
peaceful, and beautiful. The al-
ternating charms of the day play-
ing over the rich and variegated
landscape are succeeded by such
moonlight nights as have made the
Alhambra of Spain the synonym for
all there is poetical and picturesque
in the whole of Latin Europe. The
hardships that were undergone for
the possession of the country are
amply repaid by the beauty of the
land bathed in the day's radiant sun-
shine, and the night's soft, insinuat-
ing moon that seems to re-create all
the old passionate romances of Spain
and Sicily, and add a fresh and potent
charm to the old-world guitar under
rose-covered porches, while in the
northwest the Purple Hills and the
Castle Dome range of mountains ap-
pear in bold relief, a scene of gran-
deur upon which numbers of tourists
have seen fit to bestow their praise.







THE PRESIDENT S MESSAGE.

THIS document is brief, clear, and appar-
ently non-partisan. This is all that
can be said in its favor. Regarding the
money power and the people as arrayed
against each other the message is partisan,
being strongly in the interest of the former.
The President seems to have discovered
that there are financial distress and business
depression in the country, and it is to be re-
gretted that he does not comprehend the
causes as clearly as he sees the condition.
Business depression has not been caused by
a restricted production of food articles or
of raw materials for manufacturing, for
the country has surpluses of them, nor has
the condition arisen from a falling off of the
number of consumers, The cause of the
present uncomfortable condition is chiefly
an insufficient volume of the circulating
medium.

This is proved in many ways. The banks
of the country have in numerous instances
succumbed to the demands of depositors,
because, whatever may have been their as-
sets and securities, the currency was not to
be had because it did not exist. The clear-
ing house of New York has been driven to
the issuance of certificates to the amount of
many million dollars to supply circulation,
a thing done to some extent in Boston.
Manufacturers have had to resort to the is-
suance of checks to pay their laborers.
Though there were millions of bushels of
wheat in store in Chicago and a good ex-
port demand for it, still it could not be
moved for the want of money ; the banks of
that great commercial metropolis could not
supply it. A similar state of facts prevails
all over the country.



The President ascribes the so-called Sher-
man law as the cause of this condition, a
law which requires the purchase of 54,000,-
000 ounces of silver annually and the issu-
ance thereon of certificates which shall pass
as a legal tender for all public and private
dues, and to that extent it did expand the
circulating medium and supply the wants
of business. The only evil that flowed from
the Sherman law was through an erroneous
interpretation under which the Secretary of
the Treasury has redeemed the certificates
in gold coin instead of silver coin, which
had the effect to increase the gold strin-
gency, alarm the gold-holders, and shake
the confidence of the country. Added to
this the administration stands pledged to a
radical change of the tariff, which pre-
vented the investment of new capital in
manufacturing, caused the withdrawal of
old capital, and all manufacturers to cur-
tail production that they may not be caught
with large stocks on hand when the change
is made. The result has been that we have
not produced sufficiently to supply home
demand, and consequently have been com-
pelled to purchase of foreign nations much
that otherwise we would have produced.
And this is the reason why we have in the
last fiscal year imported $194,000,000 more
than ever before, and why a balance of
trade in our favor of $102,000,000 the pre-
vious year has been changed to an adverse
balance of from fifty to a hundred million
dollars to be paid in gold. Thus the gold
stringency has been further increased and
the volume of circulating medium to that
extent reduced.

The President suggests no remedy for the
ills from which the country is suffering ex-



879



88o



QUESTIONS OF THE DAY.



cept a repeal of the purchasing clause of the
Sherman law. Should Congress carry out
this suggestion we will be left without any
law for expanding the circulating medium
except that for free coinage of gold, which
will not give the country an increase of
more than $25,000,000 per annum, and
which under the tariff policy of the admin-
istration will cause it to flow out of the
country to pay balances of trade in a four-
fold amount. This policy will also further
check manufacturing, lessen the price of
raw materials, and throw a greater number
of laborers out of employment. The Presi-
dent would subject the country to the pinch-
ing gold standard, when he should know
that it is impossible to supply the wants of
business with a circulation wholly redeem-
able in gold. It is incomprehensible that a
man of observation and thought can sup-
pose that business can flourish on such a
basis and that the country can prosper when
its money resources are constantly reduced
through a policy that destroys domestic in-
dustries and compels us to rely on foreign
nations for supplies of what we can prac-
tically produce.

The issue is between the producing and
capital classes, and may lead to a serious
conflict, for the country will hardly submit
to a policy that enhances the power of
money and crushes every other interest.

L. A. S.

SOME DANGEROUS PRECEDENTS.

IT is probably not true that Mr. Cleveland
refuses to execute the Chinese exclusion
laws, but it is apparent that he has no heart
in the work and that the administration does
not lend a helping hand and does discour-
age their execution. The laws are made
by the representatives of the people, and the
Executive is without discretion, his duty be-
ing to carry them out in letter and spirit.
It is not his business to inquire into their
wisdom or propriety. It was President
Grant's theory that to execute a bad law
would disclose its character more plainly
and sooner lead to its modification or re-
peal. Mr. Cleveland seems to think that
as the head of the nation he has large dis-
cretionary powers and is not strictly bound
by the Constitution and laws. Andrew Jack-
son said that he executed the laws as he un-



derstood them, but Mr. Cleveland does not
claim that he understands the Chinese ex-
clusion acts differently from others or that
there is doubt as to their meaning. He is
simply opposed to them and means to mod-
ify them as far as he can without positive
refusal to render obedience to them. Such
an attitude is fraught with danger as a pre-
cedent, and if it is followed without pun-
ishment or rebuke the autocratic principle
will be established in the Government.

Political parties have been in the habit
of making declaration of their principles in
platforms and pledging themselves to their
execution if voted into power. The people
have relied on such declarations and have
expected that parties would keep their faith.
There could be no intelligent voting if a
promulgation of principles were not made.
As is customary the Democratic party, in
national convention at Chicago in 1892, de-
clared itself in favor of bimetallism in a
manner that led the country to believe that
coinage of gold and silver would be placed
on the same basis and on the ratio always
established in our coinage laws. Mr. Cleve-
land was nominated on the platform, and
in accepting the nomination impliedly in-
dorsed it and pledged himself to faithfully
carry it out. His first act in connection with
legislation was to strike down silver coinage
and place the country on the narrow basis
of the gold measure. The great object to
be attained in silver coinage is an enlarge-
ment of the money volume, which the coun-
try so much needs. If the precedent is es-
tablished that a platform is not to be strictly
observed, we shall be all at sea with refer-
ence to the policies that shall be pursued by
the Government. It will be a sad day for
the republic when it becomes understood
that platforms or declarations of principles
have no meaning. It is only when condi-
tions have materially changed between the
time when the declaration was made and
the time for action that can justify any de-
parture from the policy promulgated. It
cannot be claimed that such change has
taken place, except that the needs of the
country for enlargement of the volume of
the circulating medium have become more
pressing since the Democratic convention
adjourned and since the election which re-
sulted in Democratic success.



QUESTIONS OF THE DAY.



881



A President is required to give informa-
tion to Congress touching the condition of
the country, and may recommend such leg-
islation as he deems advisable. This is the
extent of his constitutional power, so far as
influencing the action of Congress is con-
cerned. Until Andrew Jackson became
President, no attempt had been made by
any President to bully or influence Congress
through the use of patronage or otherwise,
except within constitutional limitations.
John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, and Andrew
Johnson used their patronage freely to con-
trol Congress for personal purposes, and
Pierce and Buchanan did the same thing to
protect and strengthen slavery, but since
Andrew Johnson no President has attempted
to control legislation except as plainly au-



thorized by the Constitution. It is charged,
and there is much evidence to prove it, that
President Cleveland has resorted to methods
more reprehensible than any of his prede-
cessors to secure particular legislation,
methods bolder and more autocratic than
those pursued by Andrew Jackson. In every
instance these tactics have sooner or later
been rebuked by the people. If Mr. Cleve-
land succeeds and is not unmistakably re-
buked at the first opportunity, a most
dangerous precedent will have been es-
tablished, and general political demoraliza-
tion will ensue. Nothing can be more esĀ«
sential to the perpetuity of free institutions
than the preservation of the independence
and virtue of the representatives of the
people.





DOCTOR PASCAL.

" THE experienced novelist," says Zola,
1 "should work upon the characters,
passions, human and social facts as the phy-
sicist and chemist work with organic bodies,
as the physiologist works with living organ-
isms . . . showing by experiment how pas-
sion exhibits itself in social surroundings. "
On these principles he has produced the se-
ries of the "Rougons-Macquarts," which
has just been completed by the publication
of " Le Docteur Pascal. " 1

In this book Zola has summed up the re-
sults of his experiments in observing and
depicting the natural and social history of
a family whose various members ramify
through all grades of French society. And
these results as expressed by Doctor Pascal
would seem to be a faith in man as a part
of nature, a respect and a hope for him, de-
spite his weakness and his baseness, as an
organism among other organisms in the
great, ceaseless, ever-advancing flux that
still bears on the mass however oft and far
the individual may fall behind. In this Zola
shows how deeply he has been influenced by
the scientific movement of his time. Evo-
lution, heredity, with all their train of bold
investigation and bolder hypotheses, which
for the last half-century have been penetrat-
ing deeper and deeper into the secrets of
life, have found in him an eager and fear-

1 "Le Docteur Pascal," par Emile Zola. Paris:
Bibhotheque Charpentier. C. Charpentier et E.
Fasquelles, editeurs, i8q 3 . English translation by
Mary J. Serrano. Cassell Publishing Company,



MrnQKa



less disciple, who has taken them up and
applied them in a series of studies on men
in their social relations, more searching and
profound than any ever before made for
purposes of fiction. Through science has
Zola, the so-called realist, approached na-
ture as expressed in man, and it is from the
scientist's standpoint that he has construed
him.

Now the science that particularly con-
cerns itself with man is medicine, and med-
icine views man pathologically. And so
has Zola viewed him. He has felt his pulse,
sounded his heart and lungs, laid bare his
stigmata, and the inevitable diagnosis has
been disease. It is but natural, therefore,
that the last of the "Rougons-Macquarts,"
this 1 )octor Pascal with his genealogical tree
arranged on pathological principles and his
quest after an elixir to heal the ills of the
flesh, should be a physician. Heisthenec-
essary result of the principles upon which
Zola has written. But he is a betrayal of
the author and of the author's standpoint.
Zola has let his science, in leading him to
the study of life, determine his interpreta-
tion of its phenomena. And in so doing
he is not a realist in the true sense of the
word, or rather he is a realist with limita-
tions.

But in judging thus an author, one should
always take into account his surroundings,
and nowhere in the world are the pathologi-
cal details of life so apparent and the in-
vestigations and researches of science in
regard to them so public and popular as in
Paris.

The medical lectures and cliniques are
free and open for any who will to enter.
The writers on these subjects are many;
their books are cheap and exposed conspic-
uously to catch all buyers' eyes. Abnor-
mality and disease, the unfailing result of
the excesses the hot-blooded French are so
prone to, are in the very air, and all French-
men take a personal or general interest in
them . To one who has lived in Paris, there-
fore, or who has followed the investigations



882






BOOKS AND AUTHORS.



883



Frenchmen are making in heredity and dis-
ease, Zola's work will be more comprehen-
sible and defensible ; and much in this last
volume will not be new. His Doctor Pas-
cal does but follow, in the importance he
attaches to heredity, the distinguished alien-
ist, the late Dr. Charcot ; and the elixir of
life with which he would rejuvenate himself
and all mankind is but the result of a series
of experiments made by Brown-Sequard.
Indeed Zola, perhaps more than any other
writer, is a part of his milieu, and he should
not be judged without it or without taking
it into account.

Though he has won by his genius an im-
mense audience beyond his native land, he
writes and has written, first, last, and al-
ways, for his own people. He is a French-
man writing for Frenchmen, with the pur-
pose of showing them, in the only way they
perhaps can be brought to see, the dangers,
the ruin to which their excesses expose
them. That his books appeal as they do to
a more universal audience is due to the art
with which his genius enables him to in-
terpret and the fidelity and tearlessness
with which he reproduces so much of the
truth as he sees.

As a story "Le Docteur Pascal" is, like
its predecessors, powerful, unusual, and in-
teresting, and though it is in a way a synop-
sis of them it is independent of them, even
as the individual is differentiated by per-
sonal traits from the race to which he be-
longs. The characters are attractive ; the
scene they are set in unique and refined.
Indeed, there is no more delightful figure
in fiction than Doctor Pascal with his passion
for scientific research and his naive omis-
sion of himself from the terrible category
of degeneration and disease he makes of his
family, the " Rougons-Macquarts. " Both
he and Clotilde, the leading female figure,
are highly ideal. Throughout the book, in
fact, there is a remarkable blending of the
ideal with the real, the mystical with the
actual, and there is a delicacy and grace of
treatment fine as the white hair the author's
master- touch makes us see waving softly
about the sexagenarian doctor's face.
There is a strong suggestion of Faust in
this character of the doctor. Like Faust
he has given a whole life to the acquirement
of knowledge and the pursuit of science,



Online LibraryCharles Frederick HolderThe Californian (Volume 4) → online text (page 117 of 120)